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1.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 72(3): 420-427, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29238038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Children consume various fluids to meet dietary water intake needs. However, the contribution of different fluid types on hydration is unclear. The purpose of this study was to develop fluid intake patterns and examine their association with hydration, as indicated by 24-h urine osmolality. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Two hundred ten (105 girls) healthy children (height: 1.49 ± 0.13 m, weight: 43.4 ± 12.6 kg, body fat: 25.2 ± 7.8%) recorded their fluid intake for two consecutive days, and collected their urine for 24-h during the 2nd day, while conducting their normal daily activities. Urine samples were analyzed for specific gravity and osmolality. Factor analysis with principal components method was applied to extract dietary patterns from six fluid groups. Linear regression analysis evaluated the associations between the extracted dietary patterns and hydration based on 24-h urine osmolality. RESULTS: The analysis revealed the following six components: 1, characterized by consumption of milk and fresh juice, but not packaged juice; 2, by regular soda and other drinks, but not water; 3, by fresh juice and other drinks; 4, by packaged juice, but not regular soda; 5, by water and milk; and 6, by fresh juice. Component 5 was negatively correlated with urine osmolality (P = 0.001) indicating better hydration, whereas component 2 was positively correlated with urine osmolality (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A drinking pattern based on water and milk was associated with better hydration, as indicated by lower urine osmolality, whereas drinking regular soda and other drinks but not water was associated with inferior hydration.


Assuntos
Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Água Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Desidratação/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leite , Concentração Osmolar , Gravidade Específica , Urinálise , Água
2.
Eur J Nutr ; 55(3): 907-15, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25905541

RESUMO

AIM: Urine color (UC) is a practical tool for hydration assessment. The technique has been validated in adults, but has not been tested in children. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to test the validity of the urine color scale in young, healthy boys and girls, as a marker of urine concentration, investigate its diagnostic ability of detecting hypohydration and examine the ability of children to self-assess UC. METHODS: A total of 210 children participated (age: 8-14 years, body mass: 43.4 ± 12.6 kg, height: 1.49 ± 0.13 m, body fat: 25.2 ± 7.8 %). Data collection included: two single urine samples (first morning and before lunch) and 24-h sampling. Hydration status was assessed via urine osmolality (UOsmo) and UC via the eight-point color scale. RESULTS: Mean UC was 3 ± 1 and UOsmo 686 ± 223 mmol kg(-1). UC displayed a positive relationship as a predictor of UOsmo (R (2): 0.45, P < 0.001). Based on the receiver operating curve, UC has good overall classification ability for the three samples (area under the curve 85-92 %), with good sensitivity (92-98 %) and specificity (55-68 %) for detecting hypohydration. The overall accuracy of the self-assessment of UC in the morning or the noon samples ranged from 67 to 78 %. Further threshold analysis indicated that the optimal self-assessed UC threshold for hypohydration was ≥4. CONCLUSIONS: The classical eight-point urine color scale is a valid method to assess hydration in children of age 8-14 years, either by researchers or self-assessment.


Assuntos
Desidratação/diagnóstico , Desidratação/urina , Urina , Adiposidade , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/urina , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Cor , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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