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1.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 137: 58-72, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775811

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a bibliometric analysis using a large sample of overviews of systematic reviews (OoSRs) and reveal research trends and areas of interest about these studies. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We searched MEDLINE, Scopus and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1/1/2000 to 15/10/2020. We used Scopus meta-data and two authors recorded supplementary information independently. We summarized the data using frequencies with percentages. RESULTS: A total of 1558 studies were considered eligible for analysis. We found that the publications have been increasing yearly and their nomenclature was not uniform (the most frequent label in the title was "overview of systematic reviews"). The largest number of papers and the most cited ones were published by corresponding authors from the UK. The publications were distributed across 737 scholarly journals and many of them were published in the field of complementary/alternative medicine, psychiatry/psychology, nutrition/dietetics, and pediatrics. The co-authorship analysis revealed collaborations among countries. The most common clinical conditions were depression, diabetes, cancer, dementia, pain, cardiovascular disease, stroke, obesity, and schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: OoSRs have recently become a popular approach of evidence synthesis. International collaborations between overview authors from countries with increased research productivity and countries with less research activity should be encouraged.

2.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 132: 34-45, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To introduce potential static tabular and graphical techniques for visually presenting overlap between systematic reviews (SRs) included in overviews of systematic reviews (OoSRs). METHODS: The graphical approaches described include Venn and Euler diagrams, as well as matrix-based, node-link, and aggregation-based techniques. We used fundamental concepts of mathematics from set and network theory to develop our novel graphical approaches. The graphical displays were created using R. RESULTS: Overview authors have the flexibility to choose from a variety of visualizations, depending on the characteristics of their study. If the OoSRs include few SRs, a Venn or an Euler diagram can be used. In case of OoSRs with more SRs, Upset plots, heatmaps, and node-link graphs are more appropriate for visualizing overlapping SRs. Stacked bar plots constitute an aggregation-based technique of illustrating overlap. Strengths and limitations of each graphical approach are presented. CONCLUSION: The degree of overlap should be explored for the entire study and for specific outcomes of interest. The proposed graphical techniques may assist methodologists and authors in identifying overlap, which in turn may improve validity and transparency in OoSRs. More research is needed to understand which technique would be most useful and easiest to understand.

3.
Health Info Libr J ; 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Keeping up to date with the latest medical information using Web-based resources has been sparsely described, and a comprehensive up-to-date review is needed. OBJECTIVES: To summarise the Web-based 'channels' that may assist the actors of the health care system (clinicians, medical researchers and students) to keep up to date with medical information. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Scopus for English language articles published between January 1990 and February 2019 that investigated ways for keeping up with medical information. We used the results from our search and relevant information from other sources to conduct a narrative synthesis. RESULTS: We found that resources that push information (e.g. web alerts, medical newsletters, listservs), resources that rely on the active information seeking (e.g. access to health librarians and electronic databases, podcasts, mobile apps), collaborative resources (e.g. web conferences, online journal clubs, web social media) and resources that synthesise information (e.g. bibliometrics, living systematic reviews) can contribute in keeping up with new findings and can enhance evidence-based medicine. Clinicians, medical researchers and students can benefit from the proper use of such Internet-based technological innovations. CONCLUSION: Internet provides many resources that can help the actors of the health care system stay up to date with the latest scientific findings.

4.
Dermatol Ther ; : e13958, 2020 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621642

RESUMO

Bullous pemphigoid (BP) patients are predominantly above 70 years of age, with limited tolerance to the side effects of the immunosuppressive drugs. Advancements in our understanding of the pathophysiology of BP have led to the development of molecules which target specific pathways involved in induction and perpetuation of disease. Patients with BP Disease Area Index above 60 and less than 100 were split into two groups-one with high and the other with normal levels of IgE. The tested parameters included eosinophils' count, total IgE serum level, and interleukins (IL) 16, 17A, and 23 counts in the peripheral blood and skin bulla serum, before any therapeutic intervention. Thirty individuals fulfilled the criteria for enrollment. Patients with high IgE blood serum levels had significantly higher levels of IL17A and normal IL23 levels in blood and bulla serum. Patients with normal serum IgE levels had slightly higher IL23 levels in blood and bulla serum. The eosinophil count was positively related to IL17 blood serum level and negatively related to IL23. IL16 did not differ in the two groups. BP patients may represent a group of patients benefiting most substantially from the introduction of nonimmunosuppressive therapeutics into the treatment regimens for their disease. Clinical criteria and immune biomarkers are needed for making the best therapeutic choice.

5.
Gene ; 710: 333-340, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202904

RESUMO

Gene promoter methylation is a common epigenetic event, taking place in the early phase of tumorigenesis, which has a great potential as a diagnostic and prognostic cancer biomarker. In this umbrella review, we provide an overview on the association between gene-promoter methylation of protein-coding genes and cancer risk based on currently available meta-analyses data on gene promoter methylation. We searched MEDLINE via PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for meta-analyses that examine the association between gene-promoter methylation and cancer, published until January 2019 in English. We used AMSTAR to assess the quality of the included studies and applied a set of pre-specified criteria to evaluate the magnitude of each association. We provide a comprehensive overview of 80 unique combinations between 22 different genes and 18 cancer outcomes, all of which indicated a positive association between promoter hypermethylation and cancer. In total, the 70 meta-analyses produced significant results under a random-effects model with odds ratios that ranged from 1.94 to 26.60, with the summary effect being in favor of the unmethylated group in all cases. Three of the strong evidence associations involve RASSF1 methylation on bladder cancer risk (OR = 18.46; 95% CI: 12.69-26.85; I2 = 0%), MGMT methylation on NSCLC (OR = 4.25; 95% CI: 2.83-6.38; I2 = 22.4%) and RARB methylation on prostate cancer (OR = 6.87; 95% CI: 4.68-10.08; I2 = 0%). Meta-analyses showed a moderate quality, AMSTAR score ranging from 4 to 9 (Mdn = 8; IQR: 7.0 to 8.0). As primary studies and meta-analyses on the subject accumulate, more genetic loci may be found to be highly associated with specific cancer types and hence the biomarker sets will become wider.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Razão de Chances , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética
6.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 106: 70-79, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336211

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: An overview of systematic reviews (OoSRs) is a study designed to offer a broad view of evidence from existing systematic reviews (SRs). The abstract is an important part of an OoSRs as it can determine whether reading the full text is of interest. The aim of this article is to offer guidelines to promote transparent and sufficient reporting in abstracts of OoSRs of health care interventions. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: The items were developed by combining key features from abstracts of OoSRs, PRISMA for abstracts, and our published reporting guidelines for OoSRs. The initial version was distributed to experts to give feedback; pilot testing by a group of researchers followed. The refined checklist was applied by two reviewers independently in a sample of 40 abstracts. RESULTS: The developed instrument "Preferred Reporting Items for OoSRs abstracts" (PRIO for abstracts) consists of six sections with 15 topics including 20 items in total. The mean inter-rater reliability was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.82, 0.92). An explanation and at least one published example of good reporting per item are provided. CONCLUSION: This instrument will assist authors in writing transparent and informative abstracts for OoSRs and can be adopted by journals that publish OoSRs.


Assuntos
Indexação e Redação de Resumos/normas , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Redação/normas , Lista de Checagem , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/normas , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas
7.
Exp Gerontol ; 108: 166-173, 2018 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Creatine is a supplement used by sportsmen to increase athletic performance by improving energy supply to muscle tissues. It is also an essential brain compound and some hypothesize that it aids cognition by improving energy supply and neuroprotection. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the effects of oral creatine administration on cognitive function in healthy individuals. METHODS: A search of multiple electronic databases was performed for the identification of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) examining the cognitive effects of oral creatine supplementation in healthy individuals. RESULTS: Six studies (281 individuals) met our inclusion criteria. Generally, there was evidence that short term memory and intelligence/reasoning may be improved by creatine administration. Regarding other cognitive domains, such as long-term memory, spatial memory, memory scanning, attention, executive function, response inhibition, word fluency, reaction time and mental fatigue, the results were conflicting. Performance on cognitive tasks stayed unchanged in young individuals. Vegetarians responded better than meat-eaters in memory tasks but for other cognitive domains no differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Oral creatine administration may improve short-term memory and intelligence/reasoning of healthy individuals but its effect on other cognitive domains remains unclear. Findings suggest potential benefit for aging and stressed individuals. Since creatine is safe, future studies should include larger sample sizes. It is imperative that creatine should be tested on patients with dementias or cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Cognição , Creatina/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Inteligência , Memória de Curto Prazo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 93: 9-24, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29037888

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: An overview of systematic reviews (OoSRs) is a study designed to synthesize multiple evidence from existing systematic reviews on a specific domain. The aim of this paper was to offer a pilot version checklist with Preferred Reporting Items for OoSRs (PRIO-harms) to promote a more balanced reporting of benefits and harms in OoSRs of health care interventions. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: The included items were developed by combining key features from health care OoSRs designs with recommendations from statements of other relevant checklists and pertinent methodological review articles. Two raters independently used the PRIO-harms checklist to assess a sample of 20 OoSRs. RESULTS: The PRIO-harms tool consists of a 27-item (56 (sub-)items in total) checklist and is accompanied by a five-stage process flow diagram (identification, screening, eligibility, inclusion, and separation of relevant studies). The mean interrater reliability (Gwet's AC1 statistic) between reviewers was 0.90 (95% confidence interval: 0.88, 0.92) indicating a very good agreement. CONCLUSION: The PRIO-harms tool can be used in every OoSRs that addresses health care interventions. This instrument will assist overview authors to improve completeness and transparency of research reporting with emphasis on harms. However, it might benefit from critical review and further validation from experts and research teams that produce OoSRs.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem/normas , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pesquisadores
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