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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696364

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive agammaglobulinemia (ARA) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by absent peripheral B cells, severe hypogammaglobulinemia, and absent BTK gene mutations. In ARA, mutations occur in genes encoding the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) or downstream signaling proteins. In this work, we used candidate gene and whole-exome sequencing to investigate the molecular basis of ARA in 6 patients from 4 consanguineous North-African families. Sanger sequencing of candidate genes encoding the pre-BCR components (ΙGΗΜ, CD79A, CD79B, IGLL1, and VPREB1) was initially performed and determined the genetic defect in five patients. Two novel mutations in IGHM (p.Val378Alafs*1 and p.Ile184Serfs*21) were identified in three patients from two unrelated kindred and a novel nonsense mutation was identified in CD79A (p.Trp66*) in two siblings from a third kindred. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on the sixth patient who harbored a homozygous stop mutation at position 407 in the RAG2 gene (p.Glu407*). We concluded that conventional gene sequencing, especially when multiple genes are involved in the defect as is the case in ARA, is costly and time-consuming, resulting in delayed diagnosis that contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In addition, it fails to identify the involvement of novel and unsuspected gene defects when the phenotype of the patients is atypical. WES has the potential to provide a rapid and more accurate genetic diagnosis in ARA, which is crucial for the treatment of the patients.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(3): 970-975, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591564

RESUMO

Receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) is a critical regulator of cell death and inflammation, but its relevance for human disease pathogenesis remains elusive. Studies of monogenic disorders might provide critical insights into disease mechanisms and therapeutic targeting of RIPK1 for common diseases. Here, we report on eight patients from six unrelated pedigrees with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in RIPK1 presenting with primary immunodeficiency and/or intestinal inflammation. Mutations in RIPK1 were associated with reduced NF-κB activity, defective differentiation of T and B cells, increased inflammasome activity, and impaired response to TNFR1-mediated cell death in intestinal epithelial cells. The characterization of RIPK1-deficient patients highlights the essential role of RIPK1 in controlling human immune and intestinal homeostasis, and might have critical implications for therapies targeting RIPK1.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Imunidade nas Mucosas/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Mucosa Intestinal , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Feminino , Células HCT116 , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Mutação , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/deficiência , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia
4.
Tunis Med ; 96(10-11): 672-677, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746660

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Primary Immunodeficiency (PIDs) is a set of 330 rare hereditary diseases that increase susceptibility to infections, allergies, autoimmunity, and neoplasia. North American registries give higher prevalence than Maghreb ones, whereas consanguinity is high. The purpose of this study is to compare prevalence and coverage rate of Maghreb PID registries with estimates based on USA. METHODS: We searched the prevalence of PIDs in the Maghreb registers. Next, we estimated the expected values based on recent publications. Finally, we calculated the coverage rate of the Maghreb registries compared to the new estimates and we evaluated the impact of consanguinity. RESULTS: The total number is N1 = 2456 patients. The current Maghreb PID Prevalence is 2.56 / 100,000 inhabitants (population of 94,804,694 Million in 2017). Tunisia leads with a prevalence of 8.70 followed by Morocco 2.09, Libya 1.65 and Algeria 1.46/100.000 habitants. We did not find values for Mauritania. If we extrapolate the prevalence of the USA to the Maghreb population, the number of patients in the Maghreb would be N2 = 27,588 and the coverage rate (N1 / N2) would be 8.90%. This low coverage rate is however better than the World average (1.21%), that of Latin America 1.19% and Africa 0.36%. The Maghreb prevalence is close to that of the Arab world 2.04 / 100,000 (population of 391,449,544 in 2017). Using the incidence found in the USA, the number of patients would be 9765 new patients per year in the Maghreb and 40,319 in Arab countries. CONCLUSION: PID Maghreb patients number is very low compared to global estimates, whereas consanguinity is very high. Special attention should be given to PIDs by governments and research teams in this region.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Consanguinidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Incidência , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estatística como Assunto/normas , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 10(11): 1191-1199, 2016 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27886031

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pertussis outbreaks continue to occur in many countries despite high vaccination coverage. Under-diagnosed cases in adolescents and adults may result in increased transmission to infants, who are at risk of severe pertussis. Additional measures to protect both groups should be considered. METHODOLOGY: Nasopharyngeal samples and sera were collected from patients and household contacts with clinically suspected pertussis. Diagnoses were confirmed by culture, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology. Bordetella pertussis isolates were characterized by antimicrobial sensitivity and fimbrial serotyping. RESULTS: Of 392 participants, 134/248 patients (54%) and 66/144 contacts (45.8%) had confirmed pertussis infections. B. parapertussis was not detected. All B. pertussis isolates were sensitive to the antibiotics tested, and all expressed the Fim3, not the Fim2, fimbrial serotype. Most patients (81.2%) were <6 months (51.8% of whom were <3 months) of age; 77.6% were unvaccinated, and most positive contacts were mothers 20-40 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Despite high vaccination coverage, pertussis is circulating in Algeria. Most infections occur in unvaccinated infants <6 months of age, with mothers as the main source of infection. An adolescent/adult booster should be considered. Adoption of sensitive and specific laboratory tests would improve pertussis diagnosis and surveillance.


Assuntos
Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Argélia/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Bordetella pertussis/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Testes Sorológicos , Soro/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Clin Immunol ; 36(3): 187-94, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26931785

RESUMO

PURPOSE: X-linked agammagobulinemia (XLA) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene defect. XLA patients have absent or reduced number of peripheral B cells and a profound deficiency in all immunoglobulin isotypes. This multicenter study reports the clinical, immunological and molecular features of Bruton's disease in 40 North African male patients. METHODS: Fifty male out of 63 (male and female) patients diagnosed with serum agammaglobulinemia and non detectable to less than 2% peripheral B cells were enrolled. The search for BTK gene mutations was performed for all of them by genomic DNA amplification and Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: We identified 33 different mutations in the BTK gene in 40 patients including 12 missense mutations, 6 nonsense mutations, 6 splice-site mutations, 5 frameshift, 2 large deletions, one complex mutation and one in-frame deletion. Seventeen of these mutations are novel. This large series shows a lower frequency of XLA among male patients from North Africa with agammaglobulinemia and absent to low B cells compared with other international studies (63.5% vs. 85%). No strong evidence for genotype-phenotype correlation was observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to other reports from highly consanguineous North African populations, showing lower frequency of X-linked forms as compared to AR forms of the same primary immunodeficiency. Furthermore, a large number of novel BTK mutations were identified and could further help identify carriers for genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/genética , Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Mutação , Infecções Oportunistas/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Adulto , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia , Agamaglobulinemia/complicações , Agamaglobulinemia/diagnóstico , Agamaglobulinemia/imunologia , Idade de Início , Argélia , Alelos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Associação Genética , Aconselhamento Genético , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/complicações , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/imunologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Marrocos , Infecções Oportunistas/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/imunologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/imunologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tunísia
7.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 51(2): 203-16, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26716396

RESUMO

Pediatric eosinophilic pneumonias (EPs) are characterized by a significant infiltration of the alveolar spaces and lung interstitium by eosinophils, with conservation of the lung structure. In developed countries, EPs constitute exceptional entities in pediatric care. Clinical symptoms may be transient (Löffler syndrome), acute (<1 month and mostly <7 days), or chronic (>1 month). Diagnosis relies on demonstration of alveolar eosinophilia on bronchoalveolar lavage, whether or not associated with blood eosinophilia. EPs are a heterogeneous group of disorders divided into: (i) secondary forms (seen mainly in parasitic infections, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and drug reactions); and (ii) primary forms (eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, and idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia). Despite their rarity, the etiological approach to EP must be well-defined as some causes can be rapidly life-threatening without initiation of the proper treatment. This approach (i) eliminates secondary forms, with comprehensive history taking and minimal biological assessment, (ii) is oriented in primary forms by the acute or chronic setting, and the existence of extrapulmonary symptoms. Treatment of primary forms has traditionally relied on corticosteroids, usually with a dramatic response. Specific treatments or the adjunction of corticosteroid-sparing treatment or immunosuppressors are currently being evaluated in order to improve the prognosis and the side effects associated with corticosteroid treatment in a pediatric setting.


Assuntos
Eosinofilia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Eosinofilia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Aspergilose Broncopulmonar Alérgica/diagnóstico , Aspergilose Broncopulmonar Alérgica/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose Broncopulmonar Alérgica/epidemiologia , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Síndrome de Churg-Strauss/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Churg-Strauss/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Churg-Strauss/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Síndrome Hipereosinofílica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Hipereosinofílica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Hipereosinofílica/epidemiologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Leucócitos , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Prognóstico
9.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 29(11): 1066-70, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18826372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies from developed countries reported that nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) in neonatal care units (NCUs) increases length of stay and costs. However, no such information is available for Algerian NCUs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of BSI in neonates on additional charges and length of hospital stay. DESIGN: Prospective, nested case-control study. SETTING: The 47-bed NCU of the University Hospital of Blida, Algeria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 83 neonates with BSIs (case patients) and 166 neonates without BSIs (control patients), admitted to the NCU during the study period (April 2004 through December 2007), were matched for sex, birth weight, length of NCU stay, and year of hospital admission. Each patient's length of stay in the NCU was obtained prospectively on daily rounds. The estimated cost of each NCU-day was provided by the hospital's finance department. The cost of antibiotics prescribed was provided by the hospital's pharmacy department. RESULTS: The mean additional length of NCU stay for case patients, compared with control patients, was 9.2 days (24.3 vs 15.1 days). The mean additional cost of antibiotics was dollars 546. The mean cumulative additional cost was dollars 1,315. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the effect of BSI on extra costs for NCU patients, especially costs due to prolongation of hospital stay and increased antibiotic use, and suggests that NCUs in Algeria have a financial interest in reducing the rate of BSI.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/economia , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/economia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Custos Hospitalares , Tempo de Internação/economia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/economia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
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