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2.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043960

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The association of mild obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) with important clinical outcomes remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between mild OSA and systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) in the European Sleep Apnoea Database (ESADA) cohort. METHODS: In a multicentre sample of 4732 patients we analyzed the risk of mild OSA (sub-classified into two groups: mildAHI 5-<11/h (apnoea-hypopnoea frequency/hour [AHI] 5 to <11/h) and mildAHI 11-<15/hOSA (AHI ≥11 to <15/h ) compared to non-apnoeic snorers for prevalent SAH after adjustment for relevant confounding factors including gender, age, smoking, obesity, daytime sleepiness, dyslipidaemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, type 2 diabetes and sleep test methodology [polygraphy (PG) or polysomnography (PSG)]. RESULTS: SAH prevalence was higher in the mildAHI 11-<15/h OSA group compared with the mildAHI 5-<11/h group and non-apnoeic snorers (52 vs 45 vs 30%, p<0.001). Corresponding adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) for SAH were 1.789 (mildAHI 11-<15/h, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-2.15) and 1.558 (mildAHI 5-<11/h, 95%, CI 1.34-1.82), respectively; p<0.001. In sensitivity analysis, mildAHI 11-<15/h OSA remained a significant predictor for SAH both in PG (OR = 1.779, 95% CI 1.403-2.256; p<0.001) and PSG group (OR = 1.424, 95% CI 1.047-1.939; p=0.025). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a dose response relationship between mild OSA and SAH risk, starting from 5 events/hour in PG-recordings and continuing with a further risk increase in the 11 to <15 range. These findings potentially introduce a challenge to traditional thresholds of OSA severity and may help to stratify OSA patients according to cardiovascular risk.

3.
Sleep Breath ; 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103395

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severity and related health status with sleep quality remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between COPD and sleep quality in the Greek national branch of the UNLOCK cohort. METHODS: A sample of 257 COPD patients enrolled cross-sectionally from primary care in Greece. Sleep quality was assessed by the COPD and Asthma Sleep Impact Scale (CASIS-7 items) questionnaire (higher score indicates worse sleep quality). We tested for associations of sleep impairment with health status (CAT and mMRC scores), exacerbations, hospitalizations, GOLD 2018 ABCD status, inhaler adherence, frailty, and sense of coherence, adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, and comorbidities. RESULTS: The majority of patients reported uncontrolled symptoms (91% with ≥ 10 CAT or 61% with ≥ 2 mMRC). Mean (SD) age was 65 (12.3) with 79% males. CASIS-7 mean (SD) score was 37.7 (12.9). After adjustments, CASIS was significantly associated with worse health status (e.g., CASIS increased with CAT ≥ 10 [ß = 12.53, (95% CI, 6.82, 18.25); p < 0.001], mMRC ≥ 2 [ß = 4.96, (95% CI, 1.56, 8.34); p = 0.004]), COPD severity (CAT-based GOLD BD [ß = 8.88 (95% CI, 2.50, 15.26); p = 0.007]), frailty [ß = 8.85 (95% CI 4.45,13.25); p < 0.001], and sense of coherence [ß = -0.14 (95% CI -0.21, -0.06), p < 001]. When using a CASIS cut-off score of 30 as indicator of sleep impairment, additional to the aforementioned associations, we found increased risk for sleep impairment with ≥ 2 exacerbations/year and poor inhaler adherence (p value < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that worse health status and COPD severity are associated with poor sleep quality in COPD patients.

5.
J Sleep Res ; : e12956, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808986

RESUMO

Whole blood carbonic anhydrase activity (CAa) is increased in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Our study investigated the influence of positive airway pressure (PAP) or CA inhibitor acetazolamide (ACT) therapy on CAa, OSA and blood pressure. Thirty-three OSA patients (21 hypertensive, body mass index (BMI) 37 ± 7 kg/m2 and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 47 ± 31 events/hr) were followed-up after PAP treatment (compliance, 4.7 ± 1.5 hr/day; duration, median 6 [IQR 6,6] months) (Cohort A). A second OSA Cohort (B) contained nine hypertensive patients (BMI, 29 ± 4 kg/m2 ; AHI, 39 ± 20 events/hr) with 2-week treatment of ACT, PAP or ACT + PAP in an open crossover study. CAa was assessed at baseline and at the end of each treatment period. In Cohort A, baseline CAa was higher in hypertensive, compared with normotensive, patients (1,033 ± 204 versus 861 ± 201 units, p = .028). PAP treatment reduced systolic/diastolic blood pressure but not CAa (-9 ± 11/-5 ± 7 mmHg and -20 ± 289 units, p < .001, <.001 and .70). In Cohort B, blood pressure was reduced in both ACT-treated groups (-10 ± 10/-5 ± 7 mmHg, p = .043 and .019; and -5 ± 5/-13 ± 13 mmHg, p < .001 and .009). AHI was reduced in both groups: ACT only, -17 ± 9 events/hr p = .001; and ACT + PAP, -39 ± 19 events/hr, p < .001. PAP did not change CAa (p = .98) but activity tended to decrease after ACT with or without PAP (p = .081 and .056). CAa is elevated in hypertensive OSA patients. Long-term PAP reduced blood pressure without affecting CAa. ACT reduced blood pressure and CAa. Increased CAa may constitute a physiological characteristic in OSA, contributing to comorbid hypertension.

6.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 15(12): 1737-1745, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855159

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of sex on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)-related symptoms and prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large clinical population of patients. METHODS: A total of 6,716 patients (mean age 52 years, 24% women) had undergone diagnostic polysomnography and completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Athens Insomnia Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory. We investigated the predictive value of sex on associated symptoms and prevalent cardiovascular disease, after adjustment for relevant confounding factors including age, obesity, and comorbidities. RESULTS: Most of the patients (90%) had OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 5 events/h), and 66% were obese. Women were older than men and had a higher body mass index; however, men had a thicker neck circumference, a higher waist-to-hip ratio, and increased OSA severity (AHI 36 versus 27 events/h, P < .001). Female sex independently predicted prevalent CVD after adjustment for confounders (odds ratio [95% CI] 1.476 [1.154-1.887], P = .002). Men independently were more likely to report driving problems (3.359 [2.470-4.569], P < .001) and excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS ≥ 16) (1.355 [1.036-1.773], P = .027). Furthermore, female sex was an independent predictive factor for depressive symptoms (2.473 [1.831-3.340], P < .001), frequent awakenings (1.703 [1.323-2.192], P < .001), nocturia (1.727 [1.340-2.226], P < .001) and morning headaches (1.855 [1.488-2.326], P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Females referred for sleep studies were more likely to exhibit CVD and less likely to complain of typical OSA symptoms than males in this large clinical patient cohort.

7.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648676

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of sex on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)-related symptoms and prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large clinical population of patients. METHODS: A total of 6,716 patients (mean age 52 years, 24% women) had undergone diagnostic polysomnography and completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Athens Insomnia Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory. We investigated the predictive value of sex on associated symptoms and prevalent cardiovascular disease, after adjustment for relevant confounding factors including age, obesity, and comorbidities. RESULTS: Most of the patients (90%) had OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 5 events/h), and 66% were obese. Women were older than men and had a higher body mass index; however, men had a thicker neck circumference, a higher waist-to-hip ratio, and increased OSA severity (AHI 36 versus 27 events/h, P < .001). Female sex independently predicted prevalent CVD after adjustment for confounders (odds ratio [95% CI] 1.476 [1.154-1.887], P = .002). Men independently were more likely to report driving problems (3.359 [2.470-4.569], P < .001) and excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS ≥ 16) (1.355 [1.036-1.773], P = .027). Furthermore, female sex was an independent predictive factor for depressive symptoms (2.473 [1.831-3.340], P < .001), frequent awakenings (1.703 [1.323-2.192], P < .001), nocturia (1.727 [1.340-2.226], P < .001) and morning headaches (1.855 [1.488-2.326], P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Females referred for sleep studies were more likely to exhibit CVD and less likely to complain of typical OSA symptoms than males in this large clinical patient cohort.

9.
J Sleep Res ; : e12895, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347213

RESUMO

In obstructive sleep apnea, patients' sleep is fragmented leading to excessive daytime sleepiness and co-morbidities like arterial hypertension. However, traditional metrics are not always directly correlated with daytime sleepiness, and the association between traditional sleep quality metrics like sleep duration and arterial hypertension is still ambiguous. In a development cohort, we analysed hypnograms from mild (n = 213), moderate (n = 235) and severe (n = 277) obstructive sleep apnea patients as well as healthy controls (n = 105) from the European Sleep Apnea Database. We assessed sleep by the analysis of two-step transitions depending on obstructive sleep apnea severity and anthropometric factors. Two-step transition patterns were examined for an association to arterial hypertension or daytime sleepiness. We also tested cumulative distributions of wake as well as sleep-states for power-laws (exponent α) and exponential distributions (decay time τ) in dependency on obstructive sleep apnea severity and potential confounders. Independent of obstructive sleep apnea severity and potential confounders, wake-state durations followed a power-law distribution, while sleep-state durations were characterized by an exponential distribution. Sleep-stage transitions are influenced by obstructive sleep apnea severity, age and gender. N2 → N3 → wake transitions were associated with high diastolic blood pressure. We observed higher frequencies of alternating (symmetric) patterns (e.g. N2 → N1 → N2, N2 → wake → N2) in sleepy patients both in the development cohort and in a validation cohort (n = 425). In conclusion, effects of obstructive sleep apnea severity and potential confounders on sleep architecture are small, but transition patterns still link sleep fragmentation directly to obstructive sleep apnea-related clinical outcomes like arterial hypertension and daytime sleepiness.

10.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 14(9): 1539-1550, 2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176976

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of different levels of adherence and long-term effects of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy on gas exchange, sleepiness, quality of life, depressive symptoms, and all-cause mortality in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). METHODS: A total of 252 patients with newly diagnosed OHS were followed up for a minimum of 2 years after PAP initiation. PAP adherence (h/night) was monitored. Arterial blood gas samples were taken with patients being alert for more than 4 hours after morning awakening. Subjective daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS]), quality of life (Short Form 36 [SF-36]) and patient's depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]) were assessed before and at the end of the follow-up period, along with all-cause mortality. RESULTS: At the end of the follow-up period (median duration [25th-75th percentile], 30 [24-52] months), PaO2 increased from baseline (72.7 ± 10.3 versus 63.2 ± 10.6, P < .001) and both PaCO2 and HCO3- decreased (43.0 [39.2-45.0] versus 50.0 [46.7-55.4] and 27.5 ± 3.2 versus 31.4 ± 4.2, respectively, P < .001). In addition, PAP therapy significantly improved ESS (7 [4-9] versus 14 [11-16], P < .001), BDI (8.8 ± 4.9 versus 15.5 ± 7.3, P < .001) and SF-36 (82 [78-87] versus 74 [67-79], P < .001) scores. Over the follow-up period 11 patients died. Patients who used PAP for > 6 h/night had significant improvements (P < .05) in blood gases and SF-36 scores than less adherent patients. CONCLUSIONS: Increased hours of use and long-term therapy with PAP are effective in the treatment of patients with OHS. Clinicians should encourage adherence to PAP therapy in order to provide a significant improvement in clinical status and gas exchange in these patients. COMMENTARY: A commenary on this article appears in this issue on page 1455. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Title: PAP Therapy in Patients With Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome, Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT03449641, URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03449641.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Síndrome de Hipoventilação por Obesidade/terapia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Gasometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Hipoventilação por Obesidade/complicações , Síndrome de Hipoventilação por Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Polissonografia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2017: 4573756, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28831208

RESUMO

Systemic inflammation is important in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) pathophysiology and its comorbidity. We aimed to assess the levels of inflammatory biomarkers in a large sample of OSA patients and to investigate any correlation between these biomarkers with clinical and polysomnographic (PSG) parameters. This was a cross-sectional study in which 2983 patients who had undergone a polysomnography for OSA diagnosis were recruited. Patients with known comorbidities were excluded. Included patients (n = 1053) were grouped according to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) as mild, moderate, and severe. Patients with AHI < 5 served as controls. Demographics, PSG data, and levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and uric acid (UA) were measured and compared between groups. A significant difference was found between groups in hs-CRP, fibrinogen, and UA. All biomarkers were independently associated with OSA severity and gender (p < 0.05). Females had increased levels of hs-CRP, fibrinogen, and ESR (p < 0.001) compared to men. In contrast, UA levels were higher in men (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that inflammatory markers significantly increase in patients with OSA without known comorbidities and correlate with OSA severity. These findings may have important implications regarding OSA diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, and prognosis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT03070769.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Polissonografia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/imunologia , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto Jovem
12.
Chest ; 152(6): 1327-1338, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28774636

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common type of interstitial pneumonia but remains a disease with a poor outcome. Two drugs, pirfenidone and nintedanib, have shown promising results at stalling disease progression; however, the interplay of sleep disruption or sleep disorders overall and in relation to medication effectiveness remains understudied. In the past, there was limited interest in the role of sleep in patients with IPF. Treating physicians tended to address only the daily disabling symptoms while disregarding the possible significant role of sleep alterations or coexisting sleep disorders. During the past few years, there has been more research related to sleep disturbances in patients with IPF and their possible role in sleep and overall life quality, disease progression, and outcome. In summary, sleep in patients with IPF is significantly impaired, with alterations in sleep architecture, changes in sleep breathing pattern, and decreases in oxygen saturation mainly during vulnerable rapid eye movement sleep. There also is evidence that OSA has an increased prevalence in these patients, playing an important role in the already worse sleep quality related to the disease itself. The focus of this review is not only to present current data related to sleep in patients with IPF but also to point out that therapy for sleep problems and OSA is likely to improve sleep and life quality as well as disease outcome. The main priority remains to increase awareness among treating physicians about early diagnosis of OSA in patients with IPF and to emphasize the need for intense future research, especially on the role of intermittent hypoxia superimposed on chronic hypoxia during sleep in patients with IPF.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Diagnóstico Precoce , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Sono/fisiologia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico
13.
Sleep Breath ; 20(2): 605-12, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26407963

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have poor sleep quality as a result of various alterations in oxygenation parameters and sleep macro- and micro-architecture. There is a shortage of data to support the efficacy of long-acting inhaled anticholinergic agents in improving these adverse effects, which are known to have a negative impact on clinical outcomes. We aimed to compare the tiotropium Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler and the HandiHaler in terms of their effects on sleeping oxygen saturation (SaO2) and sleep quality in patients with COPD. METHODS: In a randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial involving 200 patients with mild to moderate COPD (resting arterial oxygen tension >60 mmHg while awake), we compared the effects of 6 months' treatment with the two devices on sleeping SaO2 and sleep quality. Overnight polysomnography and pulmonary function testing were performed at baseline and after 6 months' treatment. RESULTS: A total of 188 patients completed the trial. Both groups showed significant improvement in minimum sleep SaO2 and time of sleep spent with SaO2 below 90 (TST90) compared to baseline. The patients using the Respimat had significantly better TST90 than did those using the HandiHaler. Sleep disturbance was highly variable in these patients, but the sleep stage durations were significantly better in the Respimat group. CONCLUSIONS: Sleeping SaO2 can be improved by tiotropium delivered using either the HandiHaler device or the Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler. However, the patients who used the Respimat device had significantly better TST90 and sleep architecture parameters.


Assuntos
Sprays Nasais , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Brometo de Tiotrópio/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/sangue , Polissonografia , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
World J Exp Med ; 5(2): 77-83, 2015 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25992322

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common medical condition, associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of this association have not been completely understood and may be multifactorial in origin. A number of studies suggest that inflammatory processes have emerged critical in the pathogenesis of CVD in OSAS. A range of circulating inflammatory molecules has been identified and measured, with a view to assess inflammation and predict vascular damage risk, such as plasma cytokines, adhesion molecules, and C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP is a relevant marker worthy of further study, because not only is elevated in patients with OSAS, but also is rapidly becoming a risk factor for cardiac disease. Furthermore, in selected OSAS patients, aggressive treatment of the disorder may lead to retarding or even improvement of CVD progression. However, still there is a debate on the true correlation between CRP and OSAS, as well as the clinical effect of any reduction after OSAS treatment. Further research is required to define those OSAS patients who will have a considerable reduction with treatment, as well as to understand the significance of the interaction between cardiovascular risk factor and CRP reduction in patients with OSAS.

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