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1.
JAMA ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219386

RESUMO

Importance: Additional treatments are needed for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors may be an effective treatment for patients with HFrEF, even those without diabetes. Objective: To evaluate the effects of dapagliflozin in patients with HFrEF with and without diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Exploratory analysis of a phase 3 randomized trial conducted at 410 sites in 20 countries. Patients with New York Heart Association classification II to IV with an ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% and elevated plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide were enrolled between February 15, 2017, and August 17, 2018, with final follow-up on June 6, 2019. Interventions: Addition of once-daily 10 mg of dapagliflozin or placebo to recommended therapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death. This outcome was analyzed by baseline diabetes status and, in patients without diabetes, by glycated hemoglobin level less than 5.7% vs greater than or equal to 5.7%. Results: Among 4744 patients randomized (mean age, 66 years; 1109 [23%] women; 2605 [55%] without diabetes), 4742 completed the trial. Among participants without diabetes, the primary outcome occurred in 171 of 1298 (13.2%) in the dapagliflozin group and 231 of 1307 (17.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.60-0.88]). In patients with diabetes, the primary outcome occurred in 215 of 1075 (20.0%) in the dapagliflozin group and 271 of 1064 (25.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.63-0.90]) (P value for interaction = .80). Among patients without diabetes and a glycated hemoglobin level less than 5.7%, the primary outcome occurred in 53 of 438 patients (12.1%) in the dapagliflozin group and 71 of 419 (16.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.47-0.96]). In patients with a glycated hemoglobin of at least 5.7%, the primary outcome occurred in 118 of 860 patients (13.7%) in the dapagliflozin group and 160 of 888 (18.0%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.59-0.94]) (P value for interaction = .72). Volume depletion was reported as an adverse event in 7.3% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 6.1% in the placebo group among patients without diabetes and in 7.8% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 7.8% in the placebo group among patients with diabetes. A kidney adverse event was reported in 4.8% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 6.0% in the placebo group among patients without diabetes and in 8.5% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 8.7% in the placebo group among patients with diabetes. Conclusions and Relevance: In this exploratory analysis of a randomized trial of patients with HFrEF, dapagliflozin compared with placebo, when added to recommended therapy, significantly reduced the risk of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death independently of diabetes status. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03036124.

2.
CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol ; 9(4): 222-229, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064793

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to differentiate dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, and canagliflozin based on their capacity to inhibit sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 1 and 2 in patients with type 2 diabetes using a previously developed quantitative systems pharmacology model of renal glucose filtration, reabsorption, and excretion. The analysis was based on pooled, mean study-level data on 24-hour urinary glucose excretion, average daily plasma glucose, and estimated glomerular filtration rate collected from phase I and II clinical trials of SGLT2 inhibitors. Variations in filtered glucose across clinical studies were shown to drive the apparent differences in the glucosuria dose-response relationships among the gliflozins. A normalized dose-response analysis demonstrated similarity of dapagliflozin and empagliflozin, but not canagliflozin. At approved doses, SGLT1 inhibition by canagliflozin but not dapagliflozin or empagliflozin contributed to ~ 10% of daily urinary glucose excretion.

3.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(5): 798-806, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912603

RESUMO

AIM: To assess whether the previously developed multivariable risk prediction framework (PRE score) could predict the renal effects observed in the EXSCEL cardiovascular outcomes trial using short-term changes in cardio-renal risk markers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Changes from baseline to 6 months in HbA1c, systolic blood pressure (SBP), body mass index (BMI), haemoglobin, total cholesterol, and new micro- or macroalbuminuria were evaluated. The renal outcomes were defined as a composite of a sustained 30% or 40% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Relationships between risk markers and long-term renal outcomes were determined in patients with type 2 diabetes from the ALTITUDE study using multivariable Cox regression analysis, and then applied to short-term changes in risk markers observed in EXSCEL to predict the exenatide-induced impact on renal outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with placebo, mean HbA1c, BMI, SBP and total cholesterol were lower at 6 months with exenatide, as was the incidence of new microalbuminuria. The PRE score predicted a relative risk reduction for the 30% eGFR decline + ESRD endpoint of 11.3% (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.83-0.94), compared with 12.7% (HR 0.87; 0.77-0.99) observed risk reduction. For the 40% eGFR decline + ESRD endpoint, the predicted and observed risk reductions were 11.0% (HR 0.89; 0.82-0.97) and 13.7% (HR 0.86, 0.72-1.04), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Integrating short-term risk marker changes into a multivariable risk score predicted the magnitude of renal risk reduction observed in EXSCEL.

4.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 59(4): 447-462, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Several review articles have been published discussing gastric acid-related drug-drug interactions (DDIs) mediated by coadministration of antacids, histamine H2 receptor antagonists, or proton pump inhibitors, but are not sufficiently comprehensive in capturing all documented DDIs with acid-reducing agents (ARAs) and tend to focus on gastric pH-dependent DDIs and/or basic drugs. Subsequently, several new drugs have been approved, and new information is available in the literature. The objective of this systematic review is to comprehensively identify oral medications that have clinically meaningful DDIs, including loss of efficacy or adverse effects, with gastric ARAs, and categorize these medications according to mechanism of interaction. METHODS: An indepth search of clinical data in the PDR3D: Reed Tech Navigator™ for Drug Labels, University of Washington Drug-Drug Interaction Database, DailyMed, Drugs@FDA.gov, and UpToDate®/Lexicomp® Drug and Drug Interaction screening tool was conducted from 1 June to 1 August 2018. The PDR3D, University of Washington Drug-Drug Interaction Database, and DailyMed were searched with terms associated with gastric acid and ARAs. Conflicting findings were further investigated using the UpToDate®/Lexicomp® screening tool. Clinical relevance was assessed on whether an intervention was needed, and prescribing information and/or literature supporting the DDI. RESULTS: Through the search strategy, 121 medications were found to clinically meaningfully interact with ARAs. For 38 medications the mechanism of interaction with ARAs was identified as gastric pH dependent, and for 83 medications the interaction was found to be not gastric pH mediated, with mechanisms involving metabolic enzymes, transporters, chelation, and urine alkalization. Additionally, 109 medications were studied and did not have a clinically meaningful interaction with ARAs. CONCLUSION: This review may provide a resource to healthcare professionals in aiding the care of patients by increasing awareness of interactions with ARAs and may also identify and potentially aid in avoiding clinically relevant DDIs and preventing risk of treatment failure and/or adverse effects. Advances in non-clinical predictions of gastric pH-mediated DDIs may guide the need for a future clinical evaluation.

5.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 138, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) improve cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes through distinct mechanisms. However, evidence on clinical outcomes in patients treated with both GLP-1 RA and SGLT2i is lacking. We aim to provide insight into the effects of open-label SGLT2i use in parallel with or shortly after once-weekly GLP-1 RA exenatide (EQW) on cardiorenal outcomes. METHODS: In the EXSCEL cardiovascular outcomes trial EQW arm, SGLT2i drop-in occurred in 8.7% of participants. These EQW+SGLT2i users were propensity-matched to: (1) placebo-arm participants not taking SGLT2i (n = 572 per group); and to (2) EQW-arm participants not taking SGLT2i (n = 575), based on their last measured characteristics before SGLT2i initiation, and equivalent study visit in comparator groups. Time-to-first major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) and all-cause mortality (ACM) were compared using Cox regression analyses. eGFR slopes were quantified using mixed model repeated measurement analyses. RESULTS: In adjusted analyses, the risk for MACE with combination EQW+SGLT2i use was numerically lower compared with both placebo (adjusted hazard ratio 0.68, 95% CI 0.39-1.17) and EQW alone (0.85, 0.48-1.49). Risk of ACM was nominally significantly reduced compared with placebo (0.38, 0.16-0.90) and compared with EQW (0.41, 0.17-0.95). Combination EQW+SGLT2i use also nominally significantly improved estimated eGFR slope compared with placebo (+ 1.94, 95% CI 0.94-2.94 mL/min/1.73 m2/year) and EQW alone (+ 2.38, 1.40-3.35 mL/min/1.73 m2/year). CONCLUSIONS: This post hoc analysis supports the hypothesis that combinatorial EQW and SGLT2i therapy may provide benefit on cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, Identifying number: NCT01144338, Date of registration: June 15, 2010.

6.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(12): 2684-2693, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423699

RESUMO

AIM: To develop a quantitative drug-disease systems model to investigate the paradox that sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT)2 is responsible for >80% of proximal tubule glucose reabsorption, yet SGLT2 inhibitor treatment results in only 30% to 50% less reabsorption in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A physiologically based four-compartment model of renal glucose filtration, reabsorption and excretion via SGLT1 and SGLT2 was developed as a system of ordinary differential equations using R/IQRtools. SGLT2 inhibitor pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were estimated from published concentration-time profiles in plasma and urine and from urinary glucose excretion (UGE) in healthy people and people with T2DM. RESULTS: The final model showed that higher renal glucose reabsorption in people with T2DM versus healthy people was associated with 54% and 28% greater transporter capacity for SGLT1 and SGLT2, respectively. Additionally, the analysis showed that UGE is highly dependent on mean plasma glucose and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and that their consideration is critical for interpreting clinical UGE findings. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative drug-disease system modelling revealed mechanistic differences in renal glucose reabsorption and UGE between healthy people and those with T2DM, and clearly showed that SGLT2 inhibition significantly increased glucose available to SGLT1 downstream in the tubule. Importantly, we found that the findings of lower than expected UGE with SGLT2 inhibition are explained by the shift to SGLT1, which recovered additional glucose (~30% of total).

7.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(12): 2667-2673, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407856

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare the effects of the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin on estimated (ePV) and measured plasma volume (mPV) and to characterize the effects of dapagliflozin on ePV in a broad population of patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Strauss formula was used to calculate changes in ePV. Change in plasma volume measured with 125 I-human serum albumin (mPV) was compared with change in ePV in 10 patients with type 2 diabetes randomized to dapagliflozin 10 mg/d or placebo. Subsequently, changes in ePV were measured in a pooled database of 13 phase 2b/3 placebo-controlled clinical trials involving 4533 patients with type 2 diabetes who were randomized to dapagliflozin 10 mg daily or matched placebo. RESULTS: The median change in ePV was similar to the median change in mPV (-9.4% and -9.0%) during dapagliflozin treatment. In the pooled analysis of clinical trials, dapagliflozin decreased ePV by 9.6% (95% confidence interval 9.0 to 10.2) compared to placebo after 24 weeks. This effect was consistent in various patient subgroups, including subgroups with or without diuretic use or established cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: ePV may be used as a proxy to assess changes in plasma volume during dapagliflozin treatment. Dapagliflozin consistently decreased ePV compared to placebo in a broad population of patients with type 2 diabetes.

8.
Clin Ther ; 41(8): 1545-1563, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266654

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Fixed-combination drug products (FCDPs) for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may show efficacy comparable to their individual components (ICs) while improving adherence to treatment. This study evaluated the bioequivalence and safety of 2 dapagliflozin/saxagliptin/metformin extended-release (XR) FCDPs relative to their ICs: saxagliptin and dapagliflozin/metformin XR. METHODS: This randomized, open-label, single-dose, single-center crossover study was conducted in 84 healthy subjects aged 18-55 years. The primary objective was to evaluate the fed-state bioequivalence of a dapagliflozin 5-mg/saxagliptin 2.5-mg/metformin 1000-mg XR FCDP and a dapagliflozin 10-mg/saxagliptin 5-mg/metformin 1000-mg XR FCDP relative to the ICs. Secondary objectives included the evaluation of the effect of food on the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of saxagliptin, dapagliflozin, and metformin in both FCDPs and characterization of the PK parameters of the active metabolite of saxagliptin, 5-hydroxy saxagliptin, in healthy subjects. PK parameters (AUC0-∞, AUC0-t, and Cmax) were used to assess the bioequivalence of the 2 FCDPs with their ICs. The Cmax and AUC0-t of the study drugs were compared between female and male subjects to assess sex differences in exposure. Safety and tolerability of both FCDPs and ICs were also assessed with adverse events, vital signs (systolic and diastolic blood pressures and pulse rate), 12-lead ECG, physical examinations, and laboratory assessments. FINDINGS: Both dapagliflozin/saxagliptin/metformin XR FCDPs were bioequivalent to their ICs. For the dapagliflozin 5-mg/saxagliptin 2.5-mg/metformin 1000-mg XR FCDP, the 90% CI for the geometric mean ratio of dapagliflozin Cmax was slightly above the 80%-125% bioequivalence limit, which is unlikely to be clinically relevant. Food delayed the absorption of the study drugs in both FCDPs, which is unlikely to have a clinically relevant impact on efficacy. In both cohorts, exposure was higher in female subjects compared with male subjects, potentially due to the lower body weight of the female subjects. The safety profile and tolerability of the FCDPs were similar to those of their ICs, and no deaths or serious adverse events were reported. IMPLICATIONS: These data support the use of the dapagliflozin/saxagliptin/metformin XR FCDP in patients with T2DM. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03169959.

9.
CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol ; 8(6): 380-395, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087533

RESUMO

Quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP), a mechanistically oriented form of drug and disease modeling, seeks to address a diverse set of problems in the discovery and development of therapies. These problems bring a considerable amount of variability and uncertainty inherent in the nonclinical and clinical data. Likewise, the available modeling techniques and related software tools are manifold. Appropriately, the development, qualification, application, and impact of QSP models have been similarly varied. In this review, we describe the progressive maturation of a QSP modeling workflow: a necessary step for the efficient, reproducible development and qualification of QSP models, which themselves are highly iterative and evolutive. Furthermore, we describe three applications of QSP to impact drug development; one supporting new indications for an approved antidiabetic clinical asset through mechanistic hypothesis generation, one highlighting efficacy and safety differentiation within the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor drug class, and one enabling rational selection of immuno-oncology drug combinations.

10.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 85(8): 1820-1828, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077437

RESUMO

AIMS: To quantitatively compare pharmacokinetics (PK) and the exposure-response (ER) relationship of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin, between adolescents/young adults and adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: Data from 2 clinical studies for dapagliflozin were analysed using a non-linear mixed-effects approach. The PK and the relationship between dapagliflozin exposure and response (24-hour urinary glucose excretion) were characterized. PK was evaluated using a 2-compartment model with first-order absorption while the exposure response-relationship was analysed using a sigmoidal maximal-effect model. The 24-hour median blood glucose, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), sex, age and body weight were evaluated as covariates. RESULTS: A 2-compartment model with first order absorption provided a reasonable fit to the dapagliflozin PK data. Body weight was found to be a significant covariate on dapagliflozin exposure. The ER relationship was best described by a sigmoidal maximal effect model with 24-hour median blood glucose and eGFR as significant covariates on maximal effect. In accordance with the observed data, model-predicted urinary glucose excretion response following 10 mg dapagliflozin dose was higher in the study in adolescents/young adults (138.0 g/24 h) compared to adults (70.5 g/24 h) with T1DM. This is linked to higher eGFR and 24-hour median blood glucose in this trial. CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin PK and ER relationship were similar in the 2 analysed studies after accounting for covariate effects. These results suggest that no dose adjustment is required for adolescent patients with T1DM.

11.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(6): 1381-1387, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756462

RESUMO

AIMS: To quantitatively describe the relationship between dapagliflozin systemic exposure and HbA1c response among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and assess the potential impact of covariate effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Individual longitudinal HbA1c data from two phase 3 studies in patients with T1DM (24-week treatment with once-daily dapagliflozin 5 or 10 mg or placebo, with adjustable insulin) were analyzed using a non-linear mixed effect modeling approach. Area under the concentration curve was used to measure dapagliflozin systemic exposure. Baseline HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, reduction in total insulin dose, baseline glucose concentrations, age, sex, race (Asian vs. non-Asian), and insulin administration method (multiple daily injections vs. insulin pump) were assessed as covariates. RESULTS: A maximum effect (Emax ) model identified a positive exposure-response relationship. Model-predicted placebo-corrected HbA1c reductions after 24 weeks for dapagliflozin 5- and 10-mg doses were - 0.42% [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.47 to -0.36) and - 0.45% (95% CI -0.50 to -0.40), respectively; baseline HbA1c was ~8.4%. This was in good agreement with actual observations from both studies. Baseline HbA1c was a significant covariate: patients with higher baseline HbA1c were predicted to have greater HbA1c reductions. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between dapagliflozin systemic exposure and HbA1c response was successfully described in patients with T1DM. None of the tested covariates affected the efficacy of dapagliflozin to a clinically relevant extent. Therefore, no dose adjustment of dapagliflozin is required in patients with T1DM based on the tested covariates. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02268214; NCT02460978.

12.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 8(4): 549-558, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500110

RESUMO

Saxagliptin is an orally administered, highly potent, and selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was conducted to determine the effect of magnesium and aluminum hydroxides plus simethicone, famotidine, and omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin and its active metabolite, 5-hydroxy saxagliptin. This was an open-label, randomized, 5-treatment, 5-period, 3-way crossover study in 15 healthy subjects. Mean Cmax of saxagliptin was 26% lower, but AUC was almost unchanged when saxagliptin was coadministered with Maalox Max. Mean Cmax was 14% higher, but AUC was almost unchanged when saxagliptin was coadministered with famotidine. Changes in pharmacokinetics of 5-hydroxy saxagliptin generally paralleled the changes in saxagliptin. These pharmacokinetic changes were unlikely to be clinically meaningful. Coadministration of omeprazole did not affect saxagliptin Cmax or AUC. Saxagliptin in combination with these medicines resulted in no unexpected safety or tolerability findings in these healthy subjects. No dose adjustment of saxagliptin or separation in the time of saxagliptin dosing is necessary with medicines that raise gastric pH when coadministered with saxagliptin.

13.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(4): 876-882, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499157

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) of dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor that increases urinary glucose excretion (UGE) and its major metabolite, dapagliflozin-3-O-glucuronide (D3OG), in Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and inadequate glycaemic control (HbA1c 7%-10%). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Japanese patients (18-65 years) with inadequately controlled T1D were randomized 1:1:1 to dapagliflozin 5 mg, 10 mg or placebo (n = 14 each) once daily for 7 days, with adjustable insulin. The PK/PD characteristics of dapagliflozin and D3OG were assessed on Day 7. Patients underwent follow-up evaluation on Days 8 and 14. Adverse events (AEs), hypoglycaemic episodes and events of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) were recorded over the treatment and follow-up periods. RESULTS: A total of 42 randomized patients received dapagliflozin or placebo. PK variables increased in a dose-dependent manner. D3OG was generated rapidly, with a median time to maximum plasma concentration of 2.0 hours (1.0-3.0). The dapagliflozin dose-UGE relationship was attenuated, with larger insulin dose reductions than anticipated. Mean percent (standard error) changes in total daily insulin dose from baseline to Day 7 were - 36.86% (3.32), -39.13% (2.68) and - 4.97% (5.28) for dapagliflozin 5 mg and 10 mg and for placebo, respectively. No DKA was reported. AEs were consistent with the established dapagliflozin safety profile. There was no increase in hypoglycaemia. CONCLUSIONS: The PK and safety profiles of dapagliflozin in Japanese patients with T1D were consistent with previous studies, but with an unanticipated attenuation of the PD dose-response measured as UGE.

14.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(4): 829-836, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456904

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the dapagliflozin exposure-response relationship in Japanese and non-Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and investigate if a dose adjustment is required in Japanese patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from two clinical studies were used to develop a non-linear mixed effects model describing the relationship between dapagliflozin exposure (area under the concentration curve) and response (24-hour urinary glucose excretion [UGE]) in Japanese and non-Japanese patients with T1DM. The effects of patient-level characteristics (covariates; identified using a stepwise procedure) on response was also assessed. Simulations were performed using median-normalized covariate values. RESULTS: Data from 84 patients were included. Average self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) at day 7, change from baseline in total insulin dose at day 7, and baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) all had a significant effect on 24-hours UGE, with SMBG being the most influential. Dapagliflozin systemic exposure for matching doses and baseline eGFR was similar between Japanese and non-Japanese patients; however, higher SMBG and a greater reduction in total insulin dose was observed in the Japanese population. When the significant covariates were included, the model fit the data well for both populations, and accurately predicted exposure-response in the Japanese and non-Japanese populations, in agreement with the observed data. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in dapagliflozin exposure-response in Japanese and non-Japanese patients with T1DM once differences in renal function, glycaemic control and insulin dose reductions between studies were considered. Therefore, no dose adjustment is recommended in Japanese patients with T1DM.

15.
Diabetes Care ; 42(2): 318-326, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523029

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) empagliflozin and canagliflozin reduce the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), all-cause mortality (ACM), and renal events in cardiovascular outcomes trials, with observational real-world evidence suggesting class effect benefits that include dapagliflozin. We examined the placebo arm of the Exenatide Study of Cardiovascular Event Lowering (EXSCEL) to determine whether the effects of drop-in open-label dapagliflozin on MACE, ACM, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were consistent with the SGLT2i class as a whole. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: SGLT2i drop-in therapy occurred in 10.6% of EXSCEL participants, with 5.2% taking dapagliflozin. Propensity-matched cohorts of SGLT2i users and nonusers (n = 709 per group) were generated on the basis of their characteristics before open-label SGLT2i drop-in or at baseline for participants taking SGLT2i at enrollment and an equivalent study visit for non-SGLT2i users. Time to first adjudicated MACE and ACM was analyzed using Cox regression. eGFR slopes were compared between matched cohorts using a mixed-model repeated-measures analysis. RESULTS: In adjusted analyses, SGLT2i users (compared with nonusers) had a numerically lower risk of MACE (adjusted hazard ratio 0.79 [95% CI 0.49-1.28]), as did dapagliflozin users (0.55 [0.26-1.15]). SGLT2i users had a significantly lower ACM risk (0.51 [0.27-0.95]; dapagliflozin: 0.66 [0.25-1.72]). Compared with nonusers, eGFR slope was significantly better for SGLT2i users overall (+1.78 [95% CI 0.87-2.69] mL/min/1.73 m2 per year) and for dapagliflozin users (+2.28 [1.01-3.54] mL/min/1.73 m2 per year). CONCLUSIONS: This post hoc analysis of the placebo arm of EXSCEL supports a beneficial class effect for all SGLT2i, including dapagliflozin, for reduced ACM and less eGFR decline.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Angiopatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Canagliflozina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 315(5): F1295-F1306, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019930

RESUMO

The mechanisms of cardiovascular and renal protection observed in clinical trials of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors (SGLT2i) are incompletely understood and likely multifactorial, including natriuretic, diuretic, and antihypertensive effects, glomerular pressure reduction, and lowering of plasma and interstitial fluid volume. To quantitatively evaluate the contribution of proposed SGLT2i mechanisms of action on changes in renal hemodynamics and volume status, we coupled a mathematical model of renal function and volume homeostasis with clinical data in healthy subjects administered 10 mg of dapagliflozin once daily. The minimum set of mechanisms necessary to reproduce observed clinical responses (urinary sodium and water excretion, serum creatinine and sodium) was determined, and important unobserved physiological variables (glomerular pressure, blood and interstitial fluid volume) were then simulated. We further simulated the response to SGLT2i in diabetic virtual patients with and without renal impairment. Multiple mechanisms were required to explain the observed response: 1) direct inhibition of sodium and glucose reabsorption through SGLT2, 2) SGLT2-driven inhibition of Na+/H+ exchanger 3 sodium reabsorption, and 3) osmotic diuresis coupled with peripheral sodium storage. The model also showed that the consequences of these mechanisms include lowering of glomerular pressure, reduction of blood and interstitial fluid volume, and mild blood pressure reduction, in agreement with clinical observations. The simulations suggest that these effects are more significant in diabetic patients than healthy subjects and that while glucose excretion may diminish with renal impairment, improvements in glomerular pressure and blood volume are not diminished at lower glomerular filtration rate, suggesting that cardiorenal benefits of SGLT2i may be sustained in renally impaired patients.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Simulação por Computador , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Diurese/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Reabsorção Renal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportador 1 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 20(8): 2034-2038, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663628

RESUMO

This study aimed to quantify the effect of the immediate release (IR) of exenatide, a short-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), on gastric emptying rate (GER) and the glucose rate of appearance (GluRA), and evaluate the influence of drug characteristics and food-related factors on postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) stabilization under GLP-1RA treatment. A quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) approach was used, and the proposed model was based on data from published sources including: (1) GLP-1 and exenatide plasma concentration-time profiles; (2) GER estimates under placebo, GLP-1 or exenatide IR dosing; and (3) GluRA measurements upon food intake. According to the model's predictions, the recommended twice-daily 5- and 10-µg exenatide IR treatment is associated with GluRA flattening after morning and evening meals (48%-49%), whereas the midday GluRA peak is affected to a lesser degree (5%-30%) due to lower plasma drug concentrations. This effect was dose-dependent and influenced by food carbohydrate content, but not by the lag time between exenatide injection and meal ingestion. Hence, GER inhibition by exenatide IR represents an important additional mechanism of its effect on PPG.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Exenatida/uso terapêutico , Esvaziamento Gástrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Incretinas/uso terapêutico , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Biológicos , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Exenatida/administração & dosagem , Exenatida/sangue , Exenatida/farmacocinética , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/sangue , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Incretinas/administração & dosagem , Incretinas/sangue , Incretinas/farmacocinética , Período Pós-Prandial , Biologia de Sistemas
18.
Clin Ther ; 40(4): 550-561.e3, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29548719

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Fixed-combination drug products (FCDPs) combining dapagliflozin and metformin extended release (XR) may provide patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with an alternative antihyperglycemic treatment, which could improve adherence by reducing tablet burden. This study evaluated the bioequivalence of dapagliflozin/metformin XR FCDP versus the co-administration of the individual monotherapy tablets currently available for use in the Russian Federation. METHODS: Healthy subjects aged 18 to 45 years were enrolled in this randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study, conducted in a single Russian center. Pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC0-t, Cmax, and Cmax/AUC0-t) were used to assess bioequivalence of dapagliflozin/metformin XR (10/1000 mg) FCDP to the individual component tablets (dapagliflozin [10 mg] plus metformin XR [2 × 500 mg]) under standard fed conditions. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. FINDINGS: Forty healthy subjects were included (47.5% male; mean age, 30 years; and mean body mass index, 24.2 kg/m2). Dapagliflozin and metformin XR in the FCDP were bioequivalent to the individual component tablets marketed in the Russian Federation, with the 90% CIs of the geometric least-squares mean ratios for all key pharmacokinetic parameters being contained within the 80% to 125% bioequivalence limits. Both FCDP and the individual component formulations were well tolerated, with no serious adverse events. IMPLICATIONS: Bioequivalence of dapagliflozin/metformin XR FCDP and the individual components was established without any new safety concerns, presenting a safe alternative for patients currently receiving regimens including each component individually. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02722239.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/administração & dosagem , Glucosídeos/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacocinética , Estudos Cross-Over , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Glucosídeos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Masculino , Metformina/farmacocinética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Federação Russa , Comprimidos , Equivalência Terapêutica , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(4)2018 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29440005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dapagliflozin inhibits the sodium-glucose-linked transporter 2 in the renal proximal tubule, thereby promoting glycosuria to reduce hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Because these patients may require loop diuretics, and sodium-glucose-linked transporter 2 inhibition causes an osmotic diuresis, we evaluated the diuretic interaction between dapagliflozin and bumetanide. METHODS AND RESULTS: Healthy subjects (n=42) receiving a fixed diet with ≈110 mmol·d-1 of Na+ were randomized to bumetanide (1 mg·d-1), dapagliflozin (10 mg·d-1), or both for 7 days, followed by 7 days of both. There were no meaningful pharmacokinetic interactions. Na+ excretion increased modestly with the first dose of dapagliflozin (22±6 mmol·d-1; P<0.005) but by more (P<0.005) with the first dose of bumetanide (74±7 mmol·d-1; P<0.005), which was not significantly different from both diuretics together (80±5 mmol·d-1; P<0.005). However, Na+ excretion with dapagliflozin was 190% greater (P<0.005) when added after 1 week of bumetanide (64±6 mmol·d-1), and Na+ excretion with bumetanide was 36% greater (P<0.005) when added after 1 week of dapagliflozin (101±8 mmol·d-1). Serum urate was increased 4% by bumetanide but reduced 40% by dapagliflozin or 20% by combined therapy (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: First-dose Na+ excretion with bumetanide and dapagliflozin is not additive, but the weekly administration of one diuretic enhances the initial Na+ excretion with the other, thereby demonstrating mutual adaptive natriuretic synergy. Combined therapy reverses bumetanide-induced hyperuricemia. This requires further study in diabetic patients with hyperglycemia who have enhanced glycosuria and natriuresis with dapagliflozin. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00930865.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/administração & dosagem , Bumetanida/administração & dosagem , Glucosídeos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio e Potássio/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacocinética , Bumetanida/efeitos adversos , Bumetanida/farmacocinética , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Glucosídeos/farmacocinética , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/sangue , Hiperuricemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperuricemia/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Natriurese/efeitos dos fármacos , Eliminação Renal/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição de Risco , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio e Potássio/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio e Potássio/farmacocinética , Sódio na Dieta/urina , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacocinética , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto Jovem
20.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 20(3): 479-487, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024278

RESUMO

The effect of a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) in reducing heart failure hospitalization in the EMPA-REG OUTCOMES trial has raised the possibility of using these agents to treat established heart failure. We hypothesize that osmotic diuresis induced by SGLT2 inhibition, a distinctly different diuretic mechanism than that of other diuretic classes, results in greater electrolyte-free water clearance and, ultimately, in greater fluid clearance from the interstitial fluid (IF) space than from the circulation, potentially resulting in congestion relief with minimal impact on blood volume, arterial filling and organ perfusion. We utilize a mathematical model to illustrate that electrolyte-free water clearance results in a greater reduction in IF volume compared to blood volume, and that this difference may be mediated by peripheral sequestration of osmotically inactive sodium. By coupling the model with data on plasma and urinary sodium and water in healthy subjects who received either the SGLT2i dapagliflozin or loop diuretic bumetanide, we predict that dapagliflozin produces a 2-fold greater reduction in IF volume compared to blood volume, while the reduction in IF volume with bumetanide is only 78% of the reduction in blood volume. Heart failure is characterized by excess fluid accumulation, in both the vascular compartment and interstitial space, yet many heart failure patients have arterial underfilling because of low cardiac output, which may be aggravated by conventional diuretic treatment. Thus, we hypothesize that, by reducing IF volume to a greater extent than blood volume, SGLT2 inhibitors might provide better control of congestion without reducing arterial filling and perfusion.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Bumetanida/farmacologia , Diuréticos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia , Adulto , Compostos Benzidrílicos/administração & dosagem , Volume Sanguíneo/efeitos dos fármacos , Bumetanida/administração & dosagem , Diurese/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Glucosídeos/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/urina , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Sódio/urina , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/administração & dosagem , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
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