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1.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(2): 242-253, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are multipotent cells giving rise to both myeloid and lymphoid cell lineages. We reasoned that the aberrancies of immune cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) could be traced back to HSPCs. METHODS: A global gene expression map of bone marrow (BM)-derived HSPCs was completed by RNA sequencing followed by pathway and enrichment analysis. The cell cycle status and apoptosis status of HSPCs were assessed by flow cytometry, while DNA damage was assessed via immunofluorescence. RESULTS: Transcriptomic analysis of Lin-Sca-1+c-Kit+ haematopoietic progenitors from diseased lupus mice demonstrated a strong myeloid signature with expanded frequencies of common myeloid progenitors (CMPs)-but not of common lymphoid progenitors-reminiscent of a 'trained immunity' signature. CMP profiling revealed an intense transcriptome reprogramming with suppression of granulocytic regulators indicative of a differentiation arrest with downregulation trend of major regulators such as Cebpe, Cebpd and Csf3r, and disturbed myelopoiesis. Despite the differentiation arrest, frequencies of BM neutrophils were markedly increased in diseased mice, suggesting an alternative granulopoiesis pathway. In patients with SLE with severe disease, haematopoietic progenitor cells (CD34+) demonstrated enhanced proliferation, cell differentiation and transcriptional activation of cytokines and chemokines that drive differentiation towards myelopoiesis, thus mirroring the murine data. CONCLUSIONS: Aberrancies of immune cells in SLE can be traced back to the BM HSPCs. Priming of HSPCs and aberrant regulation of myelopoiesis may contribute to inflammation and risk of flare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: 4948/19-07-2016.

2.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(2): 232-241, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Classification criteria are biased towards classifying long-standing disease. We compared the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR)-2019, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC)-2012 and ACR-1997 criteria in an early (median 48 months) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cohort. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with SLE (n=690) or control diseases (n=401). Sensitivity, specificity of the criteria and time-to-classification were calculated. Modified classification algorithms were derived from a random 80% and validated in the remaining 20% of the dataset running multiple iterations. RESULTS: At last assessment, sensitivities of ACR-1997, SLICC-2012 and EULAR/ACR-2019 criteria were 85.7%, 91.3% and 88.6%, with specificities 93.0%, 93.8% and 97.3%, respectively. Both SLICC and EULAR/ACR enabled earlier classification. Only 76.7% of patients with SLE met all three criteria suggesting non-overlapping groups. Notably, unclassified patients had high prevalence of British Isles Lupus Assessment Group moderate/severe manifestations (43.3%-60%) and SLICC/ACR organ damage (30%-50%). At diagnosis, criteria missed 25.6%-30.5% of patients. Modification of EULAR/ACR and SLICC algorithms to include hypocomplementaemia and/or positive anti-phospholipid antibodies as alternative entry criterion, and/or allow classification with fewer clinical criteria from multiple organs, increased their sensitivity at diagnosis (median 82.0% and 86.2%) and overall (93.7% and 97.1%) with modest decreases in specificity. Importantly, patients who were still missed by the modified criteria had lower incidence of major organ involvement, use of immunosuppressive/biological therapies and organ damage. CONCLUSIONS: The SLICC and EULAR/ACR are more sensitive than the ACR and the EULAR/ACR criteria have superior specificity in early SLE, although patients with significant disease can be missed. Combination and/or modification of the classification algorithms may enhance their sensitivity, allowing earlier classification and treatment of more patients with high disease burden.

3.
Nat Immunol ; 21(1): 75-85, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844326

RESUMO

Regulatory T (Treg) cells accumulate into tumors, hindering the success of cancer immunotherapy. Yet, therapeutic targeting of Treg cells shows limited efficacy or leads to autoimmunity. The molecular mechanisms that guide Treg cell stability in tumors remain elusive. In the present study, we identify a cell-intrinsic role of the alarmin interleukin (IL)-33 in the functional stability of Treg cells. Specifically, IL-33-deficient Treg cells demonstrated attenuated suppressive properties in vivo and facilitated tumor regression in a suppression of tumorigenicity 2 receptor (ST2) (IL-33 receptor)-independent fashion. On activation, Il33-/- Treg cells exhibited epigenetic re-programming with increased chromatin accessibility of the Ifng locus, leading to elevated interferon (IFN)-γ production in a nuclear factor (NF)-κB-T-bet-dependent manner. IFN-γ was essential for Treg cell defective function because its ablation restored Il33-/- Treg cell-suppressive properties. Importantly, genetic ablation of Il33 potentiated the therapeutic effect of immunotherapy. Our findings reveal a new and therapeutically important intrinsic role of IL-33 in Treg cell stability in cancer.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226287, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830144

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a highly prevalent autoimmune disease associated with joint inflammation and destruction. Treatment for RA, especially with biologic agents (biologics), improves patient functionality and quality of life and averts costly complications or disease progression. Cost of RA pharmaceutical treatment has rarely been reported on the basis of real-world, big data. This study reports on the real-world, big data RA pharmaceutical treatment cost in Greece. METHODS: The Business Intelligence database of the National Organization for Healthcare Services Provision (EOPYY) was used to identify and provide analytics on patients on treatment for RA. EOPYY is responsible for funding healthcare and pharmaceutical care services for approximately 95% of the population in the country. ICD-10 codes were applied to identify patients with RA and at least one reimbursed prescription between 1 June 2014 and 31 May 2015. RESULTS: 35,873 unique patients were recorded as undergoing treatment for RA. Total reimbursed treatment cost for the study period was €81,206,363.70, of which €52,732,142.18 (64.94%) was for treatment with biologics. Of that cost, €39,724,489.71 (48.32%) accounted for treatment with anti-TNFs and/or methotrexate/corticosteroids. CONCLUSION: Real world, big data analysis confirms that the major driver of RA pharmaceutical cost is, as expected, the cost of treatment with biologics. It is critical to be able to match this cost to the treatment outcome it produces to ensure an optimal, no-waste, evidence-based allocation of healthcare resources to need.

5.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 31(6): 669-677, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415031

RESUMO

PROPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is an emerging frontier in lupus care encompassing a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Its pathogenesis remains poorly understood because of the complexity of pathophysiologic mechanisms involved and limited access to tissue. We highlight recent advances in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric lupus. RECENT FINDINGS: Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) facilitating entrance of neurotoxic antibodies into the central nervous system (CNS), neuroinflammation and cerebral ischemia are the key mechanisms. Disruption of the BBB may occur not only at the traditional BBB, but also at the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Certain autoantibodies, such as anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, antiribosomal P and antiphospholipid antibodies may cause injury in subsets of patients with diffuse neuropsychiatric disease. Activation of microglia via autoantibodies, interferon-a or other immune reactants, may amplify the inflammatory response and promote neuronal damage. New inflammatory pathways, such as TWEAK/Fn14, Bruton's tyrosine kinase, Nogo-a and ACE may represent additional potential targets of therapy. Novel neuroimaging techniques suggest alterations in brain perfusion and metabolism, increased concentration of neurometabolites, indicative of glial activation, vasculopathy and neuronal impairment. SUMMARY: NPSLE encompasses a diverse phenotype with distinct pathogenic mechanisms, which could be targeted by novel therapies or repositioning of existing drugs.

6.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(9): 1151-1159, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop new classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) jointly supported by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: This international initiative had four phases. (1) Evaluation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) as an entry criterion through systematic review and meta-regression of the literature and criteria generation through an international Delphi exercise, an early patient cohort and a patient survey. (2) Criteria reduction by Delphi and nominal group technique exercises. (3) Criteria definition and weighting based on criterion performance and on results of a multi-criteria decision analysis. (4) Refinement of weights and threshold scores in a new derivation cohort of 1001 subjects and validation compared with previous criteria in a new validation cohort of 1270 subjects. RESULTS: The 2019 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for SLE include positive ANA at least once as obligatory entry criterion; followed by additive weighted criteria grouped in seven clinical (constitutional, haematological, neuropsychiatric, mucocutaneous, serosal, musculoskeletal, renal) and three immunological (antiphospholipid antibodies, complement proteins, SLE-specific antibodies) domains, and weighted from 2 to 10. Patients accumulating ≥10 points are classified. In the validation cohort, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 96.1% and specificity of 93.4%, compared with 82.8% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity of the ACR 1997 and 96.7% sensitivity and 83.7% specificity of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics 2012 criteria. CONCLUSION: These new classification criteria were developed using rigorous methodology with multidisciplinary and international input, and have excellent sensitivity and specificity. Use of ANA entry criterion, hierarchically clustered and weighted criteria reflect current thinking about SLE and provide an improved foundation for SLE research.

7.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(9): 1400-1412, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop new classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) jointly supported by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: This international initiative had four phases. 1) Evaluation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) as an entry criterion through systematic review and meta-regression of the literature and criteria generation through an international Delphi exercise, an early patient cohort, and a patient survey. 2) Criteria reduction by Delphi and nominal group technique exercises. 3) Criteria definition and weighting based on criterion performance and on results of a multi-criteria decision analysis. 4) Refinement of weights and threshold scores in a new derivation cohort of 1,001 subjects and validation compared with previous criteria in a new validation cohort of 1,270 subjects. RESULTS: The 2019 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for SLE include positive ANA at least once as obligatory entry criterion; followed by additive weighted criteria grouped in 7 clinical (constitutional, hematologic, neuropsychiatric, mucocutaneous, serosal, musculoskeletal, renal) and 3 immunologic (antiphospholipid antibodies, complement proteins, SLE-specific antibodies) domains, and weighted from 2 to 10. Patients accumulating ≥10 points are classified. In the validation cohort, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 96.1% and specificity of 93.4%, compared with 82.8% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity of the ACR 1997 and 96.7% sensitivity and 83.7% specificity of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics 2012 criteria. CONCLUSION: These new classification criteria were developed using rigorous methodology with multidisciplinary and international input, and have excellent sensitivity and specificity. Use of ANA entry criterion, hierarchically clustered, and weighted criteria reflects current thinking about SLE and provides an improved foundation for SLE research.

8.
Cells ; 8(8)2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443172

RESUMO

Four Janus kinases (JAKs) (JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, TYK2) and seven signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) (STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT4, STAT5A, STAT5B, STAT6) mediate the signal transduction of more than 50 cytokines and growth factors in many different cell types. Located intracellularly and downstream of cytokine receptors, JAKs integrate and balance the actions of various signaling pathways. With distinct panels of STAT-sensitive genes in different tissues, this highly heterogeneous system has broad in vivo functions playing a crucial role in the immune system. Thus, the JAK/STAT pathway is critical for resisting infection, maintaining immune tolerance, and enforcing barrier functions and immune surveillance against cancer. Breakdowns of this system and/or increased signal transduction may lead to autoimmunity and other diseases. Accordingly, the recent development and approval of the first small synthetic molecules targeting JAK molecules have opened new therapeutic avenues of potentially broad therapeutic relevance. Extensive data are now available regarding the JAK/STAT pathway in rheumatoid arthritis. Dysregulation of the cytokines is also a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and targeting the JAK/STAT proteins allows simultaneous suppression of multiple cytokines. Evidence from in vitro studies and animal models supports a pivotal role also in the pathogenesis of cutaneous lupus and SLE. This has important therapeutic implications, given the current paucity of targeted therapies especially in the latter. Herein, we summarize the currently available literature in experimental SLE, which has led to the recent promising Phase II clinical trial of a JAK inhibitor.

13.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(8): 1079-1089, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167757

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) diagnosis and treatment remain empirical and the molecular basis for its heterogeneity elusive. We explored the genomic basis for disease susceptibility and severity. METHODS: mRNA sequencing and genotyping in blood from 142 patients with SLE and 58 healthy volunteers. Abundances of cell types were assessed by CIBERSORT and cell-specific effects by interaction terms in linear models. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were used to train classifiers (linear discriminant analysis) of SLE versus healthy individuals in 80% of the dataset and were validated in the remaining 20% running 1000 iterations. Transcriptome/genotypes were integrated by expression-quantitative trail loci (eQTL) analysis; tissue-specific genetic causality was assessed by regulatory trait concordance (RTC). RESULTS: SLE has a 'susceptibility signature' present in patients in clinical remission, an 'activity signature' linked to genes that regulate immune cell metabolism, protein synthesis and proliferation, and a 'severity signature' best illustrated in active nephritis, enriched in druggable granulocyte and plasmablast/plasma-cell pathways. Patients with SLE have also perturbed mRNA splicing enriched in immune system and interferon signalling genes. A novel transcriptome index distinguished active versus inactive disease-but not low disease activity-and correlated with disease severity. DEGs discriminate SLE versus healthy individuals with median sensitivity 86% and specificity 92% suggesting a potential use in diagnostics. Combined eQTL analysis from the Genotype Tissue Expression (GTEx) project and SLE-associated genetic polymorphisms demonstrates that susceptibility variants may regulate gene expression in the blood but also in other tissues. CONCLUSION: Specific gene networks confer susceptibility to SLE, activity and severity, and may facilitate personalised care.

14.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(8): 751-760, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181324

RESUMO

Neutrophils derive from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with systemic inflammation driving their activation and differentiation to myeloid progenitors to ensure enhanced myelopoiesis. Epigenetic reprograming and re-education of these HSCs produces neutrophils primed towards elimination of pathogens and increased inflammatory response. Neutrophils -an important component of acute inflammation- are not present in chronic inflammatory tissues leading to the false assumption that they may not be as important for the latter. Activated neutrophils may release Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) during a distinct form of cell death, named NETosis; NETs are rich in bioactive molecules that promote thrombosis (including atherothrombosis), inflammation and fibrosis. Thus, although neutrophils may not be present in chronic inflammatory lesions, their remnants may amplify the inflammatory response beyond their short life-span in the tissues. Herein, we review current evidence supporting a role of neutrophils and NETosis in tissue injury and dysfunction in systemic autoimmunity using as disease paradigms Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and the ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV). We also discuss the mechanisms involved and their potential as targets for novel therapy and drug repositioning.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Animais , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/patologia , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/terapia , Morte Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Fibrose , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/terapia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/terapia , Mielopoese , Neutrófilos/patologia
16.
Dermatol Ther ; 32(5): e13006, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228319

RESUMO

Several clinical studies demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the interleukin-17 inhibitor secukinumab in the systemic treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis, as well as psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in adults, whereas real-world data is limited. A single-center clinical study was performed to evaluate in real-world practice the efficacy of secukinumab up to Week 104 of treatment in moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis, including scalp and palmoplantar involvement, according to Physician Global Assessment (PGA), PASI75/90/100 and scalp, and palmoplantar PGA. Drug survival, the safety profile of secukinumab, and patient's quality of life were also assessed during a 2-year observation period. Out of 83 patients included, 56.3% were biologic-naïve, and 94% had scalp, 25.3% palmoplantar, and 43.9% joint involvement. At Week 16, PASI75/PASI90/PASI100 were observed in 83.8/70.0/46.3%, respectively. Scalp and palmoplantar PGA were rapidly improved, with 98.7 and 95.5%, respectively, reaching clear/almost clear skin at Week 16. After 104 weeks, drug survival was 74.5%. A significant improvement of the quality of life was observed. Biologic-naïve patients without coexisting PsA benefited the most. Real-world data demonstrated secukinumab efficacious in chronic plaque psoriasis, including specific locations such as scalp and palmoplantar psoriasis with a safety profile similar to that in clinical trials.

17.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 73, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No previous studies have characterized a patient's experience of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) management in Greece and unmet needs may exist despite a broad range of available treatments. Therefore, we assessed quality of life (QoL), functional ability, and healthcare resource utilization in patients with established RA and receiving treatment in a tertiary care setting in Greece. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational cohort of patients aged ≥18 years, receiving any type of treatment for RA, and followed for 12 months at 7 rheumatology referral centers across mainland Greece (NCT01001182). Patient data were collected at the initial visit and 3, 6, and 9 months. QoL was evaluated using the Euro Quality of Life-5 dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) and functional ability was evaluated using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). RESULTS: A total of 210 patients with RA were enrolled (76.7% women, mean ± standard deviation [SD] age: 59.1 ± 12.6 years, median [interquartile range] disease duration: 11.9 [5.0-16.0] years). Baseline mean ± SD EQ-5D and HAQ scores were 0.57 ± 0.32 and 0.75 ± 0.63, respectively, and remained largely unchanged throughout the study. Post-hoc comparison showed that patients receiving non-biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (non-bDMARDs) had significantly higher EQ-5D and lower HAQ-DI scores compared with those receiving biologic DMARDs. A majority of patients reported having difficulty doing housework or other duties (61.4 and 61.9%, respectively), and 55.2% reported needing external support for these tasks. Positive correlation was observed between QoL and functional ability. Hospitalization at least once during the study occurred in 9.5% of the patients, and 12.5% of these cases were due to exacerbation of RA. At baseline, 52.4% of the patients were retired, with 38.5% of retirees having retired early due to RA. Among the patients who were retired at baseline, the mean ± SD period from actual retirement to expected retirement age was 12.1 ± 8.1 years. CONCLUSION: QoL and functional ability were positively correlated in patients with long-standing RA, with a large proportion showing impairments in both. Timely, target-oriented treatment initiated as soon as possible after diagnosis may help to improve patient-reported outcomes and limit the burden of RA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01001182 . Registered 23 October 2009.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Artrite Reumatoide/psicologia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Grécia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Aposentadoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Terciária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(12): 2517-2537, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878436

RESUMO

Rheumatic diseases are immune-mediated inflammatory multisystem diseases with frequent cardiovascular manifestations including perimyocarditis, valvular disease, coronary artery disease, heart failure with or without preserved ejection fraction, pulmonary hypertension, aneurysms, and thrombosis. Echocardiography, carotid ultrasonography, cardiac computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography are valid diagnostic tools for the detection of the cardiovascular complications of the multisystem diseases that frequently determine prognosis. Furthermore, the findings of these methods may offer additive risk stratification in asymptomatic patients over the conventional risk scores used to assess cardiovascular risk in the primary prevention setting. Finally, the imaging methods offer a unique opportunity to monitor the effects of treatment on atherosclerotic lesions, coronary microcirculatory dysfunction, myocardial inflammation and fibrosis. However, studies are needed to investigate whether improvement of imaging markers by treatment or selection of treatment according to its effects on surrogate imaging markers is linked to improved prognosis.

20.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(6): 736-745, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926722

RESUMO

Our objective was to update the EULAR recommendations for the management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), based on emerging new evidence. We performed a systematic literature review (01/2007-12/2017), followed by modified Delphi method, to form questions, elicit expert opinions and reach consensus. Treatment in SLE aims at remission or low disease activity and prevention of flares. Hydroxychloroquine is recommended in all patients with lupus, at a dose not exceeding 5 mg/kg real body weight. During chronic maintenance treatment, glucocorticoids (GC) should be minimised to less than 7.5 mg/day (prednisone equivalent) and, when possible, withdrawn. Appropriate initiation of immunomodulatory agents (methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate) can expedite the tapering/discontinuation of GC. In persistently active or flaring extrarenal disease, add-on belimumab should be considered; rituximab (RTX) may be considered in organ-threatening, refractory disease. Updated specific recommendations are also provided for cutaneous, neuropsychiatric, haematological and renal disease. Patients with SLE should be assessed for their antiphospholipid antibody status, infectious and cardiovascular diseases risk profile and preventative strategies be tailored accordingly. The updated recommendations provide physicians and patients with updated consensus guidance on the management of SLE, combining evidence-base and expert-opinion.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Gerenciamento Clínico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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