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2.
Fam Cancer ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888134

RESUMO

Infantile myofibromatosis (IM), which is typically diagnosed in young children, comprises a wide clinical spectrum ranging from inconspicuous solitary soft tissue nodules to multiple disseminated tumors resulting in life-threatening complications. Familial IM follows an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and is linked to PDGFRB germline variants. Somatic PDGFRB variants were also detected in solitary and multifocal IM lesions. PDGFRB variants associated with IM constitutively activate PDGFRB kinase activity in the absence of its ligand. Germline variants have lower activating capabilities than somatic variants and, thus, require a second cis-acting hit for full receptor activation. Typically, these mutant receptors remain sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib. The SIOPE Host Genome Working Group, consisting of pediatric oncologists, clinical geneticists and scientists, met in January 2020 to discuss recommendations for genetic testing and surveillance for patients who are diagnosed with IM or have a family history of IM/PDGFRB germline variants. This report provides a brief review of the clinical manifestations and genetics of IM and summarizes our interdisciplinary recommendations.

3.
Eur J Cancer ; 139: 135-148, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992153

RESUMO

The fifth multistakeholder Paediatric Strategy Forum focussed on epigenetic modifier therapies for children and adolescents with cancer. As most mutations in paediatric malignancies influence chromatin-associated proteins or transcription and paediatric cancers are driven by developmental gene expression programs, targeting epigenetic mechanisms is predicted to be a very important therapeutic approach in paediatric cancer. The Research to Accelerate Cures and Equity (RACE) for Children Act FDARA amendments to section 505B of the FD&C Act was implemented in August 2020, and as there are many epigenetic targets on the FDA Paediatric Molecular Targets List, clinical evaluation of epigenetic modifiers in paediatric cancers should be considered early in drug development. Companies are also required to submit to the EMA paediatric investigation plans aiming to ensure that the necessary data to support the authorisation of a medicine for children in EU are of high quality and ethically researched. The specific aims of the forum were i) to identify epigenetic targets or mechanisms of action associated with epigenetic modification relevant to paediatric cancers and ii) to define the landscape for paediatric drug development of epigenetic modifier therapies. DNA methyltransferase inhibitors/hypomethylating agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors were largely excluded from discussion as the aim was to discuss those targets for which therapeutic agents are currently in early paediatric and adult development. Epigenetics is an evolving field and could be highly relevant to many paediatric cancers; the biology is multifaceted and new targets are frequently emerging. Targeting epigenetic mechanisms in paediatric malignancy has in most circumstances yet to reach or extend beyond clinical proof of concept, as many targets do not yet have available investigational drugs developed. Eight classes of medicinal products were discussed and prioritised based on the existing level of science to support early evaluation in children: inhibitors of menin, DOT1L, EZH2, EED, BET, PRMT5 and LSD1 and a retinoic acid receptor alpha agonist. Menin inhibitors should be moved rapidly into paediatric development, in view of their biological rationale, strong preclinical activity and ability to fulfil an unmet clinical need. A combination approach is critical for successful utilisation of any epigenetic modifiers (e.g. EZH2 and EED) and exploration of the optimum combination(s) should be supported by preclinical research and, where possible, molecular biomarker validation in advance of clinical translation. A follow-up multistakeholder meeting focussing on BET inhibitors will be held to define how to prioritise the multiple compounds in clinical development that could be evaluated in children with cancer. As epigenetic modifiers are relatively early in development in paediatrics, there is a clear opportunity to shape the landscape of therapies targeting the epigenome in order that efficient and optimum plans for their evaluation in children and adolescents are developed in a timely manner.

4.
Curr Opin Oncol ; 32(6): 623-630, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890024

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to give an update on histopathological, molecular and clinical features of central nervous system (CNS) 'embryonal' tumors. RECENT FINDINGS: The taxonomy of previously called 'CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumor' (CNS PNET) has been deeply modified since the discovery of specific molecular profiles for each various sub-entity of these rare, mainly pediatric, tumors. The term 'embryonal tumors' now refers to medulloblastomas, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) and other rare entities, defined by their specific histopathological features together with expression-based or methylation-based profiling; specific gene mutations or fusions characterize some tumor types. In addition, the compilation of large series of molecular data has allowed to dissecting several of these tumor types in molecular subgroups, increasing the number of tumor entities, and leading to an amazingly complex nosology of rare-to-extremely rare malignancies. This rarity precludes from having strong evidence-based therapeutic recommendations, although international efforts are conducted to define the best treatment strategies. SUMMARY: Embryonal tumors now correspond to molecularly well defined entities, which deserve further international collaborations to specify their biology and the appropriate burden of treatment, in order to minimize the long-term side-effects of treatment of these overall rare and severe diseases of childhood.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768563

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Medulloblastoma has recently been characterized as a heterogeneous disease with 4 distinct molecular subgroups: wingless (WNT), sonic hedgehog (SHH), group 3, and group 4, with a new definition of risk stratification. We report progression-free survival, overall survival, and long-term cognitive effects in children with standard-risk medulloblastoma exclusively treated with hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HFRT), reduced boost volume, and online quality control, and we explore the prognostic value of biological characteristics in this chemotherapy-naïve population. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with standard-risk medulloblastoma were enrolled in 2 successive prospective multicentric studies, MSFOP 98 and MSFOP 2007, and received exclusive HFRT (36 Gy, 1 Gy/fraction twice daily) to the craniospinal axis followed by a boost at 68 Gy restricted to the tumor bed (1.5 cm margin), with online quality assurance before treatment. Patients with MYC or MYCN amplification were not excluded at the time of the study. We report progression-free survival and overall survival in the global population, and according to molecular subgroups as per World Health Organization 2016 molecular classification, and we present cognitive evaluations based on the Wechsler scale. RESULTS: Data from 114 patients included in the MSFOP 98 trial from December 1998 to October 2001 (n = 48) and in the MSFOP 2007 from October 2008 to July 2013 (n = 66) were analyzed. With a median follow-up of 16.2 (range, 6.4-19.6) years for the MSFOP 98 cohort and 6.5 (1.6-9.6) years for the MSFOP 2007 cohort, 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival in the global population were 84% (74%-89%) and 74% (65%-81%), respectively. Molecular classification was determined for 91 patients (WNT [n = 19], SHH [n = 12], and non-WNT/non-SHH [n = 60]-including group 3 [n = 9], group 4 [n = 29], and not specified [n = 22]). Our results showed more favorable outcome for the WNT-activated subgroup and a worse prognosis for SHH-activated patients. Three patients had isolated extra-central nervous system relapse. The slope of neurocognitive decline in the global population was shallower than that observed in patients with a normofractionated regimen combined with chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: HFRT led to a 5-year survival rate similar to other treatments combined with chemotherapy, with a reduced treatment duration of only 6 weeks. We confirm the MSFOP 98 results and the prognostic value of molecular status in patients with medulloblastoma, even in the absence of chemotherapy. Intelligence quotient was more preserved in children with medulloblastoma who received exclusive HFRT and reduced local boost, and intelligence quotient decline was delayed compared with patients receiving standard regimen. HFRT may be appropriate for patients who do not consent to or are not eligible for prospective clinical trials; for patients from developing countries for whom aplasia or ileus may be difficult to manage in a context of high cost/effectiveness constraints; and for whom shortened duration of RT may be easier to implement.

7.
Nat Med ; 26(5): 712-719, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341579

RESUMO

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) typically arise in the central nervous system (CNS) of children under 3 years of age. Despite intensive multimodal therapy (surgery, chemotherapy and, if age permits, radiotherapy), median survival is 17 months1,2. We show that ATRTs robustly express B7-H3/CD276 that does not result from the inactivating mutations in SMARCB1 (refs. 3,4), which drive oncogenesis in ATRT, but requires residual SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (SWI/SNF) activity mediated by BRG1/SMARCA4. Consistent with the embryonic origin of ATRT5,6, B7-H3 is highly expressed on the prenatal, but not postnatal, brain. B7-H3.BB.z-chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells administered intracerebroventricularly or intratumorally mediate potent antitumor effects against cerebral ATRT xenografts in mice, with faster kinetics, greater potency and reduced systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines compared to CAR T cells administered intravenously. CAR T cells administered ICV also traffic from the CNS into the periphery; following clearance of ATRT xenografts, B7-H3.BB.z-CAR T cells administered intracerebroventricularly or intravenously mediate antigen-specific protection from tumor rechallenge, both in the brain and periphery. These results identify B7-H3 as a compelling therapeutic target for this largely incurable pediatric tumor and demonstrate important advantages of locoregional compared to systemic delivery of CAR T cells for the treatment of CNS malignancies.


Assuntos
Antígenos B7/imunologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Tumor Rabdoide/terapia , Teratoma/terapia , Adulto , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Feto/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Injeções Intraventriculares , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Tumor Rabdoide/imunologia , Tumor Rabdoide/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/transplante , Teratoma/imunologia , Teratoma/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
Neuro Oncol ; 22(7): 944-954, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129445

RESUMO

Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a rare, highly malignant central nervous system cancer arising in infants and younger children, historically considered to be homogeneous, monogenic, and incurable. Recent use of intensified therapies has modestly improved survival for ATRT; however, a majority of patients will still succumb to their disease. While ATRTs almost universally exhibit loss of SMARCB1 (BAF47/INI1/SNF5), recent whole genome, transcriptome, and epigenomic analyses of large cohorts reveal previously underappreciated molecular heterogeneity. These discoveries provide novel insights into how SMARCB1 loss drives oncogenesis and confer specific therapeutic vulnerabilities, raising exciting prospects for molecularly stratified treatment for patients with ATRT.

9.
Neuro Oncol ; 22(8): 1190-1202, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering that pediatric high-grade gliomas (HGGs) are biologically distinct from their adult counterparts, the objective of this study was to define the landscape of HGGs in adolescents and young adults (AYAs). METHODS: We performed a multicentric retrospective study of 112 AYAs from adult and pediatric Ile-de-France neurosurgical units, treated between 1998 and 2013 to analyze their clinicoradiological and histomolecular profiles. The inclusion criteria were age between 15 and 25 years, histopathological HGG diagnosis, available clinical data, and preoperative and follow-up MRI. MRI and tumoral samples were centrally reviewed. Immunohistochemistry and complementary molecular techniques such as targeted/next-generation sequencing, whole exome sequencing, and DNA-methylation analyses were performed to achieve an integrated diagnosis according to the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. RESULTS: Based on 80 documented AYA patients, HGGs constitute heterogeneous clinicopathological and molecular groups, with a predominant representation of pediatric subtypes (histone H3-mutants, 40%) but also adult subtypes (isocitrate dehydrogenase [IDH] mutants, 28%) characterized by the rarity of oligodendrogliomas, IDH mutants, and 1p/19q codeletion and the relative high frequency of "rare adult IDH mutations" (20%). H3G34-mutants (14%) represent the most specific subgroup in AYAs. In the H3K27-mutant subgroup, non-brainstem diffuse midline gliomas are more frequent (66.7%) than diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (23.8%), contrary to what is observed in children. We found that WHO grade has no prognostic value, but molecular subgrouping has major prognostic importance. CONCLUSIONS: HGGs in AYAs could benefit from a specific classification, driven by molecular subtyping rather than age group. Collaborative efforts are needed from pediatric and adult neuro-oncology teams to improve the management of HGGs in AYAs.

10.
Neuro Oncol ; 22(5): 613-624, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) are known to exhibit molecular and clinical heterogeneity even though SMARCB1 inactivation is the sole recurrent genetic event present in nearly all cases. Indeed, recent studies demonstrated 3 molecular subgroups of ATRTs that are genetically, epigenetically, and clinically distinct. As these studies included different numbers of tumors, various subgrouping techniques, and naming, an international working group sought to align previous findings and to reach a consensus on nomenclature and clinicopathological significance of ATRT subgroups. METHODS: We integrated various methods to perform a meta-analysis on published and unpublished DNA methylation and gene expression datasets of ATRTs and associated clinicopathological data. RESULTS: In concordance with previous studies, the analyses identified 3 main molecular subgroups of ATRTs, for which a consensus was reached to name them ATRT-TYR, ATRT-SHH, and ATRT-MYC. The ATRT-SHH subgroup exhibited further heterogeneity, segregating further into 2 subtypes associated with a predominant supratentorial (ATRT-SHH-1) or infratentorial (ATRT-SHH-2) location. For each ATRT subgroup we provide an overview of its main molecular and clinical characteristics, including SMARCB1 alterations and pathway activation. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of a common classification, characterization, and nomenclature of ATRT subgroups will facilitate future research and serve as a common ground for subgrouping patient samples and ATRT models, which will aid in refining subgroup-based therapies for ATRT patients.

11.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(1): 134-144, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atezolizumab is an inhibitor of PD-L1, which can lead to enhanced anticancer T-cell activity. We aimed to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and activity of atezolizumab in children and young adults with refractory or relapsed solid tumours, with known or expected PD-L1 expression. METHODS: iMATRIX was a multicentre, open-label, phase 1-2 trial of patients (aged <30 years) with solid tumours or lymphomas recruited from 28 hospitals in ten countries (USA, France, Italy, UK, Spain, the Netherlands, Denmark, Israel, Switzerland, and Germany). Eligible patients younger than 18 years received 15 mg/kg atezolizumab (maximum 1200 mg); patients aged 18-29 years received the adult dose (1200 mg) until disease progression or loss of clinical benefit. Co-primary endpoints were safety (assessed by incidence of adverse events) and pharmacokinetics (assessed by serum atezolizumab concentrations). Secondary endpoints included the proportion of patients achieving an objective response. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02541604. FINDINGS: Between Nov 5, 2015, and April 2, 2018, we screened 115 patients, 25 of whom did not meet the inclusion criteria. 90 patients, with a median age of 14 years (IQR 10-17), were enrolled. At the data cutoff (April 2, 2018), two patients remained on study treatment. 87 (97%) of 90 patients received at least one dose of atezolizumab at 15 mg/kg or 1200 mg and were evaluable for safety. Three patients were not treated owing to either poor clinical condition or withdrawal of consent. In the safety-evaluable population (n=87), the most common adverse events were pyrexia (36 [41%] patients) and fatigue (31 [36%]). The most common grade 3-4 adverse event was anaemia (19 [22%] patients). The most commonly reported serious adverse events were in the categories of infections and infestations; pyrexia was the only serious adverse event reported in more than two patients. 57 (66%) patients had at least one treatment-related adverse event (grade 1-4); fatigue was the most common treatment-related adverse event (17 patients [20%]). There were no fatal adverse events. Mean serum concentrations of atezolizumab were overlapping and comparable between children receiving 15 mg/kg and young adults receiving 1200 mg of atezolizumab every 3 weeks. Serum concentrations of atezolizumab were above the target exposure level in all patients. At 6 months, four patients (5%) achieved an objective response (all partial responses). INTERPRETATION: Although response to atezolizumab was restricted, atezolizumab was well tolerated with generally comparable exposure across populations. Our findings might help to define future development strategies for immune checkpoint inhibitors either by focusing research to specific disease subpopulations that exhibit greater benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors, or by providing the means to identify therapeutic combination partners that augment T-cell infiltration and proliferation in so-called immune cold tumour microenvironments. FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche.

12.
Acta Neuropathol ; 139(2): 287-303, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677015

RESUMO

Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common pediatric glioma, arising from a single driver MAPK pathway alteration. Classified as a grade I tumor according to the 2016 WHO classification, prognosis is excellent with a 10-year survival rate > 95% after surgery. However, rare cases present with anaplastic features, including an unexpected high mitotic/proliferative index, thus posing a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Based on small histomolecular series and case reports, such tumors arising at the time of diagnosis or recurrence have been designated by many names including pilocytic astrocytoma with anaplastic features (PAAF). Recent DNA methylation-profiling studies performed mainly on adult cases have revealed that PAAF exhibit a specific methylation signature, thus constituting a distinct methylation class from typical PA [methylation class anaplastic astrocytoma with piloid features-(MC-AAP)]. However, the diagnostic and prognostic significance of MC-AAP remains to be determined in children. We performed an integrative work on the largest pediatric cohort of PAAF, defined according to strict criteria: morphology compatible with the diagnosis of PA, with or without necrosis, ≥ 4 mitoses for 2.3 mm2, and MAPK pathway alteration. We subjected 31 tumors to clinical, imaging, morphological and molecular analyses, including DNA methylation profiling. We identified only one tumor belonging to the MC-AAP (3%), the others exhibiting a methylation profile typical for PA (77%), IDH-wild-type glioblastoma (7%), and diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor (3%), while three cases (10%) did not match to a known DNA methylation class. No significant outcome differences were observed between PAAF with necrosis versus no necrosis (p = 0.07), or with 4-6 mitoses versus 7 or more mitoses (p = 0.857). Our findings argue that the diagnostic histomolecular criteria established for anaplasia in adult PA are not of diagnostic or prognostic value in a pediatric setting. Further extensive and comprehensive integrative studies are necessary to accurately define this exceptional entity in children.

13.
Neuro Oncol ; 22(1): 128-138, 2020 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medulloblastomas may occur in a predisposition context, including familial adenomatosis polyposis. Medulloblastomas related to a germline pathogenic variant of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) remain rare and poorly described. Their similarities with sporadic WNT medulloblastomas still require description. METHODS: We performed a multicentric retrospective review of 12 patients treated between 1988 and 2018 for medulloblastoma with an identified or highly suspected (personal or familial history) APC germline pathogenic variant. We report personal and familial history APC gene pathogenic variants whenever available: clinical and histologic characteristics of the medulloblastoma, treatments, and long-term outcome, including second tumor and late sequelae. RESULTS: Medulloblastomas associated with APC pathogenic variants are mainly classic (11/11 patients, 1 not available), nonmetastatic (10/12 patients) medulloblastomas, with nuclear immunoreactivity for ß-catenin (9/9 tested cases). Ten of 11 assessable patients are disease free with a median follow-up of 10.7 years (range, 1-28 y). Secondary tumors included desmoid tumors in 7 patients (9 tumors), 1 thyroid carcinoma, 2 pilomatricomas, 1 osteoma, 1 vertebral hemangioma, and 1 malignant triton in the radiation field, which caused the only cancer-related death in our series. CONCLUSIONS: Medulloblastomas associated with an APC pathogenic variant have an overall favorable outcome, even for metastatic tumors. Yet, long-term survival is clouded by second tumor occurrence; treatment may play some role in some of these second malignancies. Our findings raise the question of applying a de-escalation therapeutic protocol to treat patients with APC germline pathogenic variants given the excellent outcome, and reduced intensity of craniospinal irradiation may be further evaluated.

14.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(1): e28022, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Case reports have portrayed spinal cord atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (spATRT) as an aggressive form of ATRT. We conducted a retrospective European survey to collect data on clinical characteristics, molecular biology, treatment, and outcome of children with intramedullary spATRT. METHODS: Scrutinizing a French national series and the European Rhabdoid Registry database, we identified 13 patients (median age 32 months; metastatic disease at diagnosis, n = 6). Systemic postoperative chemotherapy was administered to all patients; three received intrathecal therapy and six were irradiated (craniospinal, n = 3; local, n = 3). RESULTS: Median observation time was 8 (range, 1-93) months. Progression-free and overall survival rates at 1 and (2 years) were 35.2% ± 13.9% (26.4% ± 12.9%) and 38.5% ± 13.5% (23.1% ± 11.7%). Four patients (ATRT-SHH, n = 2; ATRT-MYC, n = 1; DNA methylation subgroup not available, n = 1) achieved complete remission (CR); two of them are alive in CR 69 and 72 months from diagnosis. One patient relapsed after CR and is alive with progressive disease (PD) and one died of the disease. Three patients (ATRT-MYC, n = 2; subgroup not available, n = 1) died after 7 to 22 months due to PD after having achieved a partial remission (n = 1) or stabilization (n = 2). Five patients (ATRT-MYC, n = 2; subgroup not available, n = 3) developed early PD and died. One patient (ATRT-MYC) died of intracerebral hemorrhage prior to response evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survival is achievable in selected patients with spATRT using aggressive multimodality treatment. Larger case series and detailed molecular analyses are needed to understand differences between spATRT and their inracranial counterparts and the group of extradural malignant rhabdoid tumors.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/mortalidade , Teratoma/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , DNA Helicases/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tumor Rabdoide/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/patologia , Tumor Rabdoide/terapia , Proteína SMARCB1/genética , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/genética , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/patologia , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Teratoma/genética , Teratoma/patologia , Teratoma/terapia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
15.
Nature ; 576(7786): 274-280, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802000

RESUMO

Embryonal tumours with multilayered rosettes (ETMRs) are aggressive paediatric embryonal brain tumours with a universally poor prognosis1. Here we collected 193 primary ETMRs and 23 matched relapse samples to investigate the genomic landscape of this distinct tumour type. We found that patients with tumours in which the proposed driver C19MC2-4 was not amplified frequently had germline mutations in DICER1 or other microRNA-related aberrations such as somatic amplification of miR-17-92 (also known as MIR17HG). Whole-genome sequencing revealed that tumours had an overall low recurrence of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), but showed prevalent genomic instability caused by widespread occurrence of R-loop structures. We show that R-loop-associated chromosomal instability can be induced by the loss of DICER1 function. Comparison of primary tumours and matched relapse samples showed a strong conservation of structural variants, but low conservation of SNVs. Moreover, many newly acquired SNVs are associated with a mutational signature related to cisplatin treatment. Finally, we show that targeting R-loops with topoisomerase and PARP inhibitors might be an effective treatment strategy for this deadly disease.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/diagnóstico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Recidiva , Ribonuclease III/genética
16.
Cancer Cell ; 36(6): 597-612.e8, 2019 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708437

RESUMO

Rhabdoid tumors (RTs) are genomically simple pediatric cancers driven by the biallelic inactivation of SMARCB1, leading to SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler complex deficiency. Comprehensive evaluation of the immune infiltrates of human and mice RTs, including immunohistochemistry, bulk RNA sequencing and DNA methylation profiling studies showed a high rate of tumors infiltrated by T and myeloid cells. Single-cell RNA (scRNA) and T cell receptor sequencing highlighted the heterogeneity of these cells and revealed therapeutically targetable exhausted effector and clonally expanded tissue resident memory CD8+ T subpopulations, likely representing tumor-specific cells. Checkpoint blockade therapy in an experimental RT model induced the regression of established tumors and durable immune responses. Finally, we show that one mechanism mediating RTs immunogenicity involves SMARCB1-dependent re-expression of endogenous retroviruses and interferon-signaling activation.

17.
EMBO Mol Med ; 11(8): e9830, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328883

RESUMO

Medulloblastoma (MB) is a pediatric tumor of the cerebellum divided into four groups. Group 3 is of bad prognosis and remains poorly characterized. While the current treatment involving surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy often fails, no alternative therapy is yet available. Few recurrent genomic alterations that can be therapeutically targeted have been identified. Amplifications of receptors of the TGFß/Activin pathway occur at very low frequency in Group 3 MB. However, neither their functional relevance nor activation of the downstream signaling pathway has been studied. We showed that this pathway is activated in Group 3 MB with some samples showing a very strong activation. Beside genetic alterations, we demonstrated that an ActivinB autocrine stimulation is responsible for pathway activation in a subset of Group 3 MB characterized by high PMEPA1 levels. Importantly, Galunisertib, a kinase inhibitor of the cognate receptors currently tested in clinical trials for Glioblastoma patients, showed efficacy on orthotopically grafted MB-PDX. Our data demonstrate that the TGFß/Activin pathway is active in a subset of Group 3 MB and can be therapeutically targeted.


Assuntos
Comunicação Autócrina , Neoplasias Cerebelares/metabolismo , Subunidades beta de Inibinas/metabolismo , Meduloblastoma/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Cerebelares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cerebelares/genética , Neoplasias Cerebelares/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Subunidades beta de Inibinas/genética , Meduloblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Meduloblastoma/genética , Meduloblastoma/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos Nus , Fosforilação , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta3/genética , Carga Tumoral , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Int J Cancer ; 145(10): 2781-2791, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018240

RESUMO

In neuroblastoma (NB), genetic alterations in chromatin remodeling (CRGs) and epigenetic modifier genes (EMGs) have been described. We sought to determine their frequency and clinical impact. Whole exome (WES)/whole genome sequencing (WGS) data and targeted sequencing (TSCA®) of exonic regions of 33 CRGs/EMGs were analyzed in tumor samples from 283 NB patients, with constitutional material available for 55 patients. The frequency of CRG/EMG variations in NB cases was then compared to the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD). The sequencing revealed SNVs/small InDels or focal CNAs of CRGs/EMGs in 20% (56/283) of all cases, occurring at a somatic level in 4 (7.2%), at a germline level in 12 (22%) cases, whereas for the remaining cases, only tumor material could be analyzed. The most frequently altered genes were ATRX (5%), SMARCA4 (2.5%), MLL3 (2.5%) and ARID1B (2.5%). Double events (SNVs/small InDels/CNAs associated with LOH) were observed in SMARCA4 (n = 3), ATRX (n = 1) and PBRM1 (n = 1). Among the 60 variations, 24 (8.4%) targeted domains of functional importance for chromatin remodeling or highly conserved domains but of unknown function. Variations in SMARCA4 and ATRX occurred more frequently in the NB as compared to the gnomAD control cohort (OR = 4.49, 95%CI: 1.63-9.97, p = 0.038; OR 3.44, 95%CI: 1.46-6.91, p = 0.043, respectively). Cases with CRG/EMG variations showed a poorer overall survival compared to cases without variations. Genetic variations of CRGs/EMGs with likely functional impact were observed in 8.4% (24/283) of NB. Our case-control approach suggests a role of SMARCA4 as a player of NB oncogenesis.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Neuroblastoma/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Neuroblastoma/mortalidade , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Proteína Nuclear Ligada ao X/genética
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