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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 630096, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717159

RESUMO

Background: Distal airway metaplasia may precede honeycombing in progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease (ILD). The SCGB1A1+ bronchiolar-specific club cell may play a role in this aberrant regenerative process. Objective: To assess the presence of club cells in the small airways of patients suffering from ILD. Methods: Small airways (internal diameter <2 mm) in lung samples [surgical lung biopsy (SLB) and/or transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC)] from 14 patients suffering from ILD and 10 controls were morphologically assessed and stained for SCGB1A1. SCGB1A1 was weighted by epithelial height as a marker of airway generation (SCGB1A1/EH). Correlations between clinical, functional, and high-resolution CT (HRCT) prognostic factors and histomorphometry were assessed. Results: Small airways from samples with ILD patterns were significantly less dense in terms of SCGB1A1+ cells [0.064 (0.020-0.172)] as compared to controls' sample's small airways [0.393 (0.082-0.698), p < 0.0001]. Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) patterns most frequently contained small airways with limited or absent SCGB1A1 expression (SCGB1A1/EH <0.025): UIP (18/33; 55%) as compared with non-UIP patterns (4/31; 13%) or controls (0/29; 0%): p < 0.0001. In addition, correlations with HRCT indicated a significant negative relationship between SCGB1A1 and bronchiectasis as a feature of bronchiolization (Rho -0.63, p < 0.001) and a positive relationship with both forced vital capacity (FVC) and Hounsfield unit (HU)-distribution pattern in kurtosis (Rho 0.38 and 0.50, respectively, both p < 0.001) as markers of fibrotic changes. Conclusion: Compared with controls, the small airways of patients with ILD more often lack SCGB1A1, especially so in UIP. Low densities of SCGB1A1-marked cells correlate with bronchiectasis and fibrotic changes. Further research investigating SCGB1A1 staining as a pathological feature of the bronchiolization process is merited.

2.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722424
3.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 17, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For some patients, Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) remains an uncomfortable therapy despite the constant development of technological innovations. To date, no real life study has investigated the relationship between mask related side-effects (MRSEs) and CPAP-non-adherence (defined as < 4 h/day) or residual-excessive-sleepiness (RES, Epworth-Sleepiness-Scale (ESS) score ≥ 11) in the long-term. METHODS: The InterfaceVent-CPAP study is a prospective real-life cross-sectional study conducted in an apneic adult cohort undergoing at least 3 months of CPAP with unrestricted mask-access (34 different masks). MRSEs were evaluated using visual-analogue-scales, CPAP-data using CPAP-software, sleepiness using ESS. RESULTS: 1484 patients were included in the analysis (72.2% male, median age 67 years (IQ25-75: 60-74), initial Apnea-Hypopnea-Index (AHI) of 39 (31-56)/h, residual AHIflow was 1.9 (0.9-4) events/h), CPAP-treatment lasted 4.4 (2.0-9.7) years, CPAP-usage was 6.8 (5.5-7.8) h/day, the prevalence of CPAP-non-adherence was 8.6%, and the prevalence of RES was 16.17%. Leak-related side-effects were the most prevalent side-effects (patient-reported leaks concerned 75.4% of responders and had no correlation with CPAP-reported-leaks). Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluating explanatory-variable (demographic data, device/mask data and MRSEs) effects on variables-of-interest (CPAP-non-adherence and RES), indicated for patient-MRSEs significant associations between: (i) CPAP-non-adherence and dry-mouth (p = 0.004); (ii) RES and patient-reported leaks (p = 0.007), noisy mask (p < 0.001), dry nose (p < 0.001) and harness pain (p = 0.043). CONCLUSION: In long-term CPAP-treated patients, leak-related side-effects remain the most prevalent side-effects, but patient-reported leaks cannot be predicted by CPAP-reported-leaks. Patient-MRSEs can be independently associated with CPAP-non-adherence and RES, thus implying a complementary role for MRSE questionnaires alongside CPAP-device-reported-data for patient monitoring. Trial registration InterfaceVent is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03013283).


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/efeitos adversos , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/tendências , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Sonolência , Idoso , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/instrumentação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia
4.
Respirology ; 26(4): 298-321, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506971

RESUMO

The natural history of COPD is complex, and the disease is best understood as a syndrome resulting from numerous interacting factors throughout the life cycle with smoking being the strongest inciting feature. Unfortunately, diagnosis is often delayed with several longitudinal cohort studies shedding light on the long 'preclinical' period of COPD. It is now accepted that individuals presenting with different COPD phenotypes may experience varying natural history of their disease. This includes its inception, early stages and progression to established disease. Several scenarios regarding lung function course are possible, but it may conceptually be helpful to distinguish between individuals with normal maximally attained lung function in their early adulthood who thereafter experience faster than normal FEV1 decline, and those who may achieve a lower than normal maximally attained lung function. This may be the main mechanism behind COPD in the latter group, as the decline in FEV1 during their adult life may be normal or only slightly faster than normal. Regardless of the FEV1 trajectory, continuous smoking is strongly associated with disease progression, development of structural lung disease and poor prognosis. In developing countries, factors such as exposure to biomass and sequelae after tuberculosis may lead to a more airway-centred COPD phenotype than seen in smokers. Mechanistically, COPD is characterized by a combination of structural and inflammatory changes. It is unlikely that all patients share the same individual or combined mechanisms given the heterogeneity of resultant phenotypes. Lung explants, bronchial biopsies and other tissue studies have revealed important features. At the small airway level, progression of COPD is clinically imperceptible, and the pathological course of the disease is poorly described. Asthmatic features can further add confusion. However, the small airway epithelium is likely to represent a key focus of the disease, combining impaired subepithelial crosstalk and structural/inflammatory changes. Insufficient resolution of inflammatory processes may facilitate these changes. Pathologically, epithelial metaplasia, inversion of the goblet to ciliated cell ratio, enlargement of the submucosal glands and neutrophil and CD8-T-cell infiltration can be detected. Evidence of type 2 inflammation is gaining interest in the light of new therapeutic agents. Alarmin biology is a promising area that may permit control of inflammation and partial reversal of structural changes in COPD. Here, we review the latest work describing the development and progression of COPD with a focus on lung function trajectories, exacerbations and survival. We also review mechanisms focusing on epithelial changes associated with COPD and lack of resolution characterizing the underlying inflammatory processes.

5.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(1): 96-106, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Safety and Efficacy of Nintedanib in Systemic Sclerosis (SENSCIS) trial, nintedanib reduced the rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) in patients with systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD). Patients on stable treatment with mycophenolate for at least 6 months before randomisation could participate. The aim of this subgroup analysis was to examine the efficacy and safety of nintedanib by mycophenolate use at baseline. METHODS: The SENSCIS trial was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, in which patients with SSc-ILD were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 150 mg of oral nintedanib twice daily or placebo for at least 52 weeks. In a prespecified subgroup analysis, we analysed the primary endpoint of rate of decline in FVC over 52 weeks by mycophenolate use at baseline. In a post-hoc analysis, we analysed the proportion of patients with an absolute decrease in FVC of at least 3·3% predicted at week 52 (proposed minimal clinically important difference estimate for worsening of FVC in patients with SSc-ILD) in subgroups by mycophenolate use at baseline. Adverse events were reported in subgroups by mycophenolate use at baseline. Analyses were done in all participants who received at least one dose of study drug. We analysed the annual rate of decline in FVC using a random coefficient regression model (with random slopes and intercepts) including anti-topoisomerase I antibody status, age, height, sex, and baseline FVC as covariates and terms for baseline-by-time, treatment-by-subgroup, and treatment-by-subgroup-by-time interactions. SENSCIS is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02597933, and is now complete. FINDINGS: Between Nov 30, 2015, and Oct 31, 2017, 819 participants were screened and 576 were enrolled, randomly assigned to, and treated with nintedanib (n=288) or placebo (n=288). 139 (48%) of 288 in the nintedanib group and 140 (49%) of 288 in the placebo group were taking mycophenolate at baseline. In patients taking mycophenolate at baseline, the adjusted mean annual rate of decline in FVC was -40·2 mL per year (SE 19·8) with nintedanib and -66·5 mL per year (19·3) with placebo (difference: 26·3 mL per year [95% CI -27·9 to 80·6]). In patients not taking mycophenolate at baseline, the adjusted mean annual rate of decline in FVC was -63·9 mL per year (SE 19·3) with nintedanib and -119·3 mL per year (19·0) with placebo (difference: 55·4 mL per year [95% CI 2·3 to 108·5]). We found no heterogeneity in the effect of nintedanib versus placebo on the annual rate of decline in FVC between the subgroups by mycophenolate use (p value for interaction=0·45). In a post-hoc analysis, the proportion of patients with an absolute decrease in FVC of at least 3·3% predicted was lower with nintedanib than with placebo in both patients taking mycophenolate (40 [29%] of 138 vs 56 [40%] of 140; odds ratio 0·61 [0·37 to 1·01]) and those not taking mycophenolate (59 [40%] of 149 vs 70 [47%] of 148; 0·73 [0·46 to 1·16]) at baseline. The adverse event profile of nintedanib was similar between the subgroups. Diarrhoea, the most common adverse event, was reported in 106 (76%) of 139 patients in the nintedanib group and 48 (34%) of 140 in the placebo group among those taking mycophenolate at baseline, and in 112 (75%) of 149 in the nintedanib group and 43 (29%) of 148 in the placebo group among those not taking mycophenolate at baseline. Over the entire trial period, 19 patients died (ten in the nintedanib group and nine in the placebo group). One death in the nintedanib group was considered to be related to study drug. INTERPRETATION: Nintedanib reduced the progression of interstitial lung disease both in patients with SSc-ILD who were and were not using mycophenolate at baseline, with no heterogeneity in its treatment effect detected between the subgroups. The adverse event profile of nintedanib was similar in the subgroups by mycophenolate use. Our findings suggest that the combination of mycophenolate and nintedanib offers a safe treatment option for patients with SSc-ILD. More data are needed on the benefits of initial combination therapy versus a sequential approach to treatment of SSc-ILD. FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim.


Assuntos
Indóis/uso terapêutico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(4): 1612-1623.e9, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe asthma may be underrecognized in primary care. OBJECTIVE: Identify and quantify patients with potential severe asthma (PSA) in UK primary care, the proportion not referred, and compare primary care patients with PSA with patients with confirmed severe asthma from UK tertiary care. METHODS: This was a historical cohort study including patients from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database (aged ≥16 years, active asthma diagnosis pre-2014) and UK patients in the International Severe Asthma Registry (UK-ISAR aged ≥18 years, confirmed severe asthma in tertiary care). In the OPCRD, PSA was defined as Global INitiative for Asthma 2018 step 4 treatment and 2 or more exacerbations/y or at Global INitiative for Asthma step 5. The proportion of these patients and their referral status in the last year were quantified. Demographic and clinical characteristics of groups were compared. RESULTS: Of 207,557 Optimum Patient Care Research Database patients with asthma, 16,409 (8%) had PSA. Of these, 72% had no referral/specialist review in the past year. Referred patients with PSA tended to have greater prevalence of inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting ß2-agonist add-ons (54.1 vs 39.8%), and experienced significantly (P < .001) more exacerbations per year (median, 3 vs 2/y), worse asthma control, and worse lung function (% predicted postbronchodilator FEV1/forced vital capacity, 0.69 vs 0.72) versus nonreferred patients. Confirmed patients with severe asthma (ie, UK patients in the International Severe Asthma Registry) were younger (51 vs 65 years; P < .001), and significantly (P < .001) more likely to have uncontrolled asthma (91.4% vs 62.5%), a higher exacerbation rate (4/y [initial assessment] vs 3/y), use inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting ß2-agonist add-ons (67.7% vs 54.1%), and have nasal polyposis (24.2% vs 6.8) than referred patients with PSA. CONCLUSIONS: Large numbers of patients with PSA in the United Kingdom are underrecognized in primary care. These patients would benefit from a more systematic assessment in primary care and possible specialist referral.

7.
Allergy ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283296

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Asthma exacerbations are inflammatory events that rarely result in full hospitalization following an ER visit. Unfortunately, certain patients require prolonged support, including occasional external lung support through ECMO or ECCOR (with subsequent further exposure to other life-threatening issues), and some die. In parallel, biologics are revolutionizing severe asthma management, mostly in T2 high patients. METHODS: We extensively reviewed the current unmet needs surrounding ICU-admitted asthma exacerbations, with a focus on currently available drugs and the underlying biological processes involved. We explored whether currently available T2-targeting drugs can reasonably be seen as potential players not only for relapse prevention but also as candidate drugs for a faster resolution of such episodes. The patient's perspective was also sought. RESULTS: About 30% of asthma exacerbations admitted to the ICU do not resolve within five days. Persistent severe airway obstruction despite massive doses of corticosteroids and maximal pharmacologically-induced bronchodilation is the main cause of treatment failure. Previous ICU admission is the main risk factor for such episodes and may eventually be considered as a T2 surrogate marker. Fatal asthma cases are hallmarked by poorly steroid sensitive T2-inflammation associated with severe mucus plugging. New, fast-acting T2-targeting biologics (already used for preventing asthma exacerbations) have the potential to circumvent steroid sensitivity pathways and decrease mucus plugging. This unmet need was confirmed by patients who reported highly negative, traumatizing experiences. CONCLUSIONS: There is room for improvement in the management of ICU-admitted severe asthma episodes. Clinical trials assessing how biologics might improve ICU outcomes are direly needed.

8.
J Asthma ; : 1-9, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287605

RESUMO

This exploratory cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the associations between the chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) blood level and phenotypic characteristics of asthma. In a sample of 173 asthmatic adult patients from the Cohort of Bronchial obstruction and Asthma (63.4% women; median age 50 ± interquartile range 27.5 years; median level of CCL18 was 44.1 ± interquartile range 27.5 ng/mL), a multivariate analysis found an association between the log-transformed value of blood CCL18 and age (+0.7% [0.1; 1.3] per 1-year increase, p = 0.033), gender (-25.1% [-42; -3.2] in women, p = 0.029), and nasal polyposis (+38.1% [11.6; 70.9], p = 0.004). No association was observed between CCL18 level and the other main phenotypic characteristics of asthma. In conclusion, our exploratory study suggests that CCL18 is not an effective biomarker of allergic asthma endotype but may rather be a biomarker of tissue eosinophilia as supported by its association with nasal polyposis.

9.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206973

RESUMO

We assessed the expression of CD169, a type I interferon-inducible receptor, on monocytes (mCD169) in 53 adult patients admitted to the hospital during the COVID-19 outbreak for a suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection. mCD169 was strongly overexpressed in 30 out of 32 (93.7%) confirmed COVID-19 cases, compared to three out of 21 (14.3%) patients in whom the diagnosis of COVID-19 was finally ruled out. mCD169 was associated with the plasma interferon alpha level and thrombocytopenia. mCD169 testing may be helpful for the rapid triage of suspected COVID-19 patients during an outbreak.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156982

RESUMO

Background: The IMPACT trial demonstrated lower moderate/severe exacerbation rates with fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI) versus FF/VI or UMEC/VI in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a history of exacerbations. Since IMPACT was a global study, post-hoc analyses were conducted by geographic region to investigate potential differences in overall findings. Methods: IMPACT was a 52-week, randomized, double-blind trial. Patients with symptomatic COPD and ≥1 moderate/severe exacerbation in the prior year were randomized 2:2:1 to once-daily FF/UMEC/VI 100/62.5/25µg, FF/VI 100/25µg, or UMEC/VI 62.5/25µg. Endpoints assessed in the overall, Western Europe (WE) and North America (NA) populations included on-treatment moderate/severe exacerbation (rates and time-to-first), trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score. Safety was assessed. Results: Overall, 10,355 patients were enrolled, 3164 from WE, 2639 from NA. FF/UMEC/VI significantly reduced on-treatment moderate/severe exacerbation rates versus FF/VI and UMEC/VI in WE (rate ratios 0.82 [95%CI 0.74-0.91], P<.001 and 0.76 [0.67-0.87], P<.001) and NA (0.87 [0.77-0.97], P=.014 and 0.69 [0.60-0.80], P<.001). FF/UMEC/VI reduced time-to-first moderate/severe exacerbation and improved lung function versus FF/VI and UMEC/VI in both regions, and improved SGRQ total score in WE, but not NA. Safety profiles were generally similar between treatment groups/regions; the inhaled corticosteroid class effect of increased pneumonia incidence was seen in NA but not WE. Conclusion: Consistent with intent-to-treat results, FF/UMEC/VI reduced moderate/severe exacerbation rate and risk and improved lung function in WE and NA; however, between-regions differences were seen for SGRQ total score and pneumonia incidence.

12.
Stem Cell Res ; 49: 102037, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099111

RESUMO

Human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) are highly valuable tools to model lung development and chronic bronchial diseases. We generated a hiPSC line from a highly characterized 40-year-old healthy male nonsmoking donor. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were reprogrammed using integration-free Sendai Virus. The cell line had normal karyotype, expressed pluripotency hallmarks, and differentiated into the three primary germ layers. The reported UHOMi002-A iPSC line may be used as a control to model lung development, study human chronic bronchial diseases and drug testing.

13.
Allergy ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dupilumab blocks the shared receptor component for interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13, key drivers of type 2 inflammation. In phase 2b (NCT01854047) and phase 3 LIBERTY ASTHMA QUEST (NCT02414854), add-on dupilumab 200/300 mg every 2 weeks (q2w) reduced severe exacerbations, improved prebronchodilator (pre-BD) forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ) and quality of life measures, and it was generally well tolerated in patients with uncontrolled, persistent (phase 2b), or moderate-to-severe (phase 3) asthma. METHODS: In patients on high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) with type 2-high asthma (subgroups including baseline blood eosinophils ≥150/300 cells/µL and/or fractional exhaled nitric oxide [FeNO] ≥25 ppb), annualized severe exacerbation rates over the treatment period, changes from baseline in pre-BD FEV1 and asthma control (5-item asthma control questionnaire [ACQ-5]) were analyzed. RESULTS: In high-dose ICS type 2-high subgroups, dupilumab 200/300 mg q2w vs placebo in the phase 2b (24 weeks) and phase 3 (52 weeks) studies significantly reduced severe exacerbations by 55%-69%/57%-60% (all P<.05) and 53%-69%/48%-66% (all P < .001), respectively, except in patients with ≥ 300 eosinophils/µL in phase 2b study (24%/50% (P = .52/0.15). Across subgroups, pre-BD FEV1 improved by 0.18-0.22 L/0.19-0.24 L (all P < .05) and 0.23-0.36 L/0.15-0.25 L (all P < .01) and ACQ-5 scores were reduced by 0.46-0.55/0.47-0.85 (all P < .05) and 0.38-0.50/0.24-0.30 (all P < .05), respectively, except dupilumab 200 mg q2w in phase 2b in patients with FeNO ≥ 25 ppb (0.41; P = .09). Dupilumab was also effective in patients taking medium-dose ICS. CONCLUSION: Dupilumab significantly reduced severe exacerbations and improved lung function and asthma control in patients with type 2-high asthma on high-dose ICS at baseline.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112646

RESUMO

RATIONALE: There is a need to minimize oral corticosteroid use in patients with asthma to prevent their costly and burdensome adverse effects. Current guidelines do not provide recommendations for oral corticosteroid tapering in patients with asthma. OBJECTIVES: To develop expert consensus on oral corticosteroid tapering among international experts. METHODS: A modified Delphi method was used to develop expert consensus statements relating to oral corticosteroid use, tapering, adverse effects, adrenal insufficiency, and patient-physician shared decision-making. Initial statements proposed by experts were categorized, filtered for repetition, and presented back to experts over three ranking rounds to obtain consensus (≥70% agreement). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: 131 international experts participated in the study and 296 statements were ranked. Numerous recommendations and guidance regarding appropriate oral corticosteroid use were established. Experts agreed that oral corticosteroid tapering should be attempted in all patients with asthma receiving maintenance oral corticosteroid therapy, with personalization of tapering rhythm and speed. The importance of recognizing individual adverse effects was also established; however, a unified approach to the assessment of adrenal insufficiency was not reached. Shared decision-making was considered an important goal during the tapering process. CONCLUSION: In this Delphi study expert consensus statements were generated on oral corticosteroid use, tapering, adverse effects screening, and shared decision-making, which may be used to inform clinical practice. Areas of non-consensus were identified, highlighting uncertainty among the experts around some aspects of oral corticosteroid use in asthma, such as adrenal insufficiency, which underscores the need for further research in these domains.

15.
Chest ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary venoocclusive disease (PVOD) is an uncommon form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) predominantly characterized by pulmonary vein and capillary involvement. An association between chemotherapy, in particular mitomycin C (MMC), and PVOD has been reported. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the characteristics of MMC-induced PVOD, and what is the prognosis for patients with MMC-induced PVOD? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We report the clinical, functional, radiologic, and hemodynamic characteristics at diagnosis and outcomes of patients with PVOD from the French PH Registry after exposure to MMC. The results are expressed as the median (minimum-maximum). RESULTS: From June 2011 to December 2018, 17 incident cases of MMC-induced PVOD were identified. At diagnosis, these patients had severe clinical and functional impairment, with 12 patients having a New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class of III or IV and a 6-min walk distance of 220 (0-465) m. Right heart catheterization confirmed severe precapillary PH with a mean pulmonary artery pressure of 38 (30-52) mm Hg, a cardiac index of 2.2 (1.5-4) L/(min × m2), and pulmonary vascular resistance of 8.3 (5.1-14.5) Wood units. The diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide was markedly decreased at 31% (20%-51%) of the theoretical values associated with severe hypoxemia. MMC was withdrawn for all patients, and 15 patients received specific pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) therapies. Among these patients, mild but statistically insignificant improvements were observed in NYHA functional class (P = .10), 6-min walk distance (P = .09), and pulmonary vascular resistance (-4.7 Wood units; P = .052) at reassessment (median delay of 4.8 months). Three patients experienced pulmonary edema requiring the cessation or reduction of PAH treatment. The median overall survival was 20 months, and the 6-, 12-, and 24-month survival rates were 76%, 58%, and 18%, respectively. INTERPRETATION: PVOD after MMC treatment is a rare but life-threatening complication associated with a poor prognosis despite MMC withdrawal and PAH-specific therapy.

16.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 50(12): 1342-1351, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The anti-interleukin 13 (IL-13) monoclonal antibody lebrikizumab improves lung function in patients with moderate-to-severe uncontrolled asthma, but its effects on airway inflammation and remodelling are unknown. CLAVIER was designed to assess lebrikizumab's effect on eosinophilic inflammation and remodelling. OBJECTIVE: To report safety and efficacy results from enrolled participants with available data from CLAVIER. METHODS: We performed bronchoscopy on patients with uncontrolled asthma before and after 12 weeks of randomized double-blinded treatment with lebrikizumab (n = 31) or placebo (n = 33). The pre-specified primary end-point was relative change in airway subepithelial eosinophils per mm2 of basement membrane (cells/mm2 ). Pre-specified secondary and exploratory outcomes included change in IL-13-associated biomarkers and measures of airway remodelling. RESULTS: There was a baseline imbalance in tissue eosinophils and high variability between treatment groups. There was no discernible change in adjusted mean subepithelial eosinophils/mm2 in response to lebrikizumab (95% CI, -82.5%, 97.5%). As previously observed, FEV1 increased after lebrikizumab treatment. Moreover, subepithelial collagen thickness decreased 21.5% after lebrikizumab treatment (95% CI, -32.9%, -10.2%), and fractional exhaled nitric oxide, CCL26 and SERPINB2 mRNA expression in bronchial tissues also reduced. Lebrikizumab was well tolerated, with a safety profile consistent with other lebrikizumab asthma studies. CONCLUSIONS & CLINICAL RELEVANCE: We did not observe reduced tissue eosinophil numbers in association with lebrikizumab treatment. However, in pre-specified exploratory analyses, lebrikizumab treatment was associated with reduced degree of subepithelial fibrosis, a feature of airway remodelling, as well as improved lung function and reduced key pharmacodynamic biomarkers in bronchial tissues. These results reinforce the importance of IL-13 in airway pathobiology and suggest that neutralization of IL-13 may reduce asthmatic airway remodelling. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02099656.

17.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 243, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957983

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: To explain the excess cardiovascular mortality observed in the SERVE-HF study, it was hypothesized that the high-pressure ASV default settings used lead to inappropriate ventilation, cascading negative consequences (i.e. not only pro-arrythmogenic effects through metabolic/electrolyte abnormalities, but also lower cardiac output). The aims of this study are: i) to describe ASV-settings for long-term ASV-populations in real-life conditions; ii) to describe the associated minute-ventilations (MV) and therapeutic pressures for servo-controlled-flow versus servo-controlled-volume devices (ASV-F Philips®-devices versus ASV-V ResMed®-devices). METHODS: The OTRLASV-study is a cross-sectional, 5-centre study including patients who underwent ASV-treatment for at least 1 year. The eight participating clinicians were free to adjust ASV settings, which were compared among i) initial diagnosed sleep-disordered-breathing (SBD) groups (Obstructive-Sleep-Apnea (OSA), Central-Sleep-Apnea (CSA), Treatment-Emergent-Central-Sleep-Apnea (TECSA)), and ii) unsupervised groups (k-means clusters). To generate these clusters, baseline and follow-up variables were used (age, sex, body mass index (BMI), initial diagnosed Obstructive-Apnea-Index, initial diagnosed Central-Apnea-Index, Continuous-Positive-Airway-Pressure used before ASV treatment, presence of cardiopathy, and presence of a reduced left-ventricular-ejection-fraction (LVEF)). ASV-data were collected using the manufacturer's software for 6 months. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-seven patients (87.57% male) were analysed with a median (IQ25-75) initial Apnea-Hypopnea-Index of 50 (38-62)/h, an ASV-treatment duration of 2.88 (1.76-4.96) years, 61.58% treated with an ASV-V. SDB groups did not differ in ASV settings, MV or therapeutic pressures. In contrast, the five generated k-means clusters did (generally described as follows: (C1) male-TECSA-cardiopathy, (C2) male-mostly-CSA-cardiopathy, (C3) male-mostly-TECSA-no cardiopathy, (C4) female-mostly-elevated BMI-TECSA-cardiopathy, (C5) male-mostly-OSA-low-LVEF). Of note, the male-mostly-OSA-low-LVEF-cluster-5 had significantly lower fixed end-expiratory-airway-pressure (EPAP) settings versus C1 (p = 0.029) and C4 (p = 0.007). Auto-EPAP usage was higher in the male-mostly-TECSA-no cardiopathy-cluster-3 versus C1 (p = 0.006) and C2 (p < 0.001). MV differences between ASV-F (p = 0.002) and ASV-V (p < 0.001) were not homogenously distributed across clusters, suggesting specific cluster and ASV-algorithm interactions. Individual ASV-data suggest that the hyperventilation risk is not related to the cluster nor the ASV-monitoring type. CONCLUSIONS: Real-life ASV settings are associated with combinations of baseline and follow-up variables wherein cardiological variables remain clinically meaningful. At the patient level, a hyperventilation risk exists regardless of cluster or ASV-monitoring type, spotlighting a future role of MV-telemonitoring in the interest of patient-safety. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The OTRLASV study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT02429986 ). 1 April 2015.

18.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; : 1-13, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772582

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Long acting bronchodilators are nowadays the central treatment for management of stable COPD. Several combinations exist within the market with different formulation devices. This article reviews a recent dual combination of glycopyrronium and formoterol fumarate in an innovative pMDI-fixed dual combination, Bevespi® Aerosphere. AREAS COVERED: This article explored the literature to understand the place of this novel combination and unique delivery drug device in today's therapeutic arsenal. Clinical efficacy and safety have been evaluated through the different clinical trials published in public databases. EXPERT OPINION: Within the fixed-dose combinations, Glycopyrrolate and formoterol fumarate offer a credible unique pMDI option to be given twice a day. LABA-LAMA offers an ICS-free alternative in COPD pharmacology which represents an important treatment option given the current debate over whether or not, maintenance triple therapy combined with ICS are benefic in the long term.

19.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 212, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe asthma exerts a disproportionately heavy burden on patients and health care. Due to the heterogeneity of the severe asthma population, many patients need to be evaluated to understand the clinical features and outcomes of severe asthma in order to facilitate personalised and targeted care. The International Severe Asthma Registry (ISAR) is a multi-country registry project initiated to aid in this endeavour. METHODS: ISAR is a multi-disciplinary initiative benefitting from the combined experience of the ISAR Steering Committee (ISC; comprising 47 clinicians and researchers across 29 countries, who have a special interest and/or experience in severe asthma management or establishment and maintenance of severe asthma registries) in collaboration with scientists and experts in database management and communication. Patients (≥18 years old) receiving treatment according to the 2018 definitions of the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) Step 5 or uncontrolled on GINA Step 4 treatment will be included. Data will be collected on a core set of 95 variables identified using the Delphi method. Participating registries will agree to provide access to and share standardised anonymous patient-level data with ISAR. ISAR is a registered data source on the European Network of Centres for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance. ISAR's collaborators include Optimum Patient Care, the Respiratory Effectiveness Group (REG) and AstraZeneca. ISAR is overseen by the ISC, REG, the Anonymised Data Ethics & Protocol Transparency Committee and the ISAR operational committee, ensuring the conduct of ethical, clinically relevant research that brings value to all key stakeholders. CONCLUSIONS: ISAR aims to offer a rich source of real-life data for scientific research to understand and improve disease burden, treatment patterns and patient outcomes in severe asthma. Furthermore, the registry will provide an international platform for research collaboration in respiratory medicine, with the overarching aim of improving primary and secondary care of adults with severe asthma globally.

20.
BMC Med Ethics ; 21(1): 72, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient skepticism concerning medical innovations can have major consequences for current public health and may threaten future progress, which greatly relies on clinical research. The primary objective of this study is to determine the variables associated with patient acceptation or refusal to participate in clinical research. Specifically, we sought to evaluate if distrust in pharmaceutical companies and associated psychosocial factors could represent a recruitment bias in clinical trials and thus threaten the applicability of their results. METHODS: This prospective, multicenter survey consisted in the administration of a self-questionnaire to patients during a pulmonology consultation. The 1025 questionnaires distributed collected demographics, socio-professional and basic health literacy characteristics. Patients were asked to rank their level of trust for pharmaceutical companies and indicate their willingness to participate in different categories of research (pre or post marketing, sponsored by an academic institution or pharmaceutical company). Logistic regression was used to determine factors contributing to "trust" versus "distrust" group membership and willingness to participate in each category of research. RESULTS: One thousand patients completed the survey, corresponding to a response rate of 97.5%. Data from 838 patients were analyzed in this study. 48.3% of respondents declared that they trusted pharmaceutical companies, while 35.5% declared distrust. Being female (p = 0.042), inactive in the employment market(p = 0.007), and not-knowing the name of one's disease(p = 0.010) are factors related to declared distrust. Distrust-group membership is associated with unwillingness to participate in certain categories of trials such as pre-marketing and industry-sponsored trials. CONCLUSION: Distrust in pharmaceutical companies is associated with a specific patient profile and with refusal to participate in certain subcategories of trials. This potential recruitment bias may explain the under-representation of certain categories of patients such as women in pre-marketing drug trials.

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