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1.
J Nat Prod ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800248

RESUMO

Six new secocycloartane glycosides (1-6) were isolated from the ethanol extract of the flowers of Cordia lutea Lam. on the basis of bioassay-guided fractionation. Their structures were determined by the application of NMR and MS data analyses together with X-ray crystallographic analyses for compounds 1 and 2. Compounds 1-6 represent the first examples of 9,10-seco-29-norcycloartane glycosides. These compounds showed significant in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity, and no activity against either Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Significant activity was observed for 5 and 6 against Staphylococcus aureus. All compounds displayed weak cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 cells. The in vitro antileishmanial and antiplasmodial activities of 1-6 were also evaluated.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 112187, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476439

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Malaria is still a highly challenging public health issue in southern Lao PDR, with increasing cases of artemisinin resistance and Plasmodium vivax infections which are more complicated to treat. Traditional medicine has a long history of use in Laos, and is primarily practised by traditional village healers, who possess unique bodies of transmitted knowledge focused on herbal prescriptions, including those for the treatment of malaria. Villagers also use plants for healthcare in the home. The aim of the study is to document local fever concepts and use of herbal remedies, and examine whether they may have potential as complementary treatments against malaria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study took place in Champasak province in the far south of Laos, in primarily lowland areas. First, 35 traditional healers across the 10 districts of the province were interviewed to elicit details about knowledge and treatment of fevers. Second, a household survey was conducted in a village in a malaria-endemic area; 97 households were interviewed on fever incidence, differentiation, treatment-seeking behaviour and knowledge of plant-based remedies for fevers. Plants indicated by both healers and villagers were collected and voucher specimens deposited in the herbarium of the National University of Laos for identification. RESULTS: Malaria is a well-known pathology among the healers and villagers of lowland Champasak province; biomedical treatments are preferentially used, but traditional medicine is a popular complementary method, especially in chronic cases with additional symptoms. 30 different fever types were recorded, which were usually named symptomatically, and grouped into 12 categories. Some were described as forms of malaria, which was conceived as a dynamic, changing pathology affecting many body systems. Healers formulate treatments based on symptoms and the person's constitution, and with the intention of creating specific pharmacological actions associated with temperature or flavours. 11 of the healers gave prescriptions for malaria (27 in total), including 47 identified plant species. The most-used plants (4 or more use-reports) were also the most cited in the literature for use against malaria, demonstrating a correspondence between Lao healers and other traditional medical systems. Furthermore, some of these species show promising results for future research, especially Amorphophallus paeniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson and Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G. Don. CONCLUSION: Traditional healers are important actors in the treatment of malaria in southern Laos, and herbal remedies should be evaluated further by the use of reverse treatment outcome trials, especially those which may be of use as complementary remedies in treating P. vivax. Initiatives on knowledge transmission, medicinal plant conservation and healthcare integration are also urgently needed.

3.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 27, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Lao PDR, the Hmong ethnic group has extensive knowledge about the use of medicinal plants. However, despite the importance of the Hmong pharmacopeia as a primary health care resource, no study has been undertaken to thoroughly document medicinal plant knowledge and its transmission. Objectives of this study are (i) to describe and characterize Hmong pharmacopeia, and (ii) to understand how medicinal plant knowledge is transmitted and spread among Hmong in Lao PDR, in order to assess whether this knowledge base is under threat. METHODS: In order to describe Hmong pharmacopeia, a total of 14 interlocutors were interviewed in three provinces (Bokeo, Xieng Khouang, and Vientiane), using "walk in the wood" methodology. To gain insight about knowledge transmission, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 people. Twenty of them were herbalists. Data analysis was performed using univariate analysis for the description of the pharmacopeia. Medicinal plant knowledge consistency was assessed through use and plant name overlapping. Answers to the semi-structured interview on knowledge transmission were analyzed qualitatively. RESULTS: Three hundred thirty-three different medicinal species were collected. The majority of uses attributed to plants were gastrointestinal conditions (22% of total use reports), gynecological conditions and sexually transmitted disease (12%), skin affections (8%), kidney and bladder problems (5%), physical traumas (5%), and aphrodisiac (or male tonics; 5%). Use convergences are more marked in the gynecological sphere, but there is a strong heterogeneity in practices and knowledge. Medicinal plant knowledge transmission is oral, gained from direct experience since childhood, matrilineal, and kept strictly within the family lineage. Apparent limited consensus on uses might stem from the method of knowledge transmission and to the economic value given to medicinal plants. DISCUSSION: Use pattern of species from the Hmong pharmacopeia does not appear to be strikingly different from the national Lao pharmacopeia. Differences may lie in the methods and reasons for knowledge transmission. It can be proposed that the economic value given to plants helps in keeping the knowledge alive, and encourages its transmission. CONCLUSION: Hmong traditional medicine is constantly evolving in a dynamic process and aims to respond to health problems faced by the local population. Herbalists appear as health fully fledged actors and should be recognized and valued as such.

4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 234: 119-153, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610931

RESUMO

RELEVANCE: More than 70 million people suffer epilepsy worldwide. Low availability of anti-epileptic drugs, side-effects and drug-resistant epilepsy affect the quality of life of persons with epilepsy in countries with a poorly developed health system. Herbal medicine is frequently used for this neurological condition. OBJECTIVES: The main objective was to provide a detailed analysis of Herbal Medicine used for neurological conditions related with epilepsy in Asia, Africa and Latin America. More broadly, this study aims to highlight species with assessed efficacy (cross-cultural use, pharmacological effects on models of epileptic seizures) and safety (toxicological data in laboratory) information, in order to point out species of interest for further studies. A critical assessment of models used in pharmacological evaluations was done. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The systematic search for Herbal Medicine treatments for epilepsy was performed considering all the articles published until February 2017 through three scientific databases. It was made with MeSH terms and free text defining the epilepsy seizures and plant species. We included studies carried out in Asia, Africa and Latin America. All articles reporting the use of Herbal Medicine to treat epilepsy seizures and/or their pharmacological evaluation were retained for further analysis. RESULTS: The search yielded 1886 articles, from 30 countries. Hundred and six articles published between 1982 and 2017 were included, corresponding to a total of 497 use reports for 351 plant species belonging to 106 families. Three hundred and seventy seven use reports corresponding to 264 species in ethnopharmacological surveys and 120 evaluation reports corresponding to 107 species were noted. Twenty-nine reports, for 29 species, combined both ethnopharmacological and pharmacological evaluation. Fifty eight studies originated from Africa, 35 studies from Asia and 18 from Latin America. Highest use report was noted for rhizomes of Acorus calamus L. (12 use report in 1 country) and leaves of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (8 use report in 2 countries). Therefore these species display the highest use convergence. Regarding pharmacological evaluation most studied species were: Leonotis leonurus (L.) R.Br. (4 evaluation reports in 1 country), Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Miq. ex Havil. (3 evaluation reports in 2 countries) and Calotropis gigantea (L.) Dryand. (3 evaluation reports in 1 country). In vivo models of chronic epilepsy were more relevant than in vitro models or chemical models inducing acute seizures for pharmacological assessment. CONCLUSION: Species with the highest use report were not those with pharmacological evaluation. It will be pertinent to assess the pharmacological effects and safety of medicinal plants used mostly by traditional healers on predictive models of seizures.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/química , África , Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Anticonvulsivantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Ásia , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , América Latina , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Qualidade de Vida
5.
Malar J ; 17(1): 68, 2018 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29402267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum malaria is still one of the most deadly pathology worldwide. Efficient treatment is jeopardized by parasite resistance to artemisinin and its derivatives, and by poor access to treatment in endemic regions. Anti-malarial traditional remedies still offer new tracks for identifying promising antiplasmodial molecules, and a way to ensure that all people have access to care. The present study aims to validate the traditional use of Terminalia macroptera, a Malian plant used in traditional medicine. METHODS: Terminalia macroptera was collected in Mali. Leaves (TML) and roots ethanolic extracts (TMR) were prepared and tested at 2000 mg/kg for in vivo acute toxicity in Albino Swiss mice. Antiplasmodial activity of the extracts was assessed against a chloroquine resistant strain P. falciparum (FcB1) in vitro. In vivo, anti-malarial efficacy was assessed by a 4-day suppressive test at 100 mg/kg in two malaria murine models of uncomplicated malaria (Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infection) and cerebral malaria (Plasmodium berghei strain ANKA infection). Constituents of TMR were characterized by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. Top ranked compounds were putatively identified using plant databases and in silico fragmentation pattern. RESULTS: Lethal dose of TML and TMR were greater than 2000 mg/kg in Albino Swiss mice. According to the OECD's Globally Harmonized System of Classification, both extracts are non-toxic orally. Antiplasmodial activity of T. macroptera extracts was confirmed in vitro against P. falciparum FcB1 strain with IC50 values of 1.2 and 1.6 µg/mL for TML and TMR, respectively. In vivo, oral administration of TML and TMR induced significant reduction of parasitaemia (37.2 and 46.4% respectively) in P. chabaudi chabaudi infected mice at the 7th day of infection compared to untreated mice. In the cerebral malaria experimental model, mice treated with TMR and TML presented respectively 50 and 66.7% survival rates at day 9 post-infection when all untreated mice died. Eleven major compounds were found in TMR. Among them, several molecules already known could be responsible for the antiplasmodial activity of the roots extract of T. macroptera. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms both safety and anti-malarial activity of T. macroptera, thus validating its traditional use.

6.
Fitoterapia ; 127: 226-236, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29477305

RESUMO

Liver cancer is a major health burden in Southeast Asia, and most patients turn towards the use of medicinal plants to alleviate their symptoms. The aim of this work was to apply to Southeast Asian plants traditionally used to treat liver disorders, a successive ranking strategy based on a comprehensive review of the literature and metabolomic data in order to relate ethnopharmacological relevance to chemical entities of interest. We analyzed 45 publications resulting in a list of 378 plant species, and our point system based on the frequency of citation in the literature allowed the selection of 10 top ranked species for further collection and extraction. Extracts of these plants were tested for their in vitro anti-proliferative activities on HepG2 cells. Ethanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Oroxylum indicum, Orthosiphon aristatus and Willughbeia edulis showed the highest anti-proliferative effects (IC50 = 195.9, 64.1, 71.3 and 66.7 µg/ml, respectively). A metabolomic ranking model was performed to annotate compounds responsible for the anti-proliferative properties of A. paniculata (andrographolactone and dehydroandrographolide), O. indicum (baicalein, chrysin, oroxylin A and scutellarein), O. aristatus (5-desmethylsinensetin) and W. edulis (parabaroside C and procyanidin). Overall, our dereplicative approach combined with a bibliographic scoring system allowed us to rapidly decipher the molecular basis of traditionally used medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Etnofarmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolômica , Plantas Medicinais/química , Andrographis/química , Apigenina , Apocynaceae/química , Ásia Sudeste , Biflavonoides , Bignoniaceae/química , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Diterpenos , Flavanonas , Flavonoides , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Lamiaceae/química , Proantocianidinas
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 215: 184-190, 2018 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29317303

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Epilepsy affects 150,000 people in Peru, with a prevalence of 16.6/1000 and a treatment gap of 75%. Herbal medicine (HM) is widely used in this country. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to assess the use of plants in a rural community in northern Peru as part of therapeutic strategies for people with epilepsy (PWE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional observational and descriptive study. The inclusion criteria for people with epilepsy were 2 years of age and over, having lived in the study area for at least 3 months and a confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy by a neurologist. The information was gathered through structured interviews using a survey questionnaire. Botanical species used by people with epilepsy or traditional healers were collected and identified. RESULTS: Out of the 228 people with epilepsy included, 60.0% had used herbal remedies and 54.8% both herbal medicine and anti-epileptic drugs. The traditional healer was the first practitioner consulted by 45.2% of people with epilepsy. Sixty-six species have been mentioned by the people with epilepsy and traditional healers on the treatment of epilepsy. Carbamazepine was the most prescribed anti-epileptic drug with 33.2% of prescriptions. CONCLUSIONS: This study was the first to measure a percentage of use of herbal medicine for epilepsy in Peru. It would be interesting to conduct a pharmacological evaluation of the most commonly used species on epileptic models to validate and secure their use.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Plantas Medicinais , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Anticonvulsivantes/classificação , Estudos Transversais , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Medicina Herbária , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Peru/epidemiologia , Fitoterapia , População Rural
8.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 17(1): 52-64, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28088871

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The highest burden of liver cancer occurs in developing countries, where the use of herbal medicine (HM) is still widespread. Despite this trend, few studies have been conducted to report HM practices of patients with a hepatic tumor in the developing world. Hence, this study aimed to document the use of HM among patients with liver cancer in Peru. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A comparative behavioral epidemiological survey was conducted among liver cancer patients attending the National Cancer Institute of Peru. Information was obtained by direct interviews based on a semistructured questionnaire. The use of HM in Peruvian liver cancer patients was reported, first, regarding general consumption prior to the onset of disease, and second, after the appearance of symptoms that patients would relate to their tumor. In parallel, general consumption of HM in noncancerous people was assessed as a comparative figure. A correspondence analysis was performed to reveal potential associations between the symptoms of cancer and the specific use of HM. RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients and 117 noncancerous individuals participated in the survey. Overall, 68.3% of the people interviewed claimed to use HM on a regular basis for general health preservation. Furthermore, 56.8% of the patients turned to plants first to treat the disorders for which they later came to the cancer care center. When compared with the number of plant species used routinely (n = 78), a selection of plants was made by patients in response to the symptoms of cancer (n = 46). At least 2 plant species, Aloe vera and Morinda citrifolia, were significantly associated with the treatment of liver cancer-related symptoms in the patient group. CONCLUSIONS: The present study is the first survey on the HM practices of patients with liver cancer in Latin America and, more broadly, in the developing world. Our findings confirm that HM remains one of the principal primary health care resources in Peru, even for a severe disease like liver cancer. These traditional, complementary and alternative medicine practices should be taken into consideration in Peruvian health programs aiming to educate the population in cancer prevention and treatment, as well as integrative cancer management.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Adulto , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Medicina Herbária/métodos , Humanos , Medicina Integrativa/métodos , Oncologia Integrativa/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru , Prática Profissional , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 206: 290-297, 2017 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28576580

RESUMO

Biopiracy accusations are common in the world of biodiversity research. At the end of 2015, a French NGO accused researchers from the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) of biopiracy. These researchers had applied for a patent for a natural bioactive molecule against malaria and cancer, the Simalikalactone E, isolated from Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae) leaves. This biopiracy allegation triggered a huge wave of attacks from the media and social networks, and vehement recrimination from political officials in French Guiana against researchers who have been accused of ethical misconduct, by stealing the traditional knowledge of indigenous people. These accusations were made in the contentious context of the ratification of the Nagoya Protocol in the frame of implementing the French law on biodiversity, nature and landscapes. So, in an atmosphere of heightened emotions it is crucial to understand the issues behind these accusations. We describe herein the genesis of our discovery, present the detractors' arguments, and discuss the consequences of such biopiracy denunciations for scientific research. We also address our concerns about the gap between rhetoric and reality and the real impact of the Nagoya Protocol on biodiversity conservation.


Assuntos
Patentes como Assunto , Plantas Medicinais , Quassia , Biodiversidade , Guiana Francesa
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 202: 38-53, 2017 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28284791

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Liver disorders are a major health problem in Cambodia, where some patients prefer to seek treatment from traditional healers. The aim of the study was to document the knowledge and practices of these healers in four Southern Cambodian provinces. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out from September 2015 to January 2016 in Cambodian urban and rural areas. Thirty-three Khmer traditional healers (KTH) were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire including socio-demographic data, healer's formation and their professional practice conditions, perception of liver diseases (types and causes of liver disorders, diagnostic methods and symptoms of liver problems), dietary recommendations given to patients, and herbal remedies used to treat them. For each medicinal plant mentioned in herbal remedies, the local name, part of the plant, mode of preparation and administration, and their properties, according to the healers, were recorded. The plants mentioned by the traditional therapists were collected and later identified by specialists. RESULTS: Different types of liver disease are identified by the healers, and diagnosis was mostly based on reading medical records, and by observing the yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes. A total of 42 herbal remedies including 83 medicinal plants belonging to 40 families were mentioned for treating liver disorders. The most predominant families were Leguminosae and Poaceae. Among the plants reported, Cananga latifolia, Andrographis paniculata, Smilax aff. glabra, Gomphrena celosioides, Passiflora foetida and Physalis minima were the most cited species. A large part of the herbal remedies used were multi-ingredient recipes, and were prepared mainly by a decoction administered orally. Plants are combined in multi-ingredient recipes, and selected on the basis of their properties (trocheak, psah, somrap mé rok, ktchol) which originate from Khmer medical concepts. Most of the plants used by healers have a wide ethnobotanical use for liver disorders, and have been studied for their hepatoprotective activity and related activities on the liver. CONCLUSION: In the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases, KTH have incorporated biomedical concepts and new practices, which suggest that they could be defined as neotraditional healers. Medicinal plants constitute the core of traditional medicine practice by these healers, and these plants play a very important role in the health care of people with liver problems in Cambodia. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the integration of healers in national health care programs for the development of combined therapies. Furthermore, two plant species (i.e. Cananga latifolia and Willughbeia edulis) were found to be widely used for treating liver disorders in our survey, and should be studied for their pharmacological potential for liver problems.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias/terapia , Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático , Camboja , Dieta , Gerenciamento Clínico , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 199: 211-230, 2017 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28131912

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis are neglected tropical diseases that occur in all intertropical regions of the world. Amazonian populations have developed an abundant knowledge of the disease and its remedies. Therefore, we undertook to review traditional antileishmanial plants in Amazonia and have developed new tools to analyze this somewhat dispersed information. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature review of traditional remedies for cutaneous/mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in the Amazon was conducted and the data obtained was used to calculate distribution indexes designed to highlight the most relevant uses in Amazonia. The cultural distribution index represents the distribution rate of a given taxon among different cultural groups and was calculated as the ratio of the number of groups using the taxon to the total number of groups cited. The geographical distribution index allowed us to quantify spatial distribution of a taxon's uses in Amazonia and was calculated geometrically by measuring the average distance between the points where uses have been reported and the barycenter of those points. The general distribution index was defined as an arithmetic combination of the previous two and provides information on both cultural and spatial criteria. RESULTS: 475 use reports, concerning 291 botanical species belonging to 83 families have been gathered depicted from 29 sources. Uses concern 34 cultural groups. While the use of some taxa appears to be Pan-Amazonian, some others are clearly restricted to small geographical regions. Particular attention has been paid to the recipes and beliefs surrounding treatments. Topical application of the remedies dominated the other means of administration and this deserves particular attention as the main treatments against Neotropical leishmaniasis are painful systemic injections. The data set was analyzed using the previously defined distribution indexes and the most relevant taxa were further discussed from a phytochemical and pharmacological point of view. CONCLUSIONS: The Amazonian biodiversity and cultural heritage host a fantastic amount of data whose systematic investigation should allow a better large-scale understanding of the dynamics of traditional therapies and the consequent discovery of therapeutic solutions for neglected diseases. Distribution indices are indeed powerful tools for emphasizing the most relevant treatments against a given disease and should be very useful in the meta-analysis of other regional pharmacopeia. This focus on renowned remedies that have not yet benefitted from extended laboratory studies, could stimulate future research on new treatments of natural origin for leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose/etnologia , Medicina Tradicional/tendências , Fitoterapia/tendências , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais , América do Sul/etnologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Nat Prod Res ; 31(2): 138-142, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27561759

RESUMO

One new phthalide (1) was isolated from aerial parts of Peperomia nivalis, along with known compounds (2 and 3), reported in this species for the first time. The structure of the new compound was characterised on the basis of 1D (1H and 13C NMR), 2D (COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY) NMR and high-resolution mass spectral (HRMS) data. Compound 2 was isolated from a natural source for the first time but previously synthesised. Compounds 1-3 were evaluated for their anti-Helicobacter pylori and anti-Plasmodium falciparum activities. Compound 1 showed moderate activities against H. pylori (MIC 47.5 µM) and the F32-Tanzania strain of P. falciparum (IC50 8.5 µM). Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited weak anti-H. pylori activity (MIC 241.3 and 237.6 µM, respectively) and were inactive against P. falciparum.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/química , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Peperomia/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/química , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Peru , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 191: 41-70, 2016 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27282662

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In this paper we present a comprehensive ethnomedicinal study conducted in Mondulkiri province. Traditional knowledge about natural medicine (plants, animals, mushrooms) was investigated in Cambodia's largest indigenous community: the Bunong people. The survey aims to document the medicinal plant use of this ethnic, by focusing on the eleven most frequent diseases encountered in the area, in order to highlight species that could be recommended in public health programs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the years 2013 and 2014, 202 villagers were interviewed in 28 villages from the five districts in Mondulkiri. Two types of methodology were employed: (1) an ethnobotanical field survey (walk-in-the-wood interviews) and (2) semi-structured household interviews with a special emphasis on the treatment of 11 most common ailments encountered in the area. Medicinal plants and mushrooms were collected and identified together with medicinal animals. The factor informant consensus (FIC) and fidelity level (FL) were calculated. RESULTS: Bunong people use a total of 214 plants belonging to 72 families, 1 mushroom and 22 animal species in their traditional healthcare practices in order to treat 51 different ailments. Among the medicinal plants, Fabaceae was the most predominant family; Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King and H.Rob. (Asteraceae), Zingiber montanum (J.Koenig) Link ex A.Dietr. (Zingiberaceae) and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. (Crassulaceae) were the most cited medicinal plants; and four ailments (cold/fever, diarrhea, postpartum disorders and stomachache) were described as major ailments in the community. The root was the most important part of plants used, and decoction was the most cited method of preparation. During our survey, we also discovered a "new to science" plant species called Ardisia mondulkiriensis Hul and Chassagne, and we recorded for the second time the plant species recently described, Solanum sakhanii Hul. CONCLUSION: Most of the species reported for the treatment of the 11 most frequent ailments have already been proven to be efficient and safe. Furthermore, 10 plant species are reported for the first time as medicinal and some of them are widely used in the community. Further pharmacological and phytochemical investigations should be undergone to assess the pharmaceutical potential of these species. While undergoing considerable changes, Bunong people have maintained extensive traditional medicine knowledge. As this indigenous hill tribe depend mainly on natural remedies for their daily healthcare, environmental preservation is of high importance for the community.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Medicina Tradicional , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Camboja , Características Culturais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais/química , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Oncology ; 91(2): 106-16, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27250992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the main type of primary liver cancer (PLC) worldwide, but cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) may be predominant in some specific regions of Southeast Asia. The aim of the present study was to delineate a pattern of Cambodian PLC patients attending the Calmette Hospital in the Cambodian capital Phnom Penh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 553 medical charts diagnosing PLCs from January 2003 to May 2015 were obtained from both the Oncology and Hepato-Gastroenterology Departments of the Calmette Hospital. RESULTS: HCC was the predominant type of PLC recorded, with 511 cases (92.4%), whereas CCA represented merely 7.6% (42 cases) of the overall series. Hepatitis B virus (HBV; 44.3%) and hepatitis C virus (HCV; 43%) infection rates were similar among the HCC patients, while small subsets of CCA patients were infected with HBV (15.4%) or HCV (11.5%). Most HCC (84%) and CCA (73.8%) patients received palliative treatment only. CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that HCC is the main form of primary hepatic neoplasm among PLC patients attending a hospital in Cambodia. HBV and HCV infections represented equivalent burdens and major contributing factors to HCC. Therefore, the implementation of prevention programs for these infectious agents should become a priority for health policy makers in the country.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Colangiocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Camboja/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Colangiocarcinoma/sangue , Colangiocarcinoma/virologia , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , alfa-Fetoproteínas/metabolismo , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 187: 241-8, 2016 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27132714

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Psidium acutangulum Mart. ex DC is a small tree used by the Wayana Amerindians from the Upper-Maroni in French Guiana for the treatment of malaria. AIM OF THE STUDY: In a previous study, we highlighted the in vitro antiplasmodial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of the traditional decoction of P. acutangulum aerial parts. Our goal was then to investigate on the origin of the biological activity of the traditional remedy, and eventually characterize active constituents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Liquid-liquid extractions were performed on the decoction, and the antiplasmodial activity evaluated against chloroquine-resistant FcB1 ([(3)H]-hypoxanthine bioassay) and 7G8 (pLDH bioassay) P. falciparum strains, and on a chloroquine sensitive NF54 ([(3)H]-hypoxanthine bioassay) P. falciparum strain. The ethyl acetate fraction (D) was active and underwent bioguided fractionation. All the isolated compounds were tested on P. falciparum FcB1 strain. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα) of the ethyl acetate fraction and of an anti-Plasmodium active compound, was concurrently assessed on LPS-stimulated human PBMC and NO secretion inhibition was measured on LPS stimulated RAW murine macrophages. Cytotoxicity of the fractions and pure compounds was measured on VERO cells, L6 mammalian cells, PBMCs, and RAW cells. RESULTS: Fractionation of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction (IC50 ranging from 3.4 to <1µg/mL depending on the parasite strain) led to the isolation of six pure compounds: catechin and five glycosylated quercetin derivatives. These compounds have never been isolated from this plant species. Two of these compounds (wayanin and guaijaverin) were found to be moderately active against P. falciparum FcB1 in vitro (IC50 5.5 and 6.9µM respectively). We proposed the name wayanin during public meetings organized in June 2015 in the Upper-Maroni villages, in homage to the medicinal knowledge of the Wayana population. At 50µg/mL, the ethyl acetate fraction (D) significantly inhibited IL-1ß secretion (-46%) and NO production (-21%), as previously observed for the decoction. The effects of D and guiajaverin (4) on the secretion of other cytokines or NO production were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The confirmed antiplasmodial activity of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the decoction and of the isolated compounds support the previous results obtained on the P. acutangulum decoction. The antiplasmodial activity might be due to a mixture of moderately active non-toxic flavonoids. The anti-inflammatory activities were less marked for ethyl acetate fraction (D) than for the decoction.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Psidium , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Cercopithecus aethiops , Citocinas/metabolismo , Guiana Francesa , Frutas , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta , Caules de Planta , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos , Células Vero
16.
Nat Prod Commun ; 11(3): 339-52, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27169180

RESUMO

Today, ethno-pharmacology is a very important resource in order to discover new therapies for the current diseases. Moreover, another good justification for the ethno-pharmacological approach is to obtain new, effective, less expensive and simple therapies, limiting at the same time the cost of pharmaceutical research. Two major anti-malarial drugs widely used today, i.e. quinine and artemisinin, came respectively from Peruvian and Chinese ancestral treatments reported in the traditional medicines. In this contest, there is an urgent need for the discovery of new drugs, due to the critical epidemiological situation of this disease and to the growth of resistances. In Mali, malaria and liver diseases remain one of the leading public health problems. Many medicinal plants are often used, in local traditional medicine, for the treatment at the same time of malaria and liver diseases, including hepatic syndromes, jaundice, hepatitis and other hepatic disorders. Moreover, in the local language Bamanan, the word "Sumaya" is used both for malaria and some liver diseases. In addition, we noted that some of the improved traditional phytomedicines produced by the Department of Traditional Medicine are prescribed by modern doctors both for malaria and liver diseases. In this review, pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical data on Argemone mexicana L. (Papaveraceae), Cochlospermum tinctorium Perr. ex A. Rich (Cochlospermaceae), Combretum micranthum G.Don (Combretaceae), Entada africana Guillet Perr. (Mimosaceae), Erythrina senegalensis A. DC (Fabaceae), Mitragyna inermis (Willd) Kuntze (Rubiaceae), Nauclea latifolia Smith syn. Sarcocephalus latifolius (Smith) Bruce (Rubiaceae), Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen (Polygalaceae), Trichilia emetica Vahl. (Meliaceae), and Vernonia colorata (Willd) Drake (Asteraceae) are reported. Some of the collected data could be used to improve the actual herbal drugs and to propose new phytomedicines for the management of malaria and liver diseases.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Antimaláricos/química , Humanos , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Mali/epidemiologia
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 171: 330-4, 2015 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26087228

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plukenetia volubilis L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a domesticated vine distributed from the high-altitude Andean rain forest to the lowlands of the Peruvian Amazon. Oil from the cold-pressed seeds, sold under the commercial name of Sacha Inchi Oil (SIO) is actually much in favour because it contains a high percentage of omega 3 and omega 6, and is hence used as a dietary supplement. SIO is also used traditionally for skin care, in order to maintain skin softness, and for the treatment of wounds, insect bites and skin infections, in a tropical context where the skin is frequently damaged. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study was designed in order to verify whether the traditional use of SIO for skin care would have any impact on Staphylococcus aureus growth and skin adherence, as S. aureus is involved in many skin pathologies (impetigo, folliculitis, furuncles and subcutaneous abscesses) being one if the main pathogens that can be found on the skin. Therefore, our objective was to assess SIO bactericidal activity and interference with adherence to human skin explants and the keratinocyte cell line. Cytotoxicity on that cells was also determined. The activity of SIO was compared to coconut oil (CocO), which is widely used for skin care but has different unsaturated fatty acids contents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Laboratory testing with certified oil, determined antibacterial activity against radio labelled S. aureus. Cytotoxic effects were measured with XTT on keratinocyte cells and with neutral red on human skin explants; phenol was used as cytotoxic control. Adherence assays were carried out by mixing H3-labelled S. aureus bacteria with keratinocyte cells and human skin explants, incubated with oils 2h before (to determine the inhibition of adherence, assimilated to a preventive effect) or 2h after the contact of the biological material with S. aureus (to assess the detachment of the bacteria, assimilated to a curative effect). Residual radioactivity measured after washings made it possible to determine the adherence intensity. Bactericidal effect was determined by colony counting on trypticase soy agar. RESULTS: Laboratory assays showed that SIO and CocO, tested undiluted, were not cytotoxic on keratinocytes nor human explants and were not bactericidal neither. SIO was more active as antiadherent (preventive) than CocO on keratinocytes. There was no significant difference between detachment effects (curative) of both oils on keratinocytes but SIO was almost 5 times more active on the detachment of S. aureus from human skin explants. CONCLUSION: From that study it can be concluded that the use of SIO on dermal cells is safe and efficient in the inhibition of S. aureus adherence. Our results tend to support the traditional use of undiluted SIO in skin care.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Euphorbiaceae , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/microbiologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 166: 279-85, 2015 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25792015

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Field investigations highlighted the use of Psidium acutangulum Mart. ex DC (syn. P. persoonii McVaugh), a small tree used by the Wayana Amerindians in Twenke-Taluhwen and Antecume-Pata, French Guiana, for the treatment of malaria, and administered either orally in the form of a decoction or applied externally over the whole body. This use appears limited to the Wayana cultural group in French Guiana and has never been reported anywhere else. Our goal was to evaluate the antimalarial and anti-inflammatory activities of a P. acutangulum decoction to explain the good reputation of this remedy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Interviews with the Wayana inhabitants of Twenke-Taluhwen and Antecume-Pata were conducted within the TRAMAZ project according to the TRAMIL methodology, which is based on a quantitative and qualitative analysis of medicinal plant uses. A decoction of dried aerial parts of P. acutangulum was prepared in consistency with the Wayana recipe. In vitro antiplasmodial assays were performed on chloroquine-resistant FcB1 ([(3)H]-hypoxanthine bioassay) and 7G8 (pLDH bioassay) P. falciparum strains and on chloroquine sensitive NF54 ([(3)H]-hypoxanthine bioassay) P. falciparum strain. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα) was evaluated on LPS-stimulated human PBMC and NO secretion inhibition was measured on LPS stimulated RAW murine macrophages. Cytotoxicity of the decoction was measured on L6 mammalian cells, PBMCs, and RAW cells. A preliminary evaluation of the in vivo antimalarial activity of the decoction, administered orally twice daily, was assessed by the classical four-day suppressive test against P. berghei NK65 in mice. RESULTS: The decoction displayed a good antiplasmodial activity in vitro against the three tested strains, regardless to the bioassay used, with IC50 values of 3.3µg/mL and 10.3µg/mL against P. falciparum FcB1 and NF54, respectively and 19.0µg/mL against P. falciparum 7G8. It also exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro in a dose dependent manner. At a concentration of 50µg/mL, the decoction inhibited the secretion of the following pro-inflammatory cytokines: TNFα (-18%), IL-1ß (-58%), IL-6 (-32%), IL-8 (-21%). It also exhibited a mild NO secretion inhibition (-13%) at the same concentration. The decoction was non-cytotoxic against L6 cells (IC50>100µg/mL), RAW cells and PBMC. In vivo, 150µL of the decoction given orally twice a day (equivalent to 350mg/kg/day of dried extract) inhibited 39.7% average parasite growth, with more than 50% of inhibition in three mice over five. The absence of response for the two remaining mice, however, induced a strong standard deviation. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of the decoction of P. acutangulum aerial parts, used by Wayana Amerindians from the Upper-Maroni in French Guiana in case of malaria. Its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, which may help to explain its use against this disease, was demonstrated using models of artificially stimulated cells.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Myrtaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Psidium/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antiprotozoários/química , Linhagem Celular , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Guiana Francesa , Humanos , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 166: 185-99, 2015 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25701751

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The high incidence of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Peru and the wide use of medicinal plants in this country led us to study the activity against HCC cells in vitro of somes species used locally against liver and digestive disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethnopharmacological survey: Medicinal plant species with a strong convergence of use for liver and digestive diseases were collected fresh in the wild or on markets, in two places of Peru: Chiclayo (Lambayeque department, Chiclayo province) and Huaraz (Ancash department, Huaraz province). Altogether 51 species were collected and 61 ethanol extracts were prepared to be tested. Biological assessment: All extracts were first assessed against the HCC cell line Hep3B according a 3-step multi-parametric phenotypic assay. It included 1) the evaluation of phenotypic changes on cells by light microscopy, 2) the measurement of the antiproliferative activity and 3) the analysis of the cytoskeleton and mitosis by immunofluorescence. Best extracts were further assessed against other HCC cell lines HepG2, PLC/PRF/5 and SNU-182 and their toxicity measured in vitro on primary human hepatocytes. RESULTS: Ethnopharmacological survey: Some of the species collected had a high reputation spreading over the surveyed locations for treating liver problems, i.e. Baccharis genistelloides, Bejaria aestuans, Centaurium pulchellum, Desmodium molliculum, Dipsacus fullonum, Equisetum bogotense, Gentianella spp., Krameria lapacea, Otholobium spp., Schkuhria pinnata, Taraxacum officinale. Hep3B evaluation: Fourteen extracts from 13 species (Achyrocline alata, Ambrosia arborescens, Baccharis latifolia, Hypericum laricifolium, Krameria lappacea, Niphidium crassifolium, Ophryosporus chilca, Orthrosanthus chimboracensis, Otholobium pubescens, Passiflora ligularis, Perezia coerulescens, Perezia multiflora and Schkuhria pinnata) showed a significant antiproliferative activity against Hep3B cells (IC50≤ 50µg/mL). This was associated with a lack of toxicity on primary human hepatocytes in vitro. Immunofluorescence experiments on Hep3B cells showed that crude extracts of Schkuhria pinnata and Orthrosanthus chimboracensis could block Hep3B cells in mitosis with an original phenotype. Crude extracts of Perezia coerulescens, Perezia multiflora, Achyrocline alata, Ophryosporus chilca, Otholobium pubescens and Hypericum laricifolium could modify the overall microtubule cytoskeletal dynamics of Hep3B cells in interphase by an original mechanism. CONCLUSIONS: Our method allowed us to select 9 extracts which displayed antiproliferative activities associated with original cellular phenotypes on Hep3B cells, regarding known microtubule-targeting drugs. Both chemical and cellular studies are ongoing in order to elucidate natural compounds and cellular mechanisms responsible of the activities described.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Peru
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 157: 149-55, 2014 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25251262

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leaves and rhizomes of Renealmia thyrsoidea (Ruiz & Pav.) Poepp. & Endl. traditionally used in the Yanesha pharmacopoeia to treat skin infections such as leishmaniasis ulcers, or to reduce fever were chemically investigated to identify leishmanicidal compounds, as well as PPARγ activators. METHODS: Compounds were isolated through a bioassay-guided fractionation and their structures were determined via detailed spectral analysis. The viability of Leishmania amazonensis axenic amastigotes was assessed by the reduction of tetrazolium salt (MTT), the cytotoxicity on macrophage was evaluated using trypan blue dye exclusion method, while the percentage of infected macrophages was determined microscopically in the intracellular macrophage-infected assay. The CD36, mannose receptor (MR) and dectin-1 mRNA expression on human monocytes-derived macrophages was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: Six sesquiterpenes (1-6), one dihydrobenzofuranone (7) and four flavonoids (8-11) were isolated from the leaves. Alongside, two flavonoids (12-13) and five diarylheptanoids (14-18) were identified in the rhizomes. Leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania amazonensis axenic amastigotes was evaluated for all compounds. Compounds 6, 7, and 11, isolated from the leaves, showed to be the most active derivatives. Diarylheptanoids 14-18 were also screened for their ability to activate PPARγ nuclear receptor in macrophages. Compounds 17 and 18 bearing a Michael acceptor moiety strongly increased the expression of PPARγ target genes such as CD36, Dectin-1 and mannose receptor (MR), thus revealing interesting immunomodulatory properties. CONCLUSIONS: Phytochemical investigation of Renealmia thyrsoidea has led to the isolation of leishmanicidal compounds from the leaves and potent PPARγ activators from the rhizomes. These results are in agreement with the traditional uses of the different parts of Renealmia thyrsoidea.


Assuntos
Leishmania mexicana/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Zingiberaceae/química , Animais , Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Rizoma
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