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Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(3): 1222-1241, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850421


Through the use of tunable vacuum ultraviolet light generated by the DESIRS VUV synchrotron beamline, a jet-stirred reactor was coupled for the first time to an advanced photoionization mass spectrometer based upon a double imaging PhotoElectron PhotoIon COincidence (i2PEPICO) scheme. This new coupling was used to investigate the low-temperature oxidation of n-pentane, a prototype molecule for gasoline or diesel fuels. Experiments were performed under quasi-atmospheric pressure (1.1 bar) with a residence time of 3 s for two equivalence ratios (1/3 and 0.5) with a fuel initial mole fraction of 0.01. The measured time-of-flight mass spectra are in good agreement with those previously obtained with other photoionization mass spectrometers and, like those previous ones, display several m/z peaks for which the related species assignation is ambiguous. This paper shows how the analysis of the coincident mass-tagged Threshold PhotoElectron Spectra (TPES) together with first principle computations, consisting of the determination of the adiabatic ionization energies and the spectra of some products, may assist products' identification. The results mostly confirm those previously obtained by photoionization mass spectrometry and gas chromatography, but also allow a more accurate estimation of the 1-pentene/2-pentene mole fraction ratio. Our data also indicate a higher formation of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone than what is predicted by current models, as well as the presence of products that were not previously taken into account, such as methoxyacetylene, methyl vinyl ketone or furanone. The formation of three, four and five membered ring cyclic ethers is confirmed along with linear ketones: 2- and 3-pentanone. A significant general trend in indicating higher amounts of ketones than are indicated by gas chromatography is noted. Finally, TPES of alkenylhydroperoxides are also provided for the first time and constrains on the isomers identification are provided.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783433


RATIONALE: Quadrupole mass spectrometers equipped with an Electron Ionization (EI) sources have been widely used in space exploration to investigate the composition of planetary surfaces and atmospheres. However, the complexity of the samples and the minimal calibration for the fragmentation of molecules in the ionization chambers have prevented the deconvolution of the majority of the mass spectra obtained at different targets, thus limiting determination of the exact composition of the samples analyzed. We propose a Monte-Carlo approach to solve this issue mathematically. METHODS: We have decomposed simulated mass spectra of mixtures acquired with unit resolving power mass spectrometers and EI sources into the sum of the single components fragmentation patterns weighted by their relative concentration using interior-point least-square fitting. To fit compounds with poorly known fragmentation patterns, we use a Monte-Carlo method to vary the intensity of individual fragment ions. We then decompose the spectrum thousands of times to obtain a statistical distribution. RESULTS: By performing the deconvolution on a mixture of seven different molecules with interfering fragmentation patterns (H2 O, O2 , CH4 , Ar, N2 , C2 H4 and C2 H6 ) we show that this approach retrieves the mixing ratio of the individual components more accurately than regular mass spectra decomposition methods that rely on fragmentation patterns from general databases. It also provides the probability density function for each species's mixing ratio. CONCLUSIONS: By removing the solution degeneracy in the decomposition of mass spectra, the method described herein could significantly increase the scientific retrieval from archived space flight mass spectrometry data, where calibration of the ionization source is no longer an option.

J Phys Chem A ; 123(11): 2178-2193, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803230


Reactions of the methylidyne (CH) radical with ammonia (NH3), methylamine (CH3NH2), dimethylamine ((CH3)2NH), and trimethylamine ((CH3)3N) have been investigated under multiple collision conditions at 373 K and 4 Torr. The reaction products are detected by using soft photoionization coupled to orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron. Kinetic traces are employed to discriminate between CH reaction products and products from secondary or slower reactions. Branching ratios for isomers produced at a given mass and formed by a single reaction are obtained by fitting the observed photoionization spectra to linear combinations of pure compound spectra. The reaction of the CH radical with ammonia is found to form mainly imine, HN═CH2, in line with an addition-elimination mechanism. The singly methyl-substituted imine is detected for the CH reactions with methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine. Dimethylimine isomers are formed by the reaction of CH with dimethylamine, while trimethylimine is formed by the CH reaction with trimethylamine. Overall, the temporal profiles of the products are not consistent with the formation of aminocarbene products in the reaction flow tube. In the case of the reactions with methylamine and dimethylamine, product formation is assigned to an addition-elimination mechanism similar to that proposed for the CH reaction with ammonia. However, this mechanism cannot explain the products detected by the reaction with trimethylamine. A C-H insertion pathway may become more probable as the number of methyl groups increases.

Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(37): 23833-46, 2015 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26304769


Product detection studies of C((3)P) atom reactions with ethylene, C2H4(X(1)Ag) and propylene, C3H6(X(1)A') are carried out in a flow tube reactor at 332 K and 4 Torr (553.3 Pa) under multiple collision conditions. Ground state carbon atoms are generated by 193 nm laser photolysis of carbon suboxide, C3O2 in a buffer of helium. Thermalized reaction products are detected using tunable VUV photoionization and time of flight mass spectrometry. For C((3)P) + ethylene, propargyl (C3H3) is detected as the only molecular product in agreement with previous studies on this reaction. The temporal profiles of the detected ions are used to discriminate C((3)P) reaction products from side reaction products. For C((3)P) + propylene, two reaction channels are identified through the detection of methyl (CH3) and propargyl (C3H3) radicals for the first channel and C4H5 for the second one. Franck-Condon Factor simulations are employed to infer the C4H5-isomer distribution. The measured 1 : 4 ratio for the i-C4H5 isomer relative to the methylpropargyl isomers is similar to the C4H5 isomer distribution observed in low-pressure flames and differs from crossed molecular beams data. The accuracy of these isomer distributions is discussed in view of large uncertainties on the photoionization spectra of the pure C4H5 isomers.