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1.
Circulation ; 140(17): 1426-1436, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634011

RESUMO

The complexity and costs associated with traditional randomized, controlled trials have increased exponentially over time, and now threaten to stifle the development of new drugs and devices. Nevertheless, the growing use of electronic health records, mobile applications, and wearable devices offers significant promise for transforming clinical trials, making them more pragmatic and efficient. However, many challenges must be overcome before these innovations can be implemented routinely in randomized, controlled trial operations. In October of 2018, a diverse stakeholder group convened in Washington, DC, to examine how electronic health record, mobile, and wearable technologies could be applied to clinical trials. The group specifically examined how these technologies might streamline the execution of clinical trial components, delineated innovative trial designs facilitated by technological developments, identified barriers to implementation, and determined the optimal frameworks needed for regulatory oversight. The group concluded that the application of novel technologies to clinical trials provided enormous potential, yet these changes needed to be iterative and facilitated by continuous learning and pilot studies.

2.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 3: 1-13, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403818

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Large, generalizable real-world data can enhance traditional clinical trial results. The current study evaluates reliability, clinical relevance, and large-scale feasibility for a previously documented method with which to characterize cancer progression outcomes in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer from electronic health record (EHR) data. METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer between January 1, 2011, and February 28, 2018, with two or more EHR-documented visits and one or more systemic therapy line initiated were identified in Flatiron Health's longitudinal EHR-derived database. After institutional review board approval, we retrospectively characterized real-world progression (rwP) dates, with a random duplicate sample to ascertain interabstractor agreement. We calculated real-world progression-free survival, real-world time to progression, real-world time to next treatment, and overall survival (OS) using the Kaplan-Meier method (index date was the date of first-line therapy initiation), and correlations between OS and other end points were assessed at the patient level (Spearman's ρ). RESULTS: Of 30,276 eligible patients,16,606 (55%) had one or more rwP event. Of these patients, 11,366 (68%) had subsequent death, treatment discontinuation, or new treatment initiation. Correlation of real-world progression-free survival with OS was moderate to high (Spearman's ρ, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.77; evaluable patients, n = 20,020), and for real-world time to progression correlation with OS was lower (Spearman's ρ, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.70; evaluable patients, n = 11,902). Interabstractor agreement on rwP occurrence was 0.94 (duplicate sample, n = 1,065) and on rwP date 0.85 (95% CI, 0.81 to 0.89; evaluable patients n = 358 [patients with two independent event captures within 30 days]). Median rwP abstraction time from individual EHRs was 18.0 minutes (interquartile range, 9.7 to 34.4 minutes). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that rwP-based end points correlate with OS, and that rwP curation from a large, contemporary EHR data set can be reliable, clinically relevant, and feasible on a large scale.

3.
Oncology (Williston Park) ; 30(1): 59-66, 69, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26791846

RESUMO

Over the past decade, the ability of cancer cells to evade immune destruction has become recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer. This understanding has paved the way for the development of novel therapeutic agents that can enhance activation of antitumor immune responses or reverse immunosuppressive mechanisms through which tumors escape immune-mediated rejection. The treatment of gynecologic cancers remains a therapeutic challenge, as these malignancies are often diagnosed in advanced stages, and many patients relapse despite appropriate management. Clinical trials have shown efficacy for various immunotherapeutic strategies, especially the use of tumor-targeting antibodies; enhancement of tumor antigen presentation, such as with vaccines and toll-like receptor agonists; and the targeting of immunosuppressive mechanisms, such as via checkpoint blockade. Emerging data on new and combination approaches currently under investigation provide a strong rationale for these approaches.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/imunologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/tendências
4.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 12(8): 570-80, 2012 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22828911

RESUMO

Autoinflammatory diseases are characterized by seemingly unprovoked pathological activation of the innate immune system in the absence of autoantibodies or autoreactive T cells. Discovery of the causative mutations underlying several monogenic autoinflammatory diseases has identified key regulators of innate immune responses. Recent studies have highlighted the role of misfolding, oligomerization and abnormal trafficking of pathogenic mutant proteins in triggering autoinflammation, and suggest that more common rheumatic diseases may have an autoinflammatory component. This coincides with recent discoveries of new links between endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammatory signalling pathways, which support the emerging view that autoinflammatory diseases may be due to pathological dysregulation of stress-sensing pathways that normally function in host defence.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Reumáticas/imunologia , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Doenças Reumáticas/genética
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