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1.
Malar J ; 20(1): 169, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) is associated with increased post-treatment gametocyte carriage. The effect of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) with SP and AQ on gametocyte carriage was assessed in asymptomatic P. falciparum infected children. METHODS: The study was carried out in eastern Gambia. Asymptomatic P. falciparum malaria infected children aged 24-59 months old who were eligible to receive SMC (SMC group) and children 5-8 years that were not eligible to receive SMC (comparison group) were recruited. Gametocytaemia was determined by molecular methods before and after SMC administration. Gametocyte carriage between the groups was compared using the chi-squared test and within-person using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: During the 2017 and 2018 malaria transmission seasons, 65 and 75 children were recruited in the SMC and comparison groups, respectively. Before SMC administration, gametocyte prevalence was 10.7% (7/65) in the SMC group and 13.3% (10/75) in the comparison group (p = 0.64). At day 13 (IQR 12, 13) after SMC administration, this was 9.4% (5/53) in children who received at least the first dose of SMC treatment and 12.7% (9/71) for those in the comparison group (p = 0.57). Similarly, there was no difference in prevalence of gametocytes between children that adhered to all 3-day doses of SMC treatment 15.6% (5/32) and those in the comparison group (p = 0.68). In the SMC group, within-group gametocyte carriage was similar before and after SMC administration in children that received at least the first dose of SMC treatment (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.14-2.51; p = 0.48) and in those that adhered to all 3-day doses of SMC treatment (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.20-4.95; p = 1.0). CONCLUSION: In this study with relative low gametocyte prevalence prior to SMC treatment, no evidence was observed that SMC treatment increased gametocyte carriage in asymptomatic P. falciparum malaria infected children.

2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009187, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New hemocytometric parameters can be used to differentiate causes of acute febrile illness (AFI). We evaluated a software algorithm-Infection Manager System (IMS)-which uses hemocytometric data generated by Sysmex hematology analyzers, for its accuracy to detect bacteremia in AFI patients with and without malaria in Burkina Faso. Secondary aims included comparing the accuracy of IMS with C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT). METHODS: In a prospective observational study, patients of ≥ three-month-old (range 3 months- 90 years) presenting with AFI were enrolled. IMS, blood culture and malaria diagnostics were done upon inclusion and additional diagnostics on clinical indication. CRP, PCT, viral multiplex PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs and bacterial- and malaria PCR were batch-tested retrospectively. Diagnostic classification was done retrospectively using all available data except IMS, CRP and PCT results. FINDINGS: A diagnosis was affirmed in 549/914 (60.1%) patients and included malaria (n = 191) bacteremia (n = 69), viral infections (n = 145), and malaria-bacteremia co-infections (n = 47). The overall sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value (NPV) of IMS for detection of bacteremia in patients of ≥ 5 years were 97.0% (95% CI: 89.8-99.6), 68.2% (95% CI: 55.6-79.1) and 95.7% (95% CI: 85.5-99.5) respectively, compared to 93.9% (95% CI: 85.2-98.3), 39.4% (95% CI: 27.6-52.2), and 86.7% (95% CI: 69.3-96.2) for CRP at ≥20mg/L. The sensitivity, specificity and NPV of PCT at 0.5 ng/ml were lower at respectively 72.7% (95% CI: 60.4-83.0), 50.0% (95% CI: 37.4-62.6) and 64.7% (95% CI: 50.1-77.6) The diagnostic accuracy of IMS was lower among malaria cases and patients <5 years but remained equal to- or higher than the accuracy of CRP. INTERPRETATION: IMS is a new diagnostic tool to differentiate causes of AFI. Its high NPV for bacteremia has the potential to improve antibiotic dispensing practices in healthcare facilities with hematology analyzers. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether IMS, combined with malaria diagnostics, may be used to rationalize antimicrobial prescription in malaria endemic areas. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02669823) https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02669823.

3.
Malar J ; 20(1): 68, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluation of genetic relatedness of malaria parasites is a useful tool for understanding transmission patterns, but patterns are not easily detectable in areas with moderate to high malaria transmission. To evaluate the feasibility of detecting genetic relatedness in a moderate malaria transmission setting, relatedness of Plasmodium falciparum infections was measured in cohort participants from randomly selected households in the Kihihi sub-county of Uganda (annual entomological inoculation rate of 27 infectious bites per person). METHODS: All infections detected via microscopy or Plasmodium-specific loop mediated isothermal amplification from passive and active case detection during August 2011-March 2012 were genotyped at 26 microsatellite loci, providing data for 349 samples from 230 participants living in 80 households. Pairwise genetic relatedness was calculated using identity by state (IBS). RESULTS: As expected, genetic diversity was high (mean heterozygosity [He] = 0.73), and the majority (76.5 %) of samples were polyclonal. Despite the high genetic diversity, fine-scale population structure was detectable, with significant spatiotemporal clustering of highly related infections. Although the difference in malaria incidence between households at higher (mean 1127 metres) versus lower elevation (mean 1015 metres) was modest (1.4 malaria cases per person-year vs. 1.9 per person-year, respectively), there was a significant difference in multiplicity of infection (2.2 vs. 2.6, p = 0.008) and, more strikingly, a higher proportion of highly related infections within households (6.3 % vs. 0.9 %, p = 0.0005) at higher elevation compared to lower elevation. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic data from a relatively small number of diverse, multiallelic loci reflected fine scale patterns of malaria transmission. Given the increasing interest in applying genetic data to augment malaria surveillance, this study provides evidence that genetic data can be used to inform transmission patterns at local spatial scales even in moderate transmission areas.

4.
Malar J ; 20(1): 34, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa relies upon prompt case management with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Ring-stage parasite mRNA, measured by sbp1 quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR), was previously reported to persist after ACT treatment and hypothesized to reflect temporary arrest of the growth of ring-stage parasites (dormancy) following exposure to artemisinins. Here, the persistence of ring-stage parasitaemia following ACT and non-ACT treatment was examined. METHODS: Samples were used from naturally infected Malian gametocyte carriers who received dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP-AQ) with or without gametocytocidal drugs. Gametocytes and ring-stage parasites were quantified by qRT-PCR during 42 days of follow-up. RESULTS: At baseline, 89% (64/73) of participants had measurable ring-stage parasite mRNA. Following treatment, the proportion of ring-stage parasite-positive individuals and estimated densities declined for all four treatment groups. Ring-stage parasite prevalence and density was generally lower in arms that received DP compared to SP-AQ. This finding was most apparent days 1, 2, and 42 of follow-up (p < 0.01). Gametocytocidal drugs did not influence ring-stage parasite persistence. Ring-stage parasite density estimates on days 14 and 28 after initiation of treatment were higher among individuals who subsequently experienced recurrent parasitaemia compared to those who remained free of parasites until day 42 after initiation of treatment (pday 14 = 0.011 and pday 28 = 0.068). No association of ring-stage persistence with gametocyte carriage was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings of lower ring-stage persistence after ACT without an effect of gametocytocidal partner drugs affirms the use of sbp1 as ring-stage marker. Lower persistence of ring-stage mRNA after ACT treatment suggests the marker may not reflect dormant parasites whilst it was predictive of re-appearance of parasitaemia.

5.
Malar J ; 20(1): 59, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As countries move to malaria elimination, detecting and targeting asymptomatic malaria infections might be needed. Here, the epidemiology and detectability of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections were investigated in different transmission settings in Ethiopia. METHOD: A total of 1093 dried blood spot (DBS) samples were collected from afebrile and apparently healthy individuals across ten study sites in Ethiopia from 2016 to 2020. Of these, 862 were from community and 231 from school based cross-sectional surveys. Malaria infection status was determined by microscopy or rapid diagnostics tests (RDT) and 18S rRNA-based nested PCR (nPCR). The annual parasite index (API) was used to classify endemicity as low (API > 0 and < 5), moderate (API ≥ 5 and < 100) and high transmission (API ≥ 100) and detectability of infections was assessed in these settings. RESULTS: In community surveys, the overall prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium infections by microscopy/RDT, nPCR and all methods combined was 12.2% (105/860), 21.6% (183/846) and 24.1% (208/862), respectively. The proportion of nPCR positive infections that was detectable by microscopy/RDT was 48.7% (73/150) for P. falciparum and 4.6% (2/44) for P. vivax. Compared to low transmission settings, the likelihood of detecting infections by microscopy/RDT was increased in moderate (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.4; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.6-7.2, P = 0.002) and high endemic settings (AOR = 5.1; 95% CI 2.6-9.9, P < 0.001). After adjustment for site and correlation between observations from the same survey, the likelihood of detecting asymptomatic infections by microscopy/RDT (AOR per year increase = 0.95, 95% CI 0.9-1.0, P = 0.013) declined with age. CONCLUSIONS: Conventional diagnostics missed nearly half of the asymptomatic Plasmodium reservoir detected by nPCR. The detectability of infections was particularly low in older age groups and low transmission settings. These findings highlight the need for sensitive diagnostic tools to detect the entire parasite reservoir and potential infection transmitters.

6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 603-607, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496217

RESUMO

Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, efficient vectors in parts of Asia and Africa, were found in 75.3% of water sources surveyed and contributed to 80.9% of wild-caught Anopheles mosquitoes in Awash Sebat Kilo, Ethiopia. High susceptibility of these mosquitoes to Plasmodium falciparum and vivax infection presents a challenge for malaria control in the Horn of Africa.

7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1913, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As global progress to reduce malaria transmission continues, it is increasingly important to track changes in malaria incidence rather than prevalence. Risk estimates for Africa have largely underutilized available health management information systems (HMIS) data to monitor trends. This study uses national HMIS data, together with environmental and geographical data, to assess spatial-temporal patterns of malaria incidence at facility catchment level in Uganda, over a recent 5-year period. METHODS: Data reported by 3446 health facilities in Uganda, between July 2015 and September 2019, was analysed. To assess the geographic accessibility of the health facilities network, AccessMod was employed to determine a three-hour cost-distance catchment around each facility. Using confirmed malaria cases and total catchment population by facility, an ecological Bayesian conditional autoregressive spatial-temporal Poisson model was fitted to generate monthly posterior incidence rate estimates, adjusted for caregiver education, rainfall, land surface temperature, night-time light (an indicator of urbanicity), and vegetation index. RESULTS: An estimated 38.8 million (95% Credible Interval [CI]: 37.9-40.9) confirmed cases of malaria occurred over the period, with a national mean monthly incidence rate of 20.4 (95% CI: 19.9-21.5) cases per 1000, ranging from 8.9 (95% CI: 8.7-9.4) to 36.6 (95% CI: 35.7-38.5) across the study period. Strong seasonality was observed, with June-July experiencing highest peaks and February-March the lowest peaks. There was also considerable geographic heterogeneity in incidence, with health facility catchment relative risk during peak transmission months ranging from 0 to 50.5 (95% CI: 49.0-50.8) times higher than national average. Both districts and health facility catchments showed significant positive spatial autocorrelation; health facility catchments had global Moran's I = 0.3 (p < 0.001) and districts Moran's I = 0.4 (p < 0.001). Notably, significant clusters of high-risk health facility catchments were concentrated in Acholi, West Nile, Karamoja, and East Central - Busoga regions. CONCLUSION: Findings showed clear countrywide spatial-temporal patterns with clustering of malaria risk across districts and health facility catchments within high risk regions, which can facilitate targeting of interventions to those areas at highest risk. Moreover, despite high and perennial transmission, seasonality for malaria incidence highlights the potential for optimal and timely implementation of targeted interventions.

8.
Malar J ; 19(1): 425, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a major public health concern in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and its control is affected by recurrent conflicts. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) initiated several studies to better understand the unprecedented incidence of malaria to effectively target and implement interventions in emergency settings. The current study evaluated the main vector species involved in malaria transmission and their resistance to insecticides, with the aim to propose the most effective tools and strategies for control of local malaria vectors. METHODS: This study was performed in 52 households in Shamwana (Katanga, 2014), 168 households in Baraka (South Kivu, 2015) and 269 households in Kashuga (North Kivu, 2017). Anopheles vectors were collected and subjected to standardized Word Health Organization (WHO) and Center for Disease Control (CDC) insecticide susceptibility bioassays. Mosquito species determination was done using PCR and Plasmodium falciparum infection in mosquitoes was assessed by ELISA targeting circumsporozoite protein. RESULTS: Of 3517 Anopheles spp. mosquitoes collected, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) (29.6%) and Anopheles funestus (69.1%) were the main malaria vectors. Plasmodium falciparum infection rates for An. gambiae s.l. were 1.0, 2.1 and 13.9% for Shamwana, Baraka and Kashuga, respectively. Anopheles funestus showed positivity rates of 1.6% in Shamwana and 4.4% in Baraka. No An. funestus were collected in Kashuga. Insecticide susceptibility tests showed resistance development towards pyrethroids in all locations. Exposure to bendiocarb, malathion and pirimiphos-methyl still resulted in high mosquito mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This is one of only few studies from these conflict areas in DRC to report insecticide resistance in local malaria vectors. The data suggest that current malaria prevention methods in these populations are only partially effective, and require additional tools and strategies. Importantly, the results triggered MSF to consider the selection of a new insecticide for indoor residual spraying (IRS) and a new long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN). The reinforcement of correct usage of LLINs and the introduction of targeted larviciding were also included as additional vector control tools as a result of the studies.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19975, 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203956

RESUMO

The distribution of malaria infections is heterogeneous in space and time, especially in low transmission settings. Understanding this clustering may allow identification and targeting of pockets of transmission. In Adama district, Ethiopia, Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria patients and controls were examined, together with household members and immediate neighbors. Rapid diagnostic test and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used for the detection of infections that were genetically characterized by a panel of microsatellite loci for P. falciparum (26) and P. vivax (11), respectively. Individuals living in households of clinical P. falciparum patients were more likely to have qPCR detected P. falciparum infections (22.0%, 9/41) compared to individuals in control households (8.7%, 37/426; odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-6.4; P = .007). Genetically related P. falciparum, but not P. vivax infections showed strong clustering within households. Genotyping revealed a marked temporal cluster of P. falciparum infections, almost exclusively comprised of clinical cases. These findings uncover previously unappreciated transmission dynamics and support a rational approach to reactive case detection strategies for P. falciparum in Ethiopia.

10.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(11): e20904, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With a decline in malaria burden, innovative interventions and tools are required to reduce malaria transmission further. Mass drug administration (MDA) of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been identified as a potential tool to further reduce malaria transmission, where coverage of vector control interventions is already high. However, the impact is limited in time. Combining an ACT with an endectocide treatment that is able to reduce vector survival, such as ivermectin (IVM), could increase the impact of MDA and offer a new tool to reduce malaria transmission. OBJECTIVE: The study objective is to evaluate the impact of MDA with IVM plus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) on malaria transmission in an area with high coverage of malaria control interventions. METHODS: The study is a cluster randomized trial in the Upper River Region of The Gambia and included 32 villages (16 control and 16 intervention). A buffer zone of ~2 km was created around all intervention clusters. MDA with IVM plus DP was implemented in all intervention villages and the buffer zones; control villages received standard malaria interventions according to the Gambian National Malaria Control Program plans. RESULTS: The MDA campaigns were carried out from August to October 2018 for the first year and from July to September 2019 for the second year. Statistical analysis will commence once the database is completed, cleaned, and locked. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first cluster randomized clinical trial of MDA with IVM plus DP. The results will provide evidence on the impact of MDA with IVM plus DP on malaria transmission. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03576313; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03576313. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/20904.

12.
Trends Parasitol ; 36(11): 880-883, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036937

RESUMO

Malaria eradication is a global priority but requires innovative strategies. Humoral immune responses attack different parasite stages, and antibody-based therapy may prevent malaria infection or transmission. Here, we discuss targets of monoclonal antibodies in mosquito sexual stages of Plasmodium.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Culicidae/parasitologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/imunologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/transmissão , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Animais , Culicidae/imunologia , Erradicação de Doenças , Humanos , Malária/parasitologia
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1758-1761, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069267

RESUMO

We calculated carbon emissions associated with air travel of 4,834 participants at the 2019 annual conference of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH). Together, participants traveled a total of 27.7 million miles or 44.6 million kilometers. This equates to 58 return trips to the moon. Estimated carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions were 8,646 metric tons or the total weekly carbon footprint of approximately 9,366 average American households. These emissions contribute to climate change and thus may exacerbate many of the global diseases that conference attendees seek to combat. Options to reduce conference travel-associated emissions include 1) alternating in-person and online conferences, 2) offering a hybrid in-person/online conference, and 3) decentralizing the conference with multiple conference venues. Decentralized ASTMH conferences may allow for up to 64% reduction in travel distance and 58% reduction in CO2e emissions. Given the urgency of the climate crisis and the clear association between global warming and global health, ways to reduce carbon emissions should be considered.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono , Higiene , Sociedades Científicas/organização & administração , Viagem , Medicina Tropical , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Estados Unidos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077656

RESUMO

8-aminoquinoline compounds have long been the only therapeutic agents against latent hepatic malaria parasites. These have poor activity against the blood stage plasmodia causing acute malaria and must be used in conjunction with partner blood schizontocidal agents. We examined the impacts of one such agent, chloroquine, upon the activity of primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, against hepatic stages of Plasmodium cynomolgi, Plasmodium yoelii, Plasmodium berghei, and Plasmodium falciparum within several ex vivo systems: primary hepatocytes of Macaca fascicularis; primary human hepatocytes; and stably transformed human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2. Primaquine exposures to formed hepatic schizonts and hypnozoites of P. cynomolgi in primary simian hepatocytes exhibited similar IC50 values near 0.4 µM, whereas chloroquine in the same system exhibited no inhibitory activities. Combining chloroquine and primaquine in this system decreased the observed primaquine IC50 for all parasite forms in a chloroquine dose-dependent manner by an average of 18-fold. Chloroquine also decreased the primaquine IC50 against hepatic P. falciparum in primary human hepatocytes, P. berghei in simian primary hepatocytes, and P. yoelii in primary human hepatocytes. Chloroquine had no impact on primaquine IC50 against P. yoelii in HepG2 cells, and likewise had no impact on the IC50 of atovaquone (hepatic schizontocide) against P. falciparum in human hepatocytes. We describe important sources of variability in the potentiation of primaquine activity by chloroquine in these systems. Chloroquine potentiated primaquine activity against hepatic forms of several plasmodia. We conclude that chloroquine specifically potentiated 8-aminoquinoline activities against active and dormant hepatic stage plasmodia in normal primary hepatocytes but not in a hepatocarcinoma cell line.

15.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003370, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reactive malaria strategies are predicated on the assumption that individuals infected with malaria are clustered within households or neighbourhoods. Despite the widespread programmatic implementation of reactive strategies, little empirical evidence exists as to whether such strategies are appropriate and, if so, how they should be most effectively implemented. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collated 2 different datasets to assess clustering of malaria infections within households: (i) demographic health survey (DHS) data, integrating household information and patent malaria infection, recent fever, and recent treatment status in children; and (ii) data from cross-sectional and reactive detection studies containing information on the household and malaria infection status (patent and subpatent) of all-aged individuals. Both datasets were used to assess the odds of infections clustering within index households, where index households were defined based on whether they contained infections detectable through one of 3 programmatic strategies: (a) Reactive Case Detection (RACD) classifed by confirmed clinical cases, (b) Mass Screen and Treat (MSAT) classifed by febrile, symptomatic infections, and (c) Mass Test and Treat (MTAT) classifed by infections detectable using routine diagnostics. Data included 59,050 infections in 208,140 children under 7 years old (median age = 2 years, minimum = 2, maximum = 7) by microscopy/rapid diagnostic test (RDT) from 57 DHSs conducted between November 2006 and December 2018 from 23 African countries. Data representing 11,349 infections across all ages (median age = 22 years, minimum = 0.5, maximum = 100) detected by molecular tools in 132,590 individuals in 43 studies published between April 2006 and May 2019 in 20 African, American, Asian, and Middle Eastern countries were obtained from the published literature. Extensive clustering was observed-overall, there was a 20.40 greater (95% credible interval [CrI] 0.35-20.45; P < 0.001) odds of patent infections (according to the DHS data) and 5.13 greater odds (95% CI 3.85-6.84; P < 0.001) of molecularly detected infections (from the published literature) detected within households in which a programmatically detectable infection resides. The strongest degree of clustering identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/ loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was observed using the MTAT strategy (odds ratio [OR] = 6.79, 95% CI 4.42-10.43) but was not significantly different when compared to MSAT (OR = 5.2, 95% CI 3.22-8.37; P-difference = 0.883) and RACD (OR = 4.08, 95% CI 2.55-6.53; P-difference = 0.29). Across both datasets, clustering became more prominent when transmission was low. However, limitations to our analysis include not accounting for any malaria control interventions in place, malaria seasonality, or the likely heterogeneity of transmission within study sites. Clustering may thus have been underestimated. CONCLUSIONS: In areas where malaria transmission is peri-domestic, there are programmatic options for identifying households where residual infections are likely to be found. Combining these detection strategies with presumptively treating residents of index households over a sustained time period could contribute to malaria elimination efforts.

16.
Elife ; 92020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107430

RESUMO

Multiple studies have reported a male bias in incidence and/or prevalence of malaria infection in males compared to females. To test the hypothesis that sex-based differences in host-parasite interactions affect the epidemiology of malaria, we intensively followed Plasmodium falciparum infections in a cohort in a malaria endemic area of eastern Uganda and estimated both force of infection (FOI) and rate of clearance using amplicon deep-sequencing. We found no evidence of differences in behavioral risk factors, incidence of malaria, or FOI by sex. In contrast, females cleared asymptomatic infections at a faster rate than males (hazard ratio [HR]=1.82, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.75 by clone and HR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.24 to 3.47 by infection event) in multivariate models adjusted for age, timing of infection onset, and parasite density. These findings implicate biological sex-based differences as an important factor in the host response to this globally important pathogen.

17.
Curr Biol ; 30(18): R1014-R1018, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961149

RESUMO

Recently, a petition was offered to the European Commission calling for an immediate ban on animal testing. Although a Europe-wide moratorium on the use of animals in science is not yet possible, there has been a push by the non-scientific community and politicians for a rapid transition to animal-free innovations. Although there are benefits for both animal welfare and researchers, advances on alternative methods have not progressed enough to be able to replace animal research in the foreseeable future. This trend has led first and foremost to a substantial increase in the administrative burden and hurdles required to make timely advances in research and treatments for human and animal diseases. The current COVID-19 pandemic clearly highlights how much we actually rely on animal research. COVID-19 affects several organs and systems, and the various animal-free alternatives currently available do not come close to this complexity. In this Essay, we therefore argue that the use of animals is essential for the advancement of human and veterinary health.


Assuntos
Experimentação Animal , Pesquisa Biomédica , Infecções por Coronavirus , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Humanos
19.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the World Health Organization recommended single low-dose (0.25mg/kg) primaquine (PQ) in combination with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in areas of low transmission or artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum, several single-site studies have been conducted to assess its efficacy. METHODS: An individual patient meta-analysis to assess the gametocytocidal and transmission-blocking efficacy of PQ used in combination with different ACTs was conducted. Random effects logistic regression was used to quantify PQ effect on (i) gametocyte carriage in the first two weeks post-treatment; (ii) the probability of infecting at least one mosquito or of a mosquito becoming infected. RESULTS: In 2,574 participants from fourteen studies, PQ reduced PCR-determined gametocyte carriage on days 7 and 14, most apparently in patients presenting with gametocytaemia on day 0 (Odds Ratio (OR)=0.22; 95%CI 0.17-0.28 and OR=0.12; 95%CI 0.08-0.16, respectively). The rate of decline in gametocyte carriage was faster when PQ was combined with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) compared to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) (p=0.010 for day 7). Addition of 0.25mg/kg PQ was associated with near complete prevention of transmission to mosquitoes. CONCLUSION: Primaquine's transmission-blocking effects are achieved with 0.25 mg/kg PQ. Gametocyte persistence and infectivity are lower when PQ is combined with AL compared to DP.

20.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 401, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To understand the dynamics of malaria transmission, membrane feeding assays with glass feeders are used to assess the transmission potential of malaria infected individuals to mosquitoes. However, in some circumstances, use of these assays is hindered by both the blood volume requirement and the availability of fragile, specially crafted glass feeders. 3D printed plastic feeders that require very small volumes of blood would thus expand the utility of membrane feeding assays. METHODS: Using two 3D printing production methods, MultiJet (MJ) and Digital Light Processing (DLP), we developed a plastic version of the most commonly used standard glass feeder (the mini-feeder) with an improved design, and also a smaller feeder requiring only 60 µl of blood (the nano-feeder). Performance of the 3D printed feeders was compared to standard glass mini-feeders by assessing infectivity of gametocytes to mosquitoes in standard membrane feeding assays with laboratory reared Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and cultured Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes. In addition, the optimum number of mosquitoes that can feed on the nano-feeder was determined by evaluating fully fed mosquitoes visually and by assessing blood- meal volume with a colorimetric haemoglobin assay. RESULTS: The 3D printing methods allowed quick and inexpensive production of durable feeders. Infectivity of gametocytes to mosquitoes was comparable for MJ and DLP 3D printed feeders and glass feeders, and the performance of the 3D printed feeders was not influenced by repeated washing with bleach. There was no loss in transmission efficiency when the feeder size was reduced from mini-feeder to nano-feeder, and blood-meal volume assessment indicated ~10 An. stephensi mosquitoes can take a full blood-meal (median volume 3.44 µl) on a nano-feeder. CONCLUSIONS: Here we present 3D printed mini- and nano-feeders with comparable performance to the currently used glass mini-feeders. These feeders do not require specialized glass craftsmanship, making them easily accessible. Moreover, the smaller nano-feeders will enable evaluation of smaller blood volumes that can be collected from finger prick, thus expanding the utility of membrane feeding assays and facilitating a more thorough evaluation of the human infectious reservoir for malaria.

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