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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696364

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive agammaglobulinemia (ARA) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by absent peripheral B cells, severe hypogammaglobulinemia, and absent BTK gene mutations. In ARA, mutations occur in genes encoding the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) or downstream signaling proteins. In this work, we used candidate gene and whole-exome sequencing to investigate the molecular basis of ARA in 6 patients from 4 consanguineous North-African families. Sanger sequencing of candidate genes encoding the pre-BCR components (ΙGΗΜ, CD79A, CD79B, IGLL1, and VPREB1) was initially performed and determined the genetic defect in five patients. Two novel mutations in IGHM (p.Val378Alafs*1 and p.Ile184Serfs*21) were identified in three patients from two unrelated kindred and a novel nonsense mutation was identified in CD79A (p.Trp66*) in two siblings from a third kindred. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on the sixth patient who harbored a homozygous stop mutation at position 407 in the RAG2 gene (p.Glu407*). We concluded that conventional gene sequencing, especially when multiple genes are involved in the defect as is the case in ARA, is costly and time-consuming, resulting in delayed diagnosis that contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In addition, it fails to identify the involvement of novel and unsuspected gene defects when the phenotype of the patients is atypical. WES has the potential to provide a rapid and more accurate genetic diagnosis in ARA, which is crucial for the treatment of the patients.

2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2215-2226.e7, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory activation of CD8+ T cells can, when left unchecked, drive severe immunopathology. Hyperstimulation of CD8+ T cells through a broad set of triggering signals can precipitate hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a life-threatening systemic inflammatory disorder. OBJECTIVE: The mechanism linking CD8+ T-cell hyperactivation to pathology is controversial, with excessive production of IFN-γ and, more recently, excessive consumption of IL-2, which are proposed as competing hypotheses. We formally tested the proximal mechanistic events of each pathway in a mouse model of HLH. METHODS: In addition to reporting a complete autosomal recessive IFN-γ receptor 1-deficient patient with multiple aspects of HLH pathology, we used the mouse model of perforin (Prf1)KO mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus to genetically eliminate either IFN-γ production or CD25 expression and assess the immunologic, hematologic, and physiologic disease measurement. RESULTS: We found a striking dichotomy between the mechanistic basis of the hematologic and inflammatory components of CD8+ T cell-mediated pathology. The hematologic features of HLH were completely dependent on IFN-γ production, with complete correction after loss of IFN-γ production without any role for CD8+ T cell-mediated IL-2 consumption. By contrast, the mechanistic contribution of the immunologic features was reversed, with no role for IFN-γ production but substantial correction after reduction of IL-2 consumption by hyperactivated CD8+ T cells. These results were complemented by the characterization of an IFN-γ receptor 1-deficient patients with HLH-like disease, in whom multiple aspects of HLH pathology were observed in the absence of IFN-γ signaling. CONCLUSION: These results synthesize the competing mechanistic models of HLH pathology into a dichotomous pathogenesis driven through discrete pathways. A holistic model provides a new paradigm for understanding HLH and, more broadly, the consequences of CD8+ T-cell hyperactivation, thereby paving the way for clinical intervention based on the features of HLH in individual patients.

3.
Blood ; 132(22): 2362-2374, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254128

RESUMO

ARPC1B is a key factor for the assembly and maintenance of the ARP2/3 complex that is involved in actin branching from an existing filament. Germline biallelic mutations in ARPC1B have been recently described in 6 patients with clinical features of combined immunodeficiency (CID), whose neutrophils and platelets but not T lymphocytes were studied. We hypothesized that ARPC1B deficiency may also lead to cytoskeleton and functional defects in T cells. We have identified biallelic mutations in ARPC1B in 6 unrelated patients with early onset disease characterized by severe infections, autoimmune manifestations, and thrombocytopenia. Immunological features included T-cell lymphopenia, low numbers of naïve T cells, and hyper-immunoglobulin E. Alteration in ARPC1B protein structure led to absent/low expression by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. This molecular defect was associated with the inability of patient-derived T cells to extend an actin-rich lamellipodia upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and to assemble an immunological synapse. ARPC1B-deficient T cells additionally displayed impaired TCR-mediated proliferation and SDF1-α-directed migration. Gene transfer of ARPC1B in patients' T cells using a lentiviral vector restored both ARPC1B expression and T-cell proliferation in vitro. In 2 of the patients, in vivo somatic reversion restored ARPC1B expression in a fraction of lymphocytes and was associated with a skewed TCR repertoire. In 1 revertant patient, memory CD8+ T cells expressing normal levels of ARPC1B displayed improved T-cell migration. Inherited ARPC1B deficiency therefore alters T-cell cytoskeletal dynamics and functions, contributing to the clinical features of CID.

4.
Nat Immunol ; 19(9): 973-985, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127434

RESUMO

Human inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie mycobacterial diseases. We describe patients with Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) disease who are homozygous for loss-of-function mutations of SPPL2A. This gene encodes a transmembrane protease that degrades the N-terminal fragment (NTF) of CD74 (HLA invariant chain) in antigen-presenting cells. The CD74 NTF therefore accumulates in the HLA class II+ myeloid and lymphoid cells of SPPL2a-deficient patients. This toxic fragment selectively depletes IL-12- and IL-23-producing CD1c+ conventional dendritic cells (cDC2s) and their circulating progenitors. Moreover, SPPL2a-deficient memory TH1* cells selectively fail to produce IFN-γ when stimulated with mycobacterial antigens in vitro. Finally, Sppl2a-/- mice lack cDC2s, have CD4+ T cells that produce small amounts of IFN-γ after BCG infection, and are highly susceptible to infection with BCG or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings suggest that inherited SPPL2a deficiency in humans underlies mycobacterial disease by decreasing the numbers of cDC2s and impairing IFN-γ production by mycobacterium-specific memory TH1* cells.

5.
Sci Immunol ; 3(24)2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907691

RESUMO

Heterozygosity for human signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) dominant-negative (DN) mutations underlies an autosomal dominant form of hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES). We describe patients with an autosomal recessive form of HIES due to loss-of-function mutations of a previously uncharacterized gene, ZNF341 ZNF341 is a transcription factor that resides in the nucleus, where it binds a specific DNA motif present in various genes, including the STAT3 promoter. The patients' cells have low basal levels of STAT3 mRNA and protein. The autoinduction of STAT3 production, activation, and function by STAT3-activating cytokines is strongly impaired. Like patients with STAT3 DN mutations, ZNF341-deficient patients lack T helper 17 (TH17) cells, have an excess of TH2 cells, and have low memory B cells due to the tight dependence of STAT3 activity on ZNF341 in lymphocytes. Their milder extra-hematopoietic manifestations and stronger inflammatory responses reflect the lower ZNF341 dependence of STAT3 activity in other cell types. Human ZNF341 is essential for the STAT3 transcription-dependent autoinduction and sustained activity of STAT3.

6.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(1): 129-143, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29226301

RESUMO

Since the 1990s, the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) PID expert committee (EC), now called Inborn Errors of Immunity Committee, has published every other year a classification of the inborn errors of immunity. This complete catalog serves as a reference for immunologists and researchers worldwide. However, it was unadapted for clinicians at the bedside. For those, the IUIS PID EC is now publishing a phenotypical classification since 2013, which proved to be more user-friendly. There are now 320 single-gene inborn errors of immunity underlying phenotypes as diverse as infection, malignancy, allergy, auto-immunity, and auto-inflammation. We herein propose the revised 2017 phenotypic classification, based on the accompanying 2017 IUIS Inborn Errors of Immunity Committee classification.

7.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(1): 96-128, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29226302

RESUMO

Beginning in 1970, a committee was constituted under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO) to catalog primary immunodeficiencies. Twenty years later, the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) took the remit of this committee. The current report details the categorization and listing of 354 (as of February 2017) inborn errors of immunity. The growth and increasing complexity of the field have been impressive, encompassing an increasing variety of conditions, and the classification described here will serve as a critical reference for immunologists and researchers worldwide.

8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 140(1): 232-241, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28011069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline heterozygous mutations in human signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) can cause loss of function (LOF), as in patients with Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases, or gain of function (GOF), as in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. LOF and GOF mutations are equally rare and can affect the same domains of STAT1, especially the coiled-coil domain (CCD) and DNA-binding domain (DBD). Moreover, 6% of patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis with a GOF STAT1 mutation have mycobacterial disease, obscuring the functional significance of the identified STAT1 mutations. Current computational approaches, such as combined annotation-dependent depletion, do not distinguish LOF and GOF variants. OBJECTIVE: We estimated variations in the CCD/DBD of STAT1. METHODS: We mutagenized 342 individual wild-type amino acids in the CCD/DBD (45.6% of full-length STAT1) to alanine and tested the mutants for STAT1 transcriptional activity. RESULTS: Of these 342 mutants, 201 were neutral, 30 were LOF, and 111 were GOF mutations in a luciferase assay. This assay system correctly estimated all previously reported LOF mutations (100%) and slightly fewer GOF mutations (78.1%) in the CCD/DBD of STAT1. We found that GOF alanine mutants occurred at the interface of the antiparallel STAT1 dimer, suggesting that they destabilize this dimer. This assay also precisely predicted the effect of 2 hypomorphic and dominant negative mutations, E157K and G250E, in the CCD of STAT1 that we found in 2 unrelated patients with Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. CONCLUSION: The systematic alanine-scanning assay is a useful tool to estimate the GOF or LOF status and the effect of heterozygous missense mutations in STAT1 identified in patients with severe infectious diseases, including mycobacterial and fungal diseases.


Assuntos
Alanina/genética , Infecções por Mycobacterium/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Bioensaio , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Mutagênese , Mutação , Domínios Proteicos
9.
J Exp Med ; 213(11): 2413-2435, 2016 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27647349

RESUMO

Combined immunodeficiency (CID) refers to inborn errors of human T cells that also affect B cells because of the T cell deficit or an additional B cell-intrinsic deficit. In this study, we report six patients from three unrelated families with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in RLTPR, the mouse orthologue of which is essential for CD28 signaling. The patients have cutaneous and pulmonary allergy, as well as a variety of bacterial and fungal infectious diseases, including invasive tuberculosis and mucocutaneous candidiasis. Proportions of circulating regulatory T cells and memory CD4+ T cells are reduced. Their CD4+ T cells do not respond to CD28 stimulation. Their CD4+ T cells exhibit a "Th2" cell bias ex vivo and when cultured in vitro, contrasting with the paucity of "Th1," "Th17," and T follicular helper cells. The patients also display few memory B cells and poor antibody responses. This B cell phenotype does not result solely from the T cell deficiency, as the patients' B cells fail to activate NF-κB upon B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation. Human RLTPR deficiency is a CID affecting at least the CD28-responsive pathway in T cells and the BCR-responsive pathway in B cells.


Assuntos
Alelos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Mutação/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Antígenos CD28/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dimerização , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Imunofenotipagem , Leucócitos/patologia , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B , Transdução de Sinais , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Exp Med ; 213(8): 1589-608, 2016 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27401342

RESUMO

Naive CD4(+) T cells differentiate into specific effector subsets-Th1, Th2, Th17, and T follicular helper (Tfh)-that provide immunity against pathogen infection. The signaling pathways involved in generating these effector cells are partially known. However, the effects of mutations underlying human primary immunodeficiencies on these processes, and how they compromise specific immune responses, remain unresolved. By studying individuals with mutations in key signaling pathways, we identified nonredundant pathways regulating human CD4(+) T cell differentiation in vitro. IL12Rß1/TYK2 and IFN-γR/STAT1 function in a feed-forward loop to induce Th1 cells, whereas IL-21/IL-21R/STAT3 signaling is required for Th17, Tfh, and IL-10-secreting cells. IL12Rß1/TYK2 and NEMO are also required for Th17 induction. Strikingly, gain-of-function STAT1 mutations recapitulated the impact of dominant-negative STAT3 mutations on Tfh and Th17 cells, revealing a putative inhibitory effect of hypermorphic STAT1 over STAT3. These findings provide mechanistic insight into the requirements for human T cell effector function, and explain clinical manifestations of these immunodeficient conditions. Furthermore, they identify molecules that could be targeted to modulate CD4(+) T cell effector function in the settings of infection, vaccination, or immune dysregulation.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Masculino , Mutação , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/imunologia , Células Th1/citologia , Células Th17/citologia
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(24): 6713-8, 2016 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27247391

RESUMO

Principal component analysis (PCA), homozygosity rate estimations, and linkage studies in humans are classically conducted through genome-wide single-nucleotide variant arrays (GWSA). We compared whole-exome sequencing (WES) and GWSA for this purpose. We analyzed 110 subjects originating from different regions of the world, including North Africa and the Middle East, which are poorly covered by public databases and have high consanguinity rates. We tested and applied a number of quality control (QC) filters. Compared with GWSA, we found that WES provided an accurate prediction of population substructure using variants with a minor allele frequency > 2% (correlation = 0.89 with the PCA coordinates obtained by GWSA). WES also yielded highly reliable estimates of homozygosity rates using runs of homozygosity with a 1,000-kb window (correlation = 0.94 with the estimates provided by GWSA). Finally, homozygosity mapping analyses in 15 families including a single offspring with high homozygosity rates showed that WES provided 51% less genome-wide linkage information than GWSA overall but 97% more information for the coding regions. At the genome-wide scale, 76.3% of linked regions were found by both GWSA and WES, 17.7% were found by GWSA only, and 6.0% were found by WES only. For coding regions, the corresponding percentages were 83.5%, 7.4%, and 9.1%, respectively. With appropriate QC filters, WES can be used for PCA and adjustment for population substructure, estimating homozygosity rates in individuals, and powerful linkage analyses, particularly in coding regions.


Assuntos
Consanguinidade , Ligação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Homozigoto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oriente Médio , América do Norte
12.
Blood ; 127(25): 3154-64, 2016 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27114460

RESUMO

Since their discovery in patients with autosomal dominant (AD) chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) in 2011, heterozygous STAT1 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations have increasingly been identified worldwide. The clinical spectrum associated with them needed to be delineated. We enrolled 274 patients from 167 kindreds originating from 40 countries from 5 continents. Demographic data, clinical features, immunological parameters, treatment, and outcome were recorded. The median age of the 274 patients was 22 years (range, 1-71 years); 98% of them had CMC, with a median age at onset of 1 year (range, 0-24 years). Patients often displayed bacterial (74%) infections, mostly because of Staphylococcus aureus (36%), including the respiratory tract and the skin in 47% and 28% of patients, respectively, and viral (38%) infections, mostly because of Herpesviridae (83%) and affecting the skin in 32% of patients. Invasive fungal infections (10%), mostly caused by Candida spp. (29%), and mycobacterial disease (6%) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, environmental mycobacteria, or Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccines were less common. Many patients had autoimmune manifestations (37%), including hypothyroidism (22%), type 1 diabetes (4%), blood cytopenia (4%), and systemic lupus erythematosus (2%). Invasive infections (25%), cerebral aneurysms (6%), and cancers (6%) were the strongest predictors of poor outcome. CMC persisted in 39% of the 202 patients receiving prolonged antifungal treatment. Circulating interleukin-17A-producing T-cell count was low for most (82%) but not all of the patients tested. STAT1 GOF mutations underlie AD CMC, as well as an unexpectedly wide range of other clinical features, including not only a variety of infectious and autoimmune diseases, but also cerebral aneurysms and carcinomas that confer a poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Clin Immunol ; 35(8): 727-38, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26445875

RESUMO

There are now nearly 300 single-gene inborn errors of immunity underlying phenotypes as diverse as infection, malignancy, allergy, auto-immunity, and auto-inflammation. For each of these five categories, a growing variety of phenotypes are ascribed to Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases (PID), making PIDs a rapidly expanding field of medicine. The International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) PID expert committee (EC) has published every other year a classification of these disorders into tables, defined by shared pathogenesis and/or clinical consequences. In 2013, the IUIS committee also proposed a more user-friendly, phenotypic classification, based on the selection of key phenotypes at the bedside. We herein propose the revised figures, based on the accompanying 2015 IUIS PID EC classification.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Infecção/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Autoimunidade , Prova Pericial , Humanos , Imunidade/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/classificação , Fenótipo
14.
J Clin Immunol ; 35(8): 696-726, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26482257

RESUMO

We report the updated classification of primary immunodeficiencies compiled by the Primary Immunodeficiency Expert Committee (PID EC) of the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS). In the two years since the previous version, 34 new gene defects are reported in this updated version. For each disorder, the key clinical and laboratory features are provided. In this new version we continue to see the increasing overlap between immunodeficiency, as manifested by infection and/or malignancy, and immune dysregulation, as manifested by auto-inflammation, auto-immunity, and/or allergy. There is also an increased number of genetic defects that lead to susceptibility to specific organisms which reflects the finely tuned nature of immune defense systems. This classification is the most up to date catalogue of all known and published primary immunodeficiencies and acts as a current reference of the knowledge of these conditions and is an important aid for the genetic and molecular diagnosis of patients with these rare diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Infecção/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/imunologia , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Prova Pericial , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Imunidade/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/classificação , Infecção/genética , Cooperação Internacional , Mutação/genética
15.
J Exp Med ; 212(10): 1641-62, 2015 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26304966

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive, complete TYK2 deficiency was previously described in a patient (P1) with intracellular bacterial and viral infections and features of hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES), including atopic dermatitis, high serum IgE levels, and staphylococcal abscesses. We identified seven other TYK2-deficient patients from five families and four different ethnic groups. These patients were homozygous for one of five null mutations, different from that seen in P1. They displayed mycobacterial and/or viral infections, but no HIES. All eight TYK2-deficient patients displayed impaired but not abolished cellular responses to (a) IL-12 and IFN-α/ß, accounting for mycobacterial and viral infections, respectively; (b) IL-23, with normal proportions of circulating IL-17(+) T cells, accounting for their apparent lack of mucocutaneous candidiasis; and (c) IL-10, with no overt clinical consequences, including a lack of inflammatory bowel disease. Cellular responses to IL-21, IL-27, IFN-γ, IL-28/29 (IFN-λ), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) were normal. The leukocytes and fibroblasts of all seven newly identified TYK2-deficient patients, unlike those of P1, responded normally to IL-6, possibly accounting for the lack of HIES in these patients. The expression of exogenous wild-type TYK2 or the silencing of endogenous TYK2 did not rescue IL-6 hyporesponsiveness, suggesting that this phenotype was not a consequence of the TYK2 genotype. The core clinical phenotype of TYK2 deficiency is mycobacterial and/or viral infections, caused by impaired responses to IL-12 and IFN-α/ß. Moreover, impaired IL-6 responses and HIES do not appear to be intrinsic features of TYK2 deficiency in humans.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Job/etiologia , TYK2 Quinase/deficiência , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/farmacologia , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/farmacologia , Interleucina-23/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/farmacologia , Síndrome de Job/complicações , Síndrome de Job/genética , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Mutação , Infecções por Mycobacterium/etiologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/patologia , TYK2 Quinase/genética , TYK2 Quinase/metabolismo , Viroses/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 136(4): 993-1006.e1, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26162572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Follicular helper T (TFH) cells underpin T cell-dependent humoral immunity and the success of most vaccines. TFH cells also contribute to human immune disorders, such as autoimmunity, immunodeficiency, and malignancy. Understanding the molecular requirements for the generation and function of TFH cells will provide strategies for targeting these cells to modulate their behavior in the setting of these immunologic abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the signaling pathways and cellular interactions required for the development and function of TFH cells in human subjects. METHODS: Human primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) resulting from monogenic mutations provide a unique opportunity to assess the requirement for particular molecules in regulating human lymphocyte function. Circulating follicular helper T (cTFH) cell subsets, memory B cells, and serum immunoglobulin levels were quantified and functionally assessed in healthy control subjects, as well as in patients with PIDs resulting from mutations in STAT3, STAT1, TYK2, IL21, IL21R, IL10R, IFNGR1/2, IL12RB1, CD40LG, NEMO, ICOS, or BTK. RESULTS: Loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in STAT3, IL10R, CD40LG, NEMO, ICOS, or BTK reduced cTFH cell frequencies. STAT3 and IL21/R LOF and STAT1 gain-of-function mutations skewed cTFH cell differentiation toward a phenotype characterized by overexpression of IFN-γ and programmed death 1. IFN-γ inhibited cTFH cell function in vitro and in vivo, as corroborated by hypergammaglobulinemia in patients with IFNGR1/2, STAT1, and IL12RB1 LOF mutations. CONCLUSION: Specific mutations affect the quantity and quality of cTFH cells, highlighting the need to assess TFH cells in patients by using multiple criteria, including phenotype and function. Furthermore, IFN-γ functions in vivo to restrain TFH cell-induced B-cell differentiation. These findings shed new light on TFH cell biology and the integrated signaling pathways required for their generation, maintenance, and effector function and explain the compromised humoral immunity seen in patients with some PIDs.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Ligante de CD40/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Quinase I-kappa B/genética , Imunidade Humoral/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Memória Imunológica , Proteína Coestimuladora de Linfócitos T Induzíveis/genética , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Receptores de Citocinas/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
17.
Immunol Rev ; 264(1): 103-20, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25703555

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and a few related mycobacteria, is a devastating disease, killing more than a million individuals per year worldwide. However, its pathogenesis remains largely elusive, as only a small proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease either during primary infection or during reactivation from latency or secondary infection. Subacute, hematogenous, and extrapulmonary disease tends to be more frequent in infants, children, and teenagers than in adults. Life-threatening primary TB of childhood can result from known acquired or inherited immunodeficiencies, although the vast majority of cases remain unexplained. We review here the conditions conferring a predisposition to childhood clinical diseases caused by mycobacteria, including not only M.tb but also weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as BCG vaccines and environmental mycobacteria. Infections with weakly virulent mycobacteria are much rarer than TB, but the inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying these infections are much better known. Their study has also provided genetic and immunological insights into childhood TB, as illustrated by the discovery of single-gene inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlying severe cases of TB. Novel findings are expected from ongoing and future human genetic studies of childhood TB in countries that combine a high proportion of consanguineous marriages, a high incidence of TB, and an excellent clinical care, such as Iran, Morocco, and Turkey.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/etiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Tuberculose/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Criança , Genes Dominantes , Genes Recessivos , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
18.
Front Immunol ; 5: 162, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24795713

RESUMO

We report the updated classification of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) compiled by the Expert Committee of the International Union of Immunological Societies. In comparison to the previous version, more than 30 new gene defects are reported in this updated version. In addition, we have added a table of acquired defects that are phenocopies of PIDs. For each disorder, the key clinical and laboratory features are provided. This classification is the most up-to-date catalog of all known PIDs and acts as a current reference of the knowledge of these conditions and is an important aid for the molecular diagnosis of patients with these rare diseases.

19.
PLoS One ; 8(3): e58286, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23472171

RESUMO

We report identical twins with intellectual disability, progressive spastic paraplegia and short stature, born to a consanguineous family. Intriguingly, both children presented with lymphadenitis caused by the live Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. Two syndromes - hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) and mycobacterial disease - thus occurred simultaneously. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation (p.R1105X) of the AP4E1 gene, which was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The p.R1105X mutation has no effect on AP4E1 mRNA levels, but results in lower levels of AP-4ε protein and of the other components of the AP-4 complex, as shown by western blotting, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence. Thus, the C-terminal part of the AP-4ε subunit plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of the AP-4 complex. No abnormalities of the IL-12/IFN-γ axis or oxidative burst pathways were identified. In conclusion, we identified twins with autosomal recessive AP-4 deficiency associated with HSP and mycobacterial disease, suggesting that AP-4 may play important role in the neurological and immunological systems.


Assuntos
Complexo 4 de Proteínas Adaptadoras/genética , Complexo 4 de Proteínas Adaptadoras/fisiologia , Mutação , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/genética , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/genética , Consanguinidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Doenças em Gêmeos , Exoma , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Homozigoto , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Masculino , Marrocos , Linhagem , Fenótipo
20.
Blood ; 118(19): 5108-18, 2011 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21908431

RESUMO

Inherited deficiency of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules impairs antigen presentation to CD4(+) T cells and results in combined immunodeficiency (CID). Autosomal-recessive mutations in the RFXANK gene account for two-thirds of all cases of MHC class II deficiency. We describe here the genetic, clinical, and immunologic features of 35 patients from 30 unrelated kindreds from North Africa sharing the same RFXANK founder mutation, a 26-bp deletion called I5E6-25_I5E6 + 1), and date the founder event responsible for this mutation in this population to approximately 2250 years ago (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1750-3025 years). Ten of the 23 patients who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) were cured, with the recovery of almost normal immune functions. Five of the patients from this cohort who did not undergo HSCT had a poor prognosis and eventually died (at ages of 1-17 years). However, 7 patients who did not undergo HSCT (at ages of 6-32 years) are still alive on Ig treatment and antibiotic prophylaxis. RFXANK deficiency is a severe, often fatal CID for which HSCT is the only curative treatment. However, some patients may survive for relatively long periods if multiple prophylactic measures are implemented.


Assuntos
Efeito Fundador , Genes MHC da Classe II , Mutação , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , África do Norte , Apresentação do Antígeno/genética , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Expressão Gênica , Genes Recessivos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Masculino , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Deleção de Sequência , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/complicações , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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