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1.
Microvasc Res ; 126: 103909, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376403

RESUMO

Hemorrhagic shock (HS) therapy is based on macrohemodynamic improvement, but it is not clear if this therapy correlates directly with increases in tissue perfusion. Aiming to clarify this point, we compared norepinephrine (NE, a vasoconstrictor), sodium nitroprusside (NP, a vasodilator) and levosimendan (LEV, an inodilator) treatments on macro and microvascular parameters using the hamster dorsal skinfold chamber preparation. One hour after HS, animals received Ringer's lactate (RL) solution within 10 min, then animals received RL, NP, NE and LEV during 90 min via jugular vein. Macrovascular variables: mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), maximal ventricle pressure (MVP), change in ventricular pressure over time (dP/dt) and microvascular variables: arteriolar and venular diameters, functional capillary density (FCD) and red blood cell velocity (RBCV) were evaluated at baseline, 60 min after HS, 60 and 90 min after treatments. Lactate blood concentrations were evaluated at baseline, 60 min after HS and 90 min after treatments. Hematocrit (Hct), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV) and number of rolling and adhered leukocytes were assessed at 90 min after treatments. Data were considered significant when p < 0.05. NE increased significantly all macrohemodynamic variables compared to baseline (except MAP), and it was the only treatment that increased Hct, CO and SV significantly. NE decreased significantly all microvascular variables in comparison to baseline. NP increased HR, FCD and RBCV and reduced MVP and dP/dt significantly. LEV decreased MVP and dP/dt, arteriolar diameter and FCD and augmented RBCV significantly in comparison to baseline. Blood concentration of lactate increased significantly 60 min after HS. Leukocyte rolling and adhesion were not different between groups. We concluded that, early, during hemorrhagic shock, norepinephrine associated to fluid therapy improved macrohemodynamic parameters but failed to improved microvascular flow. Conversely, sodium nitroprusside association had the opposite effect. Despite its inodilator properties, levosimendan did not improve macro or microhemodynamic parameters when combined to fluid therapy.

2.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 31(5): 618-625, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920976

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Microcirculation is essential for adequate tissue perfusion and organ function. Microcirculatory changes may occur in cirrhosis, inducing loss of multiorgan function. The aim was to evaluate preliver transplantation and postliver transplantation aspects of multiorgan function, microcirculation, inflammatory, and endothelial biomarkers and survival in a controlled study including cirrhotic outpatients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We accessed functional capillary density (FCD) and red blood cell acceleration (RBCA) by nailfold videocapillaroscopy. Inflammatory and endothelial biomarkers [interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, endothelin-1, and tumor necrosis factor-α] were analyzed. Cerebral and renal functions were assessed to represent organ dysfunction and regression analyses were carried out. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed and survival Kaplan-Meier analysis was carried out. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients and 18 controls were included. Inflammatory and endothelial markers increased in advanced disease. FCD was reduced and RBCA was progressively lower according to disease severity. RBCA correlated inversely with inflammatory and endothelial biomarkers, and directly with renal function. The presence of hepatic encephalopathy correlated inversely with RBCA and directly with IL-6 and endothelin-1. In multivariate analysis, RBCA was an independent factor for organ dysfunction. The area under the receiver operating chartacteristic curve for IL-6 for survival was 0.74 (0.59-0.89), P=0.05. Transplant-free survival was 97.5% for values under 5.78 ng/ml (IL-6 best cutoff) and 83.9% above 5.78 ng/ml, log-rank=0.018. Eleven patients underwent transplantation, with an overall improvement in microcirculatory function. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a mechanism of organ damage in cirrhosis, where microcirculatory dysfunction could be correlated to inflammatory and endothelial biomarkers, and loss of multiorgan function. IL-6 seems to be an important survival marker of inflammation. Liver transplantation improved microcirculatory dysfunction, corroborating this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Capilares/fisiopatologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Microcirculação , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Unhas/irrigação sanguínea , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Capilares/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eritrócitos , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/sangue , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Nefropatias/sangue , Nefropatias/etiologia , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Cirrose Hepática/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Angioscopia Microscópica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/sangue , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/fisiopatologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
3.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 5238013, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886868

RESUMO

Background: The enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) has been recently recognized as an adipo-myokine. However, studies that associate its constitutive activity with body composition, anthropometry, and insulin resistance (IR) are very scarce and included only healthy people. Methods: First, we investigated the relationships of constitutive DPP4 activity, body composition (assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis), and measures of adiposity and IR in fifty-two subjects of both sexes, 18-50 years, and BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2 who comprised three groups according to glucose tolerance. Additionally, we evaluated associations among DPP4 activity and adipokines, gut peptides, and biochemical variables at fasting and 30 and 60 min after a standardized meal intake. Results: DPP4 activity was no different among the three groups. At fasting, pooled analysis showed it was positively correlated with measures of central adiposity, such as WC (P = 0.011) and WHR (P = 0.009), and with all measures of IR, but inversely related to indexes of general adiposity, such as fat mass percentage (P = 0.014) and BAI (P = 0.0003). DPP4 activity was also associated with lean mass (r = 0.57, P < 0.0001). After meal intake, DPP4 activity remained significantly associated with insulin, leptin, and resistin. In multiple regression analysis, BAI, WHR, percent lean mass, HOMA-IR, and leptin influenced DPP4 activity and explained approximately 26% of the variance on it. Conclusions: Constitutive DPP4 activity is positively associated with lean mass, central adiposity, and IR and negatively to general adiposity. Furthermore, it seems to be influenced by body composition and IR and could also be viewed as an adipo-myokine in subjects with excessive adiposity and different stages of glucose tolerance.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Impedância Elétrica , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 28(8): 1124-1132, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681390

RESUMO

Background: There is scarce evidence regarding endogenous postmenopausal ovarian testosterone (T) production and estrogen replacement roles in different sexual domains. This study aimed to determine whether lower endogenous T in oophorectomized women that were estradiol (E2)-treated influenced global or specific domains of sexual function. Depressive and cognitive symptoms were evaluated to exclude potential confounders. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one recently postmenopausal women treated with transdermal E2, 36 with bilateral oophorectomy (O), and 45 controls (C) were investigated through hormonal profile, Female Sexual Function Index, Mini Mental, and Beck Depression Inventory. Results: T levels, as expected, were lower in O than in C (p = 0.001); nonetheless, O presented a lower risk of sexual dysfunction (55.6% vs. 85.7%, p = 0.037), due to less pain (p = 0.005), increased lubrication (p = 0.012), and satisfaction (p = 0.042). O, however, required 50% higher E2 gel doses to control vasomotor symptoms (VMS) than did C. In O, all T measurements were positively, although weakly, correlated with desire (r = 0.374-0.381, p = 0.016-0.024). E2 levels were positively correlated with arousal in all women (r = 0.338, p = 0.038) and in O (r = 0.521, p = 0.032). Depression and cognition scores did not differ between the groups. Conclusions: Despite lower T levels, O women receiving E2 therapy had better global sexual function. Earlier onset and longer E2 treatment could have prevented vulvovaginal atrophy in O. Oophorectomized patients may require higher doses of E2 replacement. E2 levels, achieved by appropriate hormone therapy for VMS control, and very low T levels correlated with distinct sexual domains and may act in complementary areas of sexuality in postmenopausal women.

5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 5046508, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30515403

RESUMO

Background: Frequently, ingestion of lipids exceeds our daily requirements and constantly exposes humans to circulating lipid overload which may lead to endothelial dysfunction (ED), the earliest marker of atherosclerosis. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) technique can detect ED on microcirculation. Using NVC, we aimed to demonstrate if metabolic alterations evoked by high-fat meals can act differently on microvascular endothelial reactivity in lean and women with obesity. Methods: Women, aged between 19 and 40 years, were allocated to control group (CG) and with obesity group (OBG) and were subjected to blood analysis for determination of glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and NVC evaluation at fasting and 30, 60, 120, and 180-min after high-fat meal ingestion. NVC technique evaluated microvascular reactivity through the following variables: red blood cell velocity (RBCV) at rest and after 1-min ischemia (maximal red blood cell velocity, RBCVmax) and time taken to reach it (TRBCVmax). A P value ≤0.05 was considered significant. Results: High-fat meal promoted a two-phase response in both groups: one until 60-min, associated with glucose and insulin levels, and the other after 120-min, associated with TG levels. Significant differences between groups were observed concerning insulin and HDL-c concentrations only at fasting and TC, TG, and LDL-c levels in all-time points. Regarding microvascular reactivity, RBCV, RBCVmax, and TRBCVmax were significantly different in OBG at 30-min compared to baseline. RBCVmax and TRBCVmax were significantly different in CG at 30-min and 60-min comparing to fasting. In all-time points, OBG presented RBCV, RBCVmax , and TRBCVmax significantly different in comparison to CG. Conclusion: High-fat meal worsened ED on microcirculation in women with obesity and induced impairment of endothelial function in lean ones, reinforcing the association between high-fat meal and atherosclerosis.

6.
Autoimmunity ; 51(5): 245-257, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30424681

RESUMO

Autoantibodies against the M2 subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors with functional activities have been found in the sera of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and the second extracellular loop has been established as the predominant epitope. However, it has been shown that the third intracellular loop is recognized by Chagas disease patients with severe cardiac dysfunction. In this work, BALB/c mice were immunized with plasmids encoding these two epitopes, and a control group received the empty plasmid (pcDNA3 vector). Serum from these DNA-immunized animals had elevated and persistent titres of antibodies against respective antigens. Heart echocardiography indicated diminished left ventricular wall thickness and reduced ejection fraction for both epitope-immunized groups, and ergospirometry tests showed a significant decrease in the exercise time and oxygen consumption. Transfer of serum from these immunized mice into naïve recipients induced the same alterations in cardiac structure and function. Furthermore, electron microscopy analysis of donor-immunized animals revealed several ultrastructural alterations suggestive of autophagy and mitophagy, suggesting novel roles for these autoantibodies. Overall, greater functional and structural impairment was observed in the donor and recipient epitope groups, implicating the third intracellular loop epitope in the pathological effects for the first-time. Therefore, the corresponding peptides could be useful for autoimmune DCM diagnosis and targeted therapy.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267551

RESUMO

This study compared macro- and microvascular endothelial function and redox status in active vs inactive HIV-infected patients (HIVP) under antiretroviral therapy. Using a cross-sectional design, macro- and microvascular reactivity, systemic microvascular density, and oxidative stress were compared between 19 HIVP (53.1 ± 6.1 year) enrolled in a multimodal training program (aerobic, strength and flexibility exercises) for at least 12 months (60-minutes sessions performed 3 times/wk with moderate intensity) vs 25 sedentary HIVP (51.2 ± 6.3 year). Forearm blood flow during reactive hyperemia (521.7 ± 241.9 vs 361.4% ± 125.0%; P = 0.04) and systemic microvascular density (120.8 ± 21.1 vs 105.6 ± 25.0 capillaries/mm2 ; P = 0.03) was greater in active than inactive patients. No significant difference between groups was detected for endothelium-dependent and independent skin microvascular vasodilation (P > 0.05). As for redox status, carbonyl groups (P = 0.22), lipid peroxidation (P = 0.86), catalase activity (P = 0.99), and nitric oxide levels (P = 0.72) were similar across groups. However, superoxide dismutase activity was greater in active vs inactive HIVP (0.118 ± 0.013 vs 0.111 ± 0.007 U/mL; P = 0.05). Immune function reflected by total T CD4 and T CD8 counts (cell/mm3 ) did not differ between active and inactive groups (P > 0.82). In conclusion, physically active HIVP exhibited similar immune function, but greater macrovascular reactivity, systemic microvascular density, and superoxide dismutase activity than inactive patients of similar age.

8.
Microvasc Res ; 120: 94-99, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In patients with diabetes, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibition is associated with attenuation of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Here, we investigated the associations between constitutive DPP4 activity, inflammatory biomarkers, and microvascular reactivity in subjects with excess body weight without diabetes. METHODS: Forty subjects of BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2 and without diabetes were cross-sectionally evaluated. We assessed microvascular blood flow and vasomotion by laser Doppler flowmetry, and measured at baseline, 30, and 60 min after a standardized meal: DPP4 activity, glucose, insulin, hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, PAI-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. HOMA-IR and HOMA-AD were used to assess insulin resistance. Linear correlations of DPP4 activity with the biomarkers of inflammation and components of microvascular function were conducted. In step further, multiple regression analyses were performed to test whether some of these variables could influence, or be influenced by, the plasma DPP4 activity. RESULTS: DPP4 activity was inversely associated with VCAM-1 at baseline (P < 0.05), and DPP4 activityAUC was inversely correlated with the myogenic componentAUC of vasomotion (P < 0.05). In multiple regression analysis, HOMA-AD, IL-6, VCAM-1, PAI-1, blood flow, and vasomotion influenced DPP4 activity and explained almost 40% of the variance on it. When HOMA-AD, VCAM-1, and blood flow were placed respectively as dependent variables, DPP4 activity exerted a significant effect in all of them. CONCLUSIONS: Constitutive DPP4 activity was associated with early markers of endothelial proinflammatory activation and microvascular function, and may have an influence and even be influenced by inflammation and microvascular blood flow in subjects with excess body weight without diabetes.

9.
J Vasc Res ; 55(4): 203-209, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fructose intake is directly related to vascular dysfunction and it is a risk factor for the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Selenium, a component of antioxidant enzymes, improves hyperglycemia and vascular function in diabetic animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary selenium supplementation on microcirculatory and metabolic parameters of fructose-fed hamsters. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) had their drinking water substituted or not by 10% fructose solution for 60 days, during which their microcirculatory function was evaluated in the cheek pouch preparation. Blood glucose and serum insulin levels were also tested. Microcirculatory responses to acetylcholine (an endothelium-dependent vasodilator) and to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an endothelium-independent vasodilator), and macromolecular permeability increase induced by a 30-min ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) procedure, showed that endothelium-dependent and independent vasodilatation was significantly increased in animals that had high selenium supplementation, in both the control and fructose-fed groups. Selenium supplementation protected against plasma leakage induced by I/R in all control and fructose-fed groups. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that dietary selenium supplementation reduces microvascular dysfunction by increasing endothelial-dependent and independent dilatation and reducing macromolecular permeability increase in fructose-fed animals.

10.
J Surg Res ; 228: 253-262, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tissue necrosis caused by insufficient perfusion is a major complication in flap transfer. This study evaluated whether treatment with cilostazol or hydroalcoholic extract of seeds of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) protects the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap against ischemic damage in hamsters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-four hamsters were divided into three oral treatment groups: placebo, açaí, or cilostazol. Caudally based, unipedicled TRAM flaps were raised, sutured back, classified into four vascular zones (I-IV), and evaluated for tissue viability, capillary blood flow (CBF), perfused vessel density (PVD), and microvascular flow index (MFI) by orthogonal polarization spectral imaging at three time points: immediately postoperatively (IPO), 24 h postoperatively (24hPO), and 7 d postoperatively (7POD). RESULTS: Comparing to placebo, açaí increased PVD at IPO and açaí and cilostazol increased CBF and PVD at 24hPO in zone I; cilostazol increased CBF, PVD, and MFI at IPO, and CBF at 24hPO in zone II; açaí and cilostazol increased CBF at all time points and PVD and MFI at IPO and 24hPO in zone III; cilostazol increased CBF at IPO and 7POD, açaí increased CBF at 7POD, and both increased PVD and MFI at all time points in zone IV; and açaí and cilostazol increased the percentage of viable area in zones III and IV. CONCLUSIONS: Açaí and cilostazol treatments had a protective effect against ischemic damage to TRAM flaps in hamsters, improving microvascular blood flow and increasing the survival of flap zones contralateral to the vascular pedicle (zones III and IV).

11.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 2018 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29856943

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of obesity is increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate if there is endothelial dysfunction in children with normal or excess weight, and whether the metabolic profile, adipokines, and endothelial dysfunction would be more strongly associated with physical fitness or with physical activity levels. METHOD: Cross-sectional study involving children aged 5-12 years. The evaluation included venous occlusion plethysmography, serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and insulin, lipid profile, physical activity score (PAQ-C questionnaire), and physical fitness evaluation (Yo-Yo test). RESULTS: A total of 62 children participated in this study. Based on the body mass index, 27 were eutrophic, 10 overweight and 25 obese. Triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HOMA-IR, and leptin were higher in the obese and excess-weight groups compared to the eutrophic group (p<0.01). HDL cholesterol and adiponectin levels were higher in the eutrophic group compared to the obese and excess-weight groups (p<0.01). Flow-mediated vasodilation after hyperemia was higher in the eutrophic group in comparison to obese and excess-weight subjects (p<0.05). There was no difference in the physical activity levels among groups measured by PAQ-C. The Yo-Yo test was significantly associated with HDL cholesterol (rho=-0.41; p=0.01), and this association remained after adjusting for body mass index z-score (rho=0.28; p=0.03). CONCLUSION: This study showed that endothelial dysfunction is already present in obese children, suggesting a predisposition to atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, HDL cholesterol levels were correlated with physical fitness, regardless of body mass index.

12.
Hypertens Res ; 41(7): 515-523, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29686318

RESUMO

Microcirculation influences peripheral vascular resistance and therefore contributes to arterial blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between serum markers of inflammation and microcirculatory parameters observed by nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) in patients with resistant (RH, 58 [50-63] years, n = 25) or mild-to-moderate hypertension (MMH, 56 [47-64] years, n = 25) compared to normotensive patients (control group (CG), 33 [27-52] years, n = 25). C-reactive protein (CRP), endothelin, adiponectin, I-CAM and V-CAM levels were obtained by laboratory analysis. Functional capillary density (FCD; the number of capillaries with flowing red blood cells by unit tissue area), capillary diameters, maximum red blood cell velocity (RBCVmax) during the reactive hyperemia response/RBCVbaseline after 1 min of arterial occlusion at the finger base and time to reach RBCVmax were determined by NVC. A sub-analysis was also conducted on hypertensive patients not taking statins, with controlled/uncontrolled blood pressure. The RH group showed lower RBCV and RBCVmax values and longer TRBCVmax compared to MMH and CG patients, with worse values in those with uncontrolled blood pressure. FCD and diameters showed no significant differences among the three groups, with higher CRP values in the RH and MMH groups. An increase in endothelin was observed only in patients not taking statins in both hypertensive groups. Patients with severe hypertension and uncontrolled blood pressure levels presented more pronounced microvascular dysfunction, as well as higher serum values for CRP and endothelin (without statin treatment), suggesting that the use of statins decreases endothelin release.

13.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 55(5): 694-702, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29588131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess protective effects of micronized purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF) on microcirculation in an original chronic model of hind limb venous hypertension with low blood flow in small animals. METHODS: Vein ligatures were performed on male hamsters, as follows: A-right femoral vein; A + B-right femoral vein and its right branch; A + C-right femoral vein and its left branch; A + B + C-right femoral and its right and left branches; D-external right iliac vein. In sham operated groups, similar vascular dissections were performed without ligatures. Superficial (epigastric) and central (jugular) venous pressure evaluations were made during a 10 week period. Hamsters subjected to A + B + C and D ligatures were selected for leukocyte rolling and sticking, functional capillary density (FCD), and venular and arteriolar diameter observations. D ligature was selected to evaluate pharmacological treatment efficacy. MPFF (100 mg/kg), concomitant active flavonoids of MPFF (diosmetin, hesperidin, linarin, and isorhoifolin) (10 mg/kg), diosmin (100 mg/kg) or drug vehicle were administered orally during 2 weeks before vein ligature and 6 weeks thereafter. RESULTS: A, A + B and A + C models maintained venous return through collaterals. From the 2nd to the 10th weeks after vein ligatures, A + B + C and D models elicited a progressive increase of superficial venous pressure (3.83 ± 0.65 vs. 8.56 ± 0.72 mmHg, p < .001 and 4.13 ± 0.65 vs. 9.35 ± 0.65 mmHg, p < .001, respectively) with significant changes to the microcirculation. As D model significantly increased superficial venous pressure without affecting central venous pressure, it was used to evaluate the long-term effects of treatment. Compared with vehicle, MPFF, concomitant active flavonoids of MPFF, and diosmin, significantly decreased leukocyte-endothelium interaction and prevented FCD reduction. Only MPFF significantly prevented venular enlargement as observed in the vehicle treated group. CONCLUSION: MPFF was more effective than diosmin in improving all microvascular variables. The superiority of MPFF over diosmin alone can be explained by the synergistic beneficial effects of the association between diosmin and active flavonoids of MPFF.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Permeabilidade Capilar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cricetinae , Diosmina/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Hesperidina/farmacologia , Veia Ilíaca , Masculino , Traumatismo por Reperfusão
14.
J Hum Hypertens ; 32(2): 105-113, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29335464

RESUMO

Hypertension is associated with microcirculatory impairment. Our objectives were to evaluate endothelial function and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with resistant (RH) and mild to moderate (MMH) arterial hypertension in comparison to normotensives (control group-CG). Three groups, 25 patients each, have been investigated, by anamnesis, venous occlusion plethysmography (VOP) and serum determination of adhesion molecules (VCAM, ICAM), adiponectin, endothelin and C-reactive protein (CRP). Patients not using statins and with or without blood pressure control were also analyzed. RH group showed smaller percentage increase of maximum forearm blood flow (FBF) (endothelial-dependent vasodilatation) than controls (p < 0.05), but no significant difference could be detected between MMH and CG groups on maximum FBF and minimum vascular resistance post-ischemia. RH and MMH groups showed higher resistance averages compared to controls (p < 0.05). Uncontrolled BP in hypertensive patients showed worse results for blood flow and resistance. Endothelial-independent vasodilatation was not affected. Endothelin levels were higher in RH and MMH groups (p < 0.05) not using statins. CRP was significantly higher only in RH compared to CG (p < 0.05). In conclusion patients with severe hypertension and lack of blood pressure control showed greater impairment of endothelial function with higher CRP and endothelin levels.

15.
Int Angiol ; 37(1): 85-92, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29063748

RESUMO

With our increasing knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, investigation and clinical aspects of chronic venous disease (CVD) and new data on the various therapies available, an update of the recommendations on CVD and its management appears to be necessary. The symposium New Data on Chronic Venous Disease: A New Place for Cyclo 3® Fort, held during the annual meeting of the European Venous Forum on June 30th, 2017 in Porto, Portugal, reported the recent developments on the Ruscus, hesperidin methyl chalcone (HMC), and vitamin C combination (Cyclo 3® Fort), including the results of a series of in-vivo pharmacological experiments and a recent meta-analysis. Additionally, the symposium provided first-hand information on the process, rules, main findings, and expected contents of the prospective 2018 CVD guidelines. Analysis of the evidence showed that the effect of the Ruscus, HMC, and vitamin C combination on pain, heaviness, feeling of swelling, tingling, ankle circumference and global symptoms score reached Grade A. Therefore, the new guidelines should specify that the Ruscus, HMC, and vitamin C combination merits a Grade 1A recommendation.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ruscus/química , Insuficiência Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Chalconas/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Congressos como Assunto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Hesperidina/análogos & derivados , Hesperidina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 68(4): 371-382, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29036797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic venous disease of the lower limbs is a common public health problem worldwide with negative impact on quality of life and results with drugs used to treat it are sparse, probably due to lack of good experimental models. OBJECTIVE: In this investigation we have tested the effects of two commonly used venotonic substances, Ruscus extract and micronized diosmine, on the microcirculation in vivo. METHODS: These substances were given orally, by gavage, during two weeks, twice daily and observations were made using the hamster cheek pouch preparation. RESULTS: The drugs elicited a dose-dependent inhibition of (1) macromolecular permeability increase induced by histamine or ischemia followed by reperfusion, being the Ruscus extract more active on both and (2) leukocyte-endothelium interaction, again being the Ruscus extract more effective in the inhibition of the number of adherent and rolling leukocytes. About the duration of the effect after the end of the treatment, both drugs had similar effects but Ruscus extract showed greater permanence of its effect on all observed parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that both drugs have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties being Ruscus extract more active. It should be added that only Ruscus extract showed a significant venular constriction.


Assuntos
Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ruscus/química , Insuficiência Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Feminino , Mesocricetus
17.
J Endocr Soc ; 1(7): 908-917, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29264541

RESUMO

Purpose: Previous studies have shown that microvascular dysfunction (MD) is associated with a number of cardiovascular risk factors, including obesity. Few studies have assessed microvascular reactivity in children, and in most of these, results were confounded by the effects of puberty. Our aim was to establish whether MD is already present in obese prepubertal children. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 52 obese, 18 overweight, and 28 eutrophic children, with a mean ± standard deviation age of 7.44 ± 1.22 years. We evaluated cardiovascular risk factors and nutritive microvascular function by using nailfold dynamic videocapillaroscopy and determined functional capillary density (FCD), red blood cell velocity at resting conditions (RBCV) and at peak (RBCVmax), and time to reach peak velocity during the post-occlusive reactive hyperemic response following 1 minute ischemia. Results: On univariate analysis, differences in microvascular reactivity were not observed among the groups. Obese and overweight children had significantly higher scores than eutrophic children for the following parameters: body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, mean arterial pressure, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, levels of insulin, leptin, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, uric acid, and C-reactive protein. Multivariate analysis demonstrated the association between metabolic, anthropometric, and microvascular variables, stratified according to the degree of adiposity and body fat distribution. Conclusions: Univariate analysis did not show any difference in microvascular reactivity between groups but, by testing these variables by multivariate means, we noticed a common and direct variation between cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors and microvascular reactivity occurring early in life.

18.
MedicalExpress (São Paulo, Online) ; 4(4)July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-894360

RESUMO

In the history of medicine, only recently has obesity been recognized as a disease. We know now that it is a pandemic condition, partly explained by the so-called Western lifestyle and related to multiple other comorbidities in various systems. This lyfestyle includes eating large portions, rich in saturated fats and refined sugar, all coupled with sedentary habits. In recent years, the gut microbiota has been indited as a new culprit in pathophysiological aspects involved in obesity. From studies with animals free of bacteria in the digestive tract, known as "germ-free animals", the relevance of intestinal microbiota in the regulation of body fat became evident and its importance has also been extended to the pathophysiology of diseases such as diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Characterization of Toll-like receptors led to the discovery of mechanisms that link the immune system with some metabolic pathways and opened new avenues of a previously unknown world to biological sciences. Increased knowledge about interactions between gut microbiota and the host can certainly reveal, in a not too distant future, new therapeutic perspectives for obesity and its related diseases.


Na história da medicina apenas recentemente a obesidade foi reconhecida como uma doença. Sabemos agora que é uma doença pandêmica, explicada em parte pelo chamado estilo de vida ocidental e relacionado a múltiplas outras comorbidades em vários sistemas. O referido estilo de vida inclui comer grandes porções, ricas em gorduras saturadas e açúcares refinados, e hábitos sedentários. Nos últimos anos, a microbiota intestinal foi associada aos aspectos fisiopatológicos envolvidos na obesidade. De estudos com animais livres de bactérias no trato digestivo, conhecidos como "animais sem germes", a relevância da microbiota intestinal na regulação da gordura corporal tornou-se evidente e sua importância também se estendeu à fisiopatologia de doenças como diabetes mellitus e doença cardíaca coronária. A caracterização dos receptores "Toll-like" levou à descoberta de mecanismos que ligam o sistema imunológico a algumas vias metabólicas e abriram novas avenidas de um mundo anteriormente desconhecido para as ciências biológicas. O aumento do conhecimento sobre as interações entre a microbiota intestinal e o hospedeiro certamente pode revelar, em um futuro não muito distante, novas perspectivas terapêuticas para a obesidade e suas doenças relacionadas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia
19.
MedicalExpress (São Paulo, Online) ; 4(3)May-June 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-894352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are both positively associated to states of excessive adiposity but reports on the acute effects of resistance exercise on these variables are still lacking. We evaluated these acute effects of resistance exercise on vascular reactivity and on the inflammatory profile in young women. METHODS: Participants were divided into two groups: lean Controls (n=16) and Overweight (n=16). The resistance exercise session consisted of unilateral elbow flexions for five sets of 10 repetitions at 70% of one repetition maximum. Blood pressure, heart rate, forearm blood flow, vascular conductance, cytokines, adipopeptides and endothelin-1 were evaluated at rest and during the acute post-exercise period. RESULTS: The overweight group had higher forearm blood flow at rest (p=0.03) and during post-exercise (p<0.001) while forearm vascular conductance was higher only during post-exercise, at 20 (p=0.02) and 40 min (p<0.001). Endothelial-dependent vasodilation was higher during the post-exercise period in the Overweight group compared to controls (p=0.01). In the Overweight group, the resistance exercise session reduced interleukin-6 (p=0.02) and leptin (p<0.001) but increased endothelin-1 levels (p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the single resistance exercise session elicited an acute increment of baseline vascular reactivity and an increased endothelial-dependent vasodilation with concomitant changes in inflammatory profile and endothelin-1 in our tested women with excessive adiposity.


ANTECEDENTES: A disfunção endotelial e a inflamação de baixo grau estão positivamente associadas a estados de adiposidade excessiva; entretanto os efeitos agudos do exercício resistido sobre estas variáveis ainda não estão esclarecidos. Avaliamos os efeitos agudos do exercício resistido sobre a reatividade vascular e sobre o perfil inflamatório em mulheres jovens. MÉTODOS: As participantes foram divididas em dois grupos: controles magras (n = 16) e aquelas com sobrepeso (n = 16). A sessão de exercício resistido consistiu de flexões unilaterais de cotovelo em cinco séries de 10 repetições (com 70% de uma repetição máxima). Avaliamos tanto no repouso quanto durante o período pós-exercício agudo a pressão arterial, a frequência cardíaca, o fluxo sanguíneo do antebraço (FBF) e a condutância vascular (CVF), as citocinas, os adipopeptídeos e a endotelina-1. RESULTADOS: O grupo com sobrepeso apresentou maior FBF em repouso (p = 0,03) e pós-exercício (p <0,001), enquanto a CVF foi maior somente após o exercício, aos 20 min (p = 0,02) e aos 40 min (p <0,001) . A vasodilatação endotélio-dependente durante o período pós-exercício foi maior no grupo Overweight em relação aos controles (p = 0,01). No grupo Overweight, a sessão de exercício resistido reduziu a interleucina-6 (p = 0,02) e a leptina (p <0,001) e o aumentou os níveis de endotelina-1 (p = 0,02). CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que a sessão de exercício resistido provocou um incremento agudo da reatividade vascular basal e um aumento da vasodilatação endotélio-dependente com alterações concomitantes no perfil inflamatório e da endotelina-1 em mulheres com adiposidade excessiva.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Exercício , Endotélio/fisiopatologia , Adiposidade , Obesidade
20.
Microvasc Res ; 114: 1-11, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28529172

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to evaluate, in vitro and in vivo, the contribution of muscarinic receptors to the effects of Ruscus extract. Ruscus extract was tested in competition binding experiments at recombinant human muscarinic receptors, heterologous expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and in cellular assays measuring Ca2+ liberation and activator protein-1 (AP-1) reporter gene activation. The impact of muscarinic blockade on prolonged treatment outcome was evaluated using the hamster cheek pouch (HCP) microcirculation examining macromolecular permeability increase induced by histamine or ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), mean arteriolar and venular diameters, functional capillary density and I/R-induced leukocyte rolling and sticking. Ruscus extract exhibited affinities for muscarinic receptor subtypes at a range of 50-100µg/ml and behaved as partial agonist at human recombinant M1 and M3 receptors for Ca2+ liberation, confirmed in an AP-1 reporter gene assay. In the HCP model, topical application of atropine completely or partially blocked Ruscus extract-induced reductions of histamine- and I/R-induced increases of macromolecular permeability and leukocyte-endothelium interaction. Our results showed that Ruscus extract in vitro binds and activates different subtypes of muscarinic receptors and in vivo its anti-inflammatory effects are, at least partially, mediated via muscarinic receptors.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Bochecha/irrigação sanguínea , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Agonistas Muscarínicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores Muscarínicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Ruscus , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Ligação Competitiva , Células CHO , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade Capilar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cricetulus , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Agonismo Parcial de Drogas , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Migração e Rolagem de Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Agonistas Muscarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Agonistas Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais , Ligação Proteica , Receptor Muscarínico M1/agonistas , Receptor Muscarínico M1/metabolismo , Receptor Muscarínico M3/agonistas , Receptor Muscarínico M3/genética , Receptor Muscarínico M3/metabolismo , Receptores Muscarínicos/genética , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/imunologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Ruscus/química , Transfecção
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