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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the usage patterns of antidepressants with published CYP2D6- and CYP2C19-based prescribing guidelines among depressed primary care patients and estimate the proportion of patients taking antidepressants not recommended for them based on their CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genotype-predicted metabolizer status. METHODS: Medication use and pharmacogenetic testing results were collected on 128 primary care patients enrolled in a 10-year depression cohort study. At each 12-month interval, we calculated the proportion of patients that: (1) reported use of one or more of the 13 antidepressant medications (i.e. amitriptyline, citalopram, escitalopram, clomipramine, desipramine, doxepin, fluvoxamine, imipramine, nortriptyline, paroxetine, sertraline, trimipramine, venlafaxine) with published CYP2D6- and CYP2C19-based prescribing guidelines, (2) were taking an antidepressant that was not recommended for them based on their CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genotype-predicted metabolizer phenotype, and (3) switched medications from the previous 12-month interval. RESULTS: The annual proportion of individuals taking an antidepressant with a CYP2D6- and CYP2C19-based prescribing guidelines ranged from 45 to 84%. The proportion of participants that used an antidepressant that was not recommended for them, based on available CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 metabolizer phenotype, ranged from 18 to 29% and these individuals tended to switch medications more frequently (10%) compared to their counterparts taking medication aligned with their metabolizer phenotype (6%). CONCLUSION: One-quarter of primary care patients used an antidepressant that was not recommended for them based on CYP2D6- and CYP2C19-based prescribing guidelines and switching medications tended to be more common in this group. Studies to determine the impact of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotyping on reducing gene-antidepressant mismatches are warranted.

2.
Can J Psychiatry ; : 706743720925736, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425056
4.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(6): 528-537, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061320

RESUMO

The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a master regulator of neural development and the maintenance of brain structure and function. It influences neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, and neurotransmission by determining the localisation, interaction, and turnover of scaffolding, presynaptic, and postsynaptic proteins. Moreover, ubiquitin-proteasome system signalling transduces epigenetic changes in neurons independently of protein degradation and, as such, dysfunction of components and substrates of this system has been linked to a broad range of brain conditions. Although links between ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction and neurodegenerative disorders have been known for some time, only recently have similar links emerged for neurodevelopmental disorders, such as schizophrenia. Here, we review the components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system that are reported to be dysregulated in schizophrenia, and discuss specific molecular changes to these components that might, in part, explain the complex causes of this mental disorder.

5.
Can J Psychiatry ; : 706743720904820, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify and assess pharmacogenetic testing options relevant to psychiatry in Canada. METHOD: Searches of published literature, websites, and Standard Council of Canada's Laboratory Directory were conducted to identify pharmacogenetic tests available in Canada. Identified tests were assessed on 8 key questions related to analytical validity, accessibility, test ordering, delivery of test results, turnaround time, cost, clinical trial evidence, and gene/allele content. RESULTS: A total of 13 pharmacogenetic tests relevant to psychiatry in Canada were identified. All tests were highly accessible, and most were conducted in accredited laboratories. Both direct-to-consumer and clinician-gated testing were identified, with turnaround times and cost ranging from 2 to 40 days and CAD$199 to CAD$2310, respectively. Two tests were supported by randomized controlled trials. All tests met minimum gene and allele panel recommendations for psychiatry, but no 2 panels were identical. No test was unequivocally superior to all other tests. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacogenetic testing in Canada is readily available but highly variable in terms of ordering procedures, delivery of results, turnaround times, cost, and gene/allele content. As such, it is important for psychiatrists and other health-care providers to understand the differences between the available tests to ensure appropriate selection and implementation within their practice.

7.
Dev Psychopathol ; 32(1): 139-150, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712517

RESUMO

It is unclear how individual differences in parenting and brain development interact to influence adolescent mental health outcomes. This study examined interactions between structural brain development and observed maternal parenting behavior in the prediction of adolescent depressive symptoms and psychological well-being. Whether findings supported diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility frameworks was tested. Participants completed observed interactions with their mothers during early adolescence (age 13), and the frequency of positive and aggressive maternal behavior were coded. Adolescents also completed structural magnetic resonance imaging scans at three time points: mean ages 13, 17, and 19. Regression models analyzed interactions between maternal behavior and longitudinal brain development in the prediction of late adolescent (age 19) outcomes. Indices designed to distinguish between diathesis-stress and differential susceptibility effects were employed. Results supported differential susceptibility: less thinning of frontal regions was associated with higher well-being in the context of low levels of aggressive maternal behavior, and lower well-being in the context of high levels of aggressive maternal behavior. Findings suggest that reduced frontal cortical thinning during adolescence may underlie increased sensitivity to maternal aggressive behavior for better and worse and highlight the importance of investigating biological vulnerability versus susceptibility.

8.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 59(2): 274-282, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The importance of parenting in influencing mental health outcomes, particularly depression, during childhood and adolescence is well known. However, the mechanisms are unclear. Emotion processing impairments in children are believed to be influenced by negative parenting behaviors and fundamental to depression. As such, investigating the association between parenting behavior and the neural underpinnings of emotion processing in children could provide fundamental clues as to the link between parenting and depression. METHOD: Eighty-six children (49 girls, mean age 10.1 years), as part of a longitudinal study, participated. Observational measures of maternal behavior were collected during 2 mother-child interactions. Children underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an implicit emotion-processing task, and measures of child internalizing symptoms were collected. RESULTS: Maternal negative behavior exhibited during an event-planning interaction was associated with decreased activation in the lingual gyrus in girls, whereas maternal negative behavior during a problem-solving interaction was associated with increased amygdala activation in the entire sample during processing of angry and fearful faces. Maternal communicative behavior during the 2 mother-child interactions was associated with increased activity in the bilateral middle orbitofrontal cortex in the entire sample. Negative behavior during the problem-solving interaction was associated with connectivity between the amygdala and superior parietal lobe. Brain activity/connectivity was not related to internalizing symptoms. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that, in children, maternal behavior could be associated with activity in brain regions involved in emotion processing. However, more research is needed to elucidate the link among parenting, emotion processing, and depressive symptoms in young people.

10.
Healthc Manage Forum ; : 840470419890632, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797694

RESUMO

Canadian healthcare facilities are poised to benefit from the tools of precision health. To do so effectively, however, it is crucial that we align changes in how healthcare professionals are educated in order to ensure they have the skills, knowledge, and training to fully engage with its tools. Here, we propose that the design, development, and delivery of novel educational programs focused on precision health should be prioritized for healthcare professionals, and we suggest some essential curricular considerations to that end. Additionally, it is crucial to see engagement on the part of health leaders, who will ultimately be most responsible for managing the changing needs of frontline staff as the tools of precision health become increasingly available. By engaging directly with educators in establishing new programs for precision health, we can ensure that its promise is fully for healthcare facilities, practitioners, and patients.

11.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; : 4867419891246, 2019 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813230

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have shown that Kava (a South Pacific medicinal plant) reduced anxiety during short-term administration. The objective of this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to perform a larger, longer-term trial assessing the efficacy and safety of Kava in the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder and to determine whether gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter (SLC6A1) single-nucleotide polymorphisms were moderators of response. METHODS: The trial was a phase III, multi-site, two-arm, 16-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigating an aqueous extract of dried Kava root administered twice per day in tablet form (standardised to 120 mg of kavalactones twice/day) in 171 currently non-medicated anxious participants with diagnosed generalised anxiety disorder. The trial took place in Australia. RESULTS: An analysis of 171 participants revealed a non-significant difference in anxiety reduction between the Kava and placebo groups (a relative reduction favouring placebo of 1.37 points; p = 0.25). At the conclusion of the controlled phase, 17.4% of the Kava group were classified as remitted (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score < 7) compared to 23.8% of the placebo group (p = 0.46). No SLC6A1 polymorphisms were associated with treatment response, while carriers of the rs2601126 T allele preferentially respond to placebo (p = 0.006). Kava was well tolerated aside from poorer memory (Kava = 36 vs placebo = 23; p = 0.044) and tremor/shakiness (Kava = 36 vs placebo = 23; p = 0.024) occurring more frequently in the Kava group. Liver function test abnormalities were significantly more frequent in the Kava group, although no participant met criteria for herb-induced hepatic injury. CONCLUSION: While research has generally supported Kava in non-clinical populations (potentially for more 'situational' anxiety as a short-term anxiolytic), this particular extract was not effective for diagnosed generalised anxiety disorder.

12.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616047

RESUMO

Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP2C19 enzymes. Among 66 adult schizophrenia patients treated with clozapine-based combination therapies, we explored the impact of genotype-predicted CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP2C19 activity on dose-adjusted clozapine concentrations and symptom severity, with and without correction for inhibitors and inducers of these enzymes. Uncorrected activity scores were not associated with dose-adjusted clozapine concentrations or symptom severity. CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 activity scores corrected for known inducers (i.e., smoking) and inhibitors (e.g., concomitant medications) were associated with dose-adjusted clozapine levels and in the case of CYP1A2, symptom severity. However, smoking status and certain inhibitors of clozapine metabolism (i.e., esomeprazole) explained significantly more variance in dose-adjusted clozapine levels relative to corrected activity scores. These findings highlight the clinical importance of nongenetic factors (smoking, concomitant medications) and suggest that the added utility of CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP2C19 activity scores to guide clozapine dosing is currently limited.

13.
Psychol Med ; : 1-15, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In schizophrenia, relative stability in the magnitude of cognitive deficits across age and illness duration is inconsistent with the evidence of accelerated deterioration in brain regions known to support these functions. These discrepant brain-cognition outcomes may be explained by variability in cognitive reserve (CR), which in neurological disorders has been shown to buffer against brain pathology and minimize its impact on cognitive or clinical indicators of illness. METHODS: Age-related change in fluid reasoning, working memory and frontal brain volume, area and thickness were mapped using regression analysis in 214 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 168 healthy controls. In patients, these changes were modelled as a function of CR. RESULTS: Patients showed exaggerated age-related decline in brain structure, but not fluid reasoning compared to controls. In the patient group, no moderation of age-related brain structural change by CR was evident. However, age-related cognitive change was moderated by CR, such that only patients with low CR showed evidence of exaggerated fluid reasoning decline that paralleled the exaggerated age-related deterioration of underpinning brain structures seen in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: In schizophrenia-spectrum illness, CR may negate ageing effects on fluid reasoning by buffering against pathologically exaggerated structural brain deterioration through some form of compensation. CR may represent an important modifier that could explain inconsistencies in brain structure - cognition outcomes in the extant literature.

14.
Neuroimage ; 197: 493-501, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077842

RESUMO

High levels of negative, and low levels of positive parenting behaviors can increase the risk of internalizing symptoms in children, but the mechanisms underlying this association are still unclear. One possibility is that parenting behaviors affect the neural correlates of emotion processing in children. Further, genetic variants relevant to the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are thought to moderate the effect of early experiences on the brain circuits underlying emotion processing, particularly those involving the amygdala. However, no studies have investigated the interactive effect of parenting behaviors and HPA axis-related genes on amygdala activity and connectivity during emotion processing, and in turn internalizing symptoms in children. Participants comprised 80 children (46 females, mean age = 10.0 years) from the community. Observational measures of maternal behavior were collected during mother-child interactions. Children underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an implicit emotion-processing task, and mothers and children completed measures of child internalizing symptoms. Genetic risk was calculated using an HPA genetic risk score. HPA genetic risk score was indirectly associated with greater child self-reported depressive symptoms via increased amygdala-precuneus connectivity during the emotion-processing task, and interacted with negative maternal parenting behavior to predict increased connectivity between amygdala and superior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex and parietal cortex. HPA-related genetic variation appears to moderate the effect of negative maternal parenting behavior on the neural underpinnings of emotion processing in children, and may confer risk for depressive symptoms via modulation of amygdala connectivity.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Emoções , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
17.
Pharmacopsychiatry ; 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900236

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Expert groups have created dosing guidelines to facilitate the implementation of pharmacogenetic knowledge into clinical practice and commercial pharmacogenetic tests are becoming increasingly accessible. However, the extent to which these commercial tests facilitate the implementation of dosing guidelines is not clear. METHODS: Gene-drug pairs included on 22 commercial pharmacogenetic test panels were extracted and cross-referenced with the 74 gene-drug pairs with dosing guidelines in the Pharmacogenetics Knowledgebase, with particular attention given to the 28 gene-drug pairs relevant to psychiatry. RESULTS: On average, 70% of the 28 gene-drug pairs most relevant to psychiatry were covered by the examined tests. Six gene-drug pairs (CYP2D6-venlafaxine, CYP2D6-paroxetine, CYP2D6-amitriptyline, CYP2C19-sertraline, CYP2C19-citalopram, CYP2C19-amitriptyline) were included by all tests. Gene-drug pairs included on less than half of the test panels included HLA-B-phenytoin (14%), HLA-A-carbamazepine (24%), HLA-B-carbamazepine (29%), and CYP2D6-zuclopenthixol (43%). DISCUSSION: Most commercial pharmacogenetic tests we examined are well-equipped to facilitate implementation of the majority of dosing guidelines relevant to psychiatry but are limited in their ability to facilitate implementation of the full spectrum of dosing guidelines currently available.

18.
J Psychiatr Res ; 113: 51-57, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901725

RESUMO

A number of recent studies have suggested the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) in schizophrenia is dysfunctional. The purpose of this study was to investigate UBE2K, a ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) enzyme within the UPS that has been associated with psychosis symptom severity, in the blood and brain of individuals with schizophrenia. Whole blood and erythrocytes from 128 (71 treatment-resistant schizophrenia, 57 healthy controls) individuals as well as frozen dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) post-mortem samples from 74 (37 schizophrenia, 37 controls) individuals were obtained. UBE2K gene expression was assayed in whole blood and DLPFC samples, whereas protein levels were assayed in erythrocytes and OFC samples. Elevated levels of UBE2K mRNA were observed in whole blood of individuals with schizophrenia (p = 0.03) but not in the DLPFC, while protein levels were raised in erythrocytes and the OFC (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002 respectively). Findings were not better explained by age, smoking, clozapine plasma levels or duration of illness. Although blood and brain samples were derived from independent samples, our findings suggest peripheral protein levels of UBE2K may serve as a surrogate of brain levels and further supports the notion of UPS dysfunction in schizophrenia. Future studies to determine the pathophysiological effects of elevated UBE2K protein levels in the brain of those with schizophrenia are warranted.

19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2307, 2019 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783160

RESUMO

Dysregulation of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) has been linked to schizophrenia but it is not clear if this dysregulation is detectable in both brain and blood. We examined free mono-ubiquitin, ubiquitinated proteins, catalytic ubiquitination, and proteasome activities in frozen postmortem OFC tissue from 76 (38 schizophrenia, 38 control) matched individuals, as well as erythrocytes from 181 living participants, who comprised 30 individuals with recent onset schizophrenia (mean illness duration = 1 year), 63 individuals with 'treatment-resistant' schizophrenia (mean illness duration = 17 years), and 88 age-matched participants without major psychiatric illness. Ubiquitinated protein levels were elevated in postmortem OFC in schizophrenia compared to controls (p = <0.001, AUC = 74.2%). Similarly, individuals with 'treatment-resistant' schizophrenia had higher levels of ubiquitinated proteins in erythrocytes compared to those with recent onset schizophrenia (p < 0.001, AUC = 65.5%) and controls (p < 0.001, AUC = 69.4%). The results could not be better explained by changes in proteasome activity, demographic, medication, or tissue factors. Our results suggest that ubiquitinated protein formation may be abnormal in both the brain and erythrocytes of those with schizophrenia, particularly in the later stages or specific sub-groups of the illness. A derangement in protein ubiquitination may be linked to pathogenesis or neurotoxicity in schizophrenia, and its manifestation in the blood may have prognostic utility.

20.
J Affect Disord ; 249: 336-346, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide, and over half of patients do not achieve symptom remission following an initial antidepressant course. Despite evidence implicating a strong genetic basis for the pathophysiology of MDD, there are no adequately validated biomarkers of treatment response routinely used in clinical practice. Pharmacoepigenetics is an emerging field that has the potential to combine both genetic and environmental information into treatment selection and further the goal of precision psychiatry. However, this field is in its infancy compared to the more established pharmacogenetics approaches. METHODS: We prepared a narrative review using literature searches of studies in English pertaining to pharmacoepigenetics and treatment of depressive disorders conducted in PubMed, Google Scholar, PsychINFO, and Ovid Medicine from inception through January 2019. We reviewed studies of DNA methylation and histone modifications in both humans and animal models of depression. RESULTS: Emerging evidence from human and animal work suggests a key role for epigenetic marks, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, in the prediction of antidepressant response. The challenges of heterogeneity of patient characteristics and loci studied as well as lack of replication that have impacted the field of pharmacogenetics also pose challenges to the development of pharmacoepigenetic tools. Additionally, given the tissue specific nature of epigenetic marks as well as their susceptibility to change in response to environmental factors and aging, pharmacoepigenetic tools face additional challenges to their development. LIMITATIONS: This is a narrative and not systematic review of the literature on the pharmacoepigenetics of antidepressant response. We highlight key studies pertaining to pharmacoepigenetics and treatment of depressive disorders in humans and depressive-like behaviors in animal models, regardless of sample size or methodology. While we discuss DNA methylation and histone modifications, we do not cover microRNAs, which have been reviewed elsewhere recently. CONCLUSIONS: Utilization of genome-wide approaches and reproducible epigenetic assays, careful selection of the tissue assessed, and integration of genetic and clinical information into pharmacoepigenetic tools will improve the likelihood of developing clinically useful tests.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Farmacogenética/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Animais , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Metilação de DNA , Depressão , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , MicroRNAs
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