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2.
Psychol Med ; : 1-19, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is associated with worse cognition and decreased cortical volume and thickness in healthy cohorts. Chronic cigarette smoking is prevalent in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), but the effects of smoking status on the brain and cognition in SSD are not clear. This study aimed to understand whether cognitive performance and brain morphology differed between smoking and non-smoking individuals with SSD compared to healthy controls. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank. Cognitive functioning was measured in 299 controls and 455 SSD patients. Cortical volume, thickness and surface area data were analysed from T1-weighted structural scans obtained in a subset of the sample (n = 82 controls, n = 201 SSD). Associations between smoking status (cigarette smoker/non-smoker), cognition and brain morphology were tested using analyses of covariance, including diagnosis as a moderator. RESULTS: No smoking by diagnosis interactions were evident, and no significant differences were revealed between smokers and non-smokers across any of the variables measured, with the exception of a significantly thinner left posterior cingulate in smokers compared to non-smokers. Several main effects of smoking in the cognitive, volume and thickness analyses were initially significant but did not survive false discovery rate (FDR) correction. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the general absence of significant FDR-corrected findings, trend-level effects suggest the possibility that subtle smoking-related effects exist but were not uncovered due to low statistical power. An investigation of this topic is encouraged to confirm and expand on our findings.

3.
Pharmacopsychiatry ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147643

RESUMO

The implementation of pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing in psychiatry remains modest, in part due to divergent perceptions of the quality and completeness of the evidence base and diverse perspectives on the clinical utility of PGx testing among psychiatrists and other healthcare providers. Recognizing the current lack of consensus within the field, the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics assembled a group of experts to conduct a narrative synthesis of the PGx literature, prescribing guidelines, and product labels related to psychotropic medications as well as the key considerations and limitations related to the use of PGx testing in psychiatry. The group concluded that to inform medication selection and dosing of several commonly-used antidepressant and antipsychotic medications, current published evidence, prescribing guidelines, and product labels support the use of PGx testing for 2 cytochrome P450 genes (CYP2D6, CYP2C19). In addition, the evidence supports testing for human leukocyte antigen genes when using the mood stabilizers carbamazepine (HLA-A and HLA-B), oxcarbazepine (HLA-B), and phenytoin (CYP2C9, HLA-B). For valproate, screening for variants in certain genes (POLG, OTC, CSP1) is recommended when a mitochondrial disorder or a urea cycle disorder is suspected. Although barriers to implementing PGx testing remain to be fully resolved, the current trajectory of discovery and innovation in the field suggests these barriers will be overcome and testing will become an important tool in psychiatry.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074724

RESUMO

Objective: To systematically review the impact of CYP2D6 genetic variation on antipsychotic pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and adverse drug reactions among children and youth. Method: The published literature was systematically searched in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations and critically evaluated using standardized tools and consensus criteria. Results: A total of 20 eligible studies comprising 1078 children and youth were evaluated. The included studies were of fair to moderate quality and included mostly males, individuals of European ancestry, and those treated with risperidone. CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs) were consistently shown to have increased concentrations of risperidone relative to normal metabolizers (NMs). PMs were also consistently shown to have a greater propensity to experience antipsychotic (primarily risperidone) associated adverse drug reactions relative to NMs. However, robust evidence for an association between CYP2D6 and efficacy was less apparent. Conclusion and Clinical Significance: The current knowledge base suggests that CYP2D6 genetic variation has an appreciable impact on antipsychotic pharmacokinetics and the propensity for adverse drug reactions, particularly among children receiving risperidone treatment. However, several limitations with the current literature (e.g., sample sizes, study design, sample heterogeneity) should be addressed in future studies. Assuming that future studies support the link between CYP2D6 genetic variation and antipsychotic outcomes, we would anticipate an increase in the implementation of CYP2D6-guided antipsychotic drug selection and dose optimization in child and adolescent psychiatric services.

5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963336

RESUMO

The heterogeneity of schizophrenia has defied efforts to derive reproducible and definitive anatomical maps of structural brain changes associated with the disorder. We aimed to map deviations from normative ranges of brain structure for individual patients and evaluate whether the loci of individual deviations recapitulated group-average brain maps of schizophrenia pathology. For each of 48 white matter tracts and 68 cortical regions, normative percentiles of variation in fractional anisotropy (FA) and cortical thickness (CT) were established using diffusion-weighted and structural MRI from healthy adults (n = 195). Individuals with schizophrenia (n = 322) were classified as either within the normative range for healthy individuals of the same age and sex (5-95% percentiles), infra-normal (<5% percentile) or supra-normal (>95% percentile). Repeating this classification for each tract and region yielded a deviation map for each individual. Compared to the healthy comparison group, the schizophrenia group showed widespread reductions in FA and CT, involving virtually all white matter tracts and cortical regions. Paradoxically, however, no more than 15-20% of patients deviated from the normative range for any single tract or region. Furthermore, 79% of patients showed infra-normal deviations for at least one locus (healthy individuals: 59 ± 2%, p < 0.001). Thus, while infra-normal deviations were common among patients, their anatomical loci were highly inconsistent between individuals. Higher polygenic risk for schizophrenia associated with a greater number of regions with infra-normal deviations in CT (r = -0.17, p = 0.006). We conclude that anatomical loci of schizophrenia-related changes are highly heterogeneous across individuals to the extent that group-consensus pathological maps are not representative of most individual patients. Normative modeling can aid in parsing schizophrenia heterogeneity and guiding personalized interventions.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826605

RESUMO

To facilitate decision-making and priority-setting related to Alberta's Pharmacogenomics (PGx) testing implementation strategy by identifying gene-drug pairs with the highest potential impact on prescribing practices in Alberta. Annual drug dispensing data for Alberta from 2012 to 2016 for 57 medications with PGx-based prescribing guidelines were obtained, along with population estimates and demographics (age and ethnicity). Frequencies of actionable PGx genotypes by ethnicity were obtained from the Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase (PharmGKB). Annual dispensing activity for each of the 57 medications was calculated for the full population (all ages) and children/youth (0-19 years). Alberta ethnicity data were cross-referenced with genetic frequency data for each of the main ethnic groups from PharmGKB to estimate the proportion of individuals with actionable genotypes. Actionable genotype proportions and drug dispensing frequencies were collectively used to identify high impact gene-drug pairs. We found (a) half of the drugs with PGx-based prescribing guidelines, namely, analgesics, proton pump inhibitors, psychotropics, and cardiovascular drugs, were dispensed at high frequencies (>1% of the entire population), (b) the dispensing rate for about one-third of these drugs increased over the 5-year study period, (c) between 1.1 and 45% of recipients of these drugs carried actionable genotypes, and (d) the gene-drug pairs with greatest impact in Alberta predominatly included CYP2C19 or CYP2D6. We uncovered specific patterns in drug dispensing and identified important gene-drug pairs that will inform the planning and development of an evidenced-based PGx testing service in Alberta, Canada. Adaptation of our approach may facilitate the process of evidence-based PGx testing implementation in other jurisdictions.

8.
Psychiatry Res ; 290: 113048, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474068

RESUMO

Clozapine-induced gastrointestinal hypomotility (CIGH) is poorly understood and potentially life-threatening. Herein, we present trends of CIGH annual reporting and explore factors associated with a fatal outcome using 25-years of pharmacovigilance data in Canada. Since 1993, the number of CIGH reports increased 22-fold but the proportion of fatal reports remained relatively stable. Fatal reports of CIGH were associated with older age but not sex, clozapine dose, or clozapine duration. Concomitant use of medications used to treat CIGH (lactulose, docusate sodium) and its associated pain/discomfort (acetaminophen, lorazepam) were more commonly reported in fatal cases. Confirmatory and prospective studies of CIGH are warranted.

10.
Pharmacogenet Genomics ; 30(7): 145-152, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the usage patterns of antidepressants with published CYP2D6- and CYP2C19-based prescribing guidelines among depressed primary care patients and estimate the proportion of patients taking antidepressants not recommended for them based on their CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genotype-predicted metabolizer status. METHODS: Medication use and pharmacogenetic testing results were collected on 128 primary care patients enrolled in a 10-year depression cohort study. At each 12-month interval, we calculated the proportion of patients that: (1) reported use of one or more of the 13 antidepressant medications (i.e. amitriptyline, citalopram, escitalopram, clomipramine, desipramine, doxepin, fluvoxamine, imipramine, nortriptyline, paroxetine, sertraline, trimipramine, venlafaxine) with published CYP2D6- and CYP2C19-based prescribing guidelines, (2) were taking an antidepressant that was not recommended for them based on their CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genotype-predicted metabolizer phenotype, and (3) switched medications from the previous 12-month interval. RESULTS: The annual proportion of individuals taking an antidepressant with a CYP2D6- and CYP2C19-based prescribing guidelines ranged from 45 to 84%. The proportion of participants that used an antidepressant that was not recommended for them, based on available CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 metabolizer phenotype, ranged from 18 to 29% and these individuals tended to switch medications more frequently (10%) compared to their counterparts taking medication aligned with their metabolizer phenotype (6%). CONCLUSION: One-quarter of primary care patients used an antidepressant that was not recommended for them based on CYP2D6- and CYP2C19-based prescribing guidelines and switching medications tended to be more common in this group. Studies to determine the impact of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotyping on reducing gene-antidepressant mismatches are warranted.

11.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 24(3): E34-E42, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survivorship care plans (SCPs) have been used to address ongoing health problems associated with the diagnosis and treatment of early-stage breast cancer. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article was to determine whether nurse-led consultations using SCPs, as compared with a standard medical consultation, identify more side effects and supportive care needs and lead to appropriate referral patterns. METHODS: The study audited 160 retrospective medical clinic and nursing SCP records in a sample of patients receiving treatment for early-stage breast cancer at a tertiary-level breast service in Australia. FINDINGS: Breast care nurses (BCNs) undertaking SCPs at a nurse-led consultation were significantly more likely than physicians to record symptoms related to menopausal/hormonal therapy, psychosocial/mental health, lifestyle, bone health, and sexuality. BCNs were also significantly more likely to refer patients for concerns related to psychosocial/mental health, lifestyle, and sexuality.

12.
Mol Neuropsychiatry ; 5(Suppl 1): 27-33, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399467

RESUMO

The Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) algorithm is the most recognized protocol-based care approach for moderate to severe depression. However, its implementation results in one-third of individuals receiving modest to no symptom remission. One possible explanation is the inter-individual differences in antidepressant metabolism due to CYP2C19 and CYP2D6genetic variation. Here, we aimed to determine the potential benefit of pairing CYP2C19 and CYP2D6testing with the five-step STAR*D algorithm. To estimate the proportion of individuals that could benefit from CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 testing, we simulated the STAR*D algorithm using ethnicity-specific phenotype (e.g., metabolizer status) frequencies published by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium and census data from the Canada and the US. We found that up to one-third of the US and Canadian populations being treated for depression could benefit from the addition of CYP2C19and CYP2D6 genetic testing. The potential benefit varied for each step of the algorithm and for each province, territory, and state. CYP2C19 genotyping had the greatest potential impact within the first two steps of the algorithm, while CYP2D6 genotyping had the most notable impact in Steps 3, 4, and 5. Our findings suggest the implementation of CYP2C19and CYP2D6 genetic testing alongside the STAR*D treatment algorithm may improve depression treatment outcomes in Canada and the US.

13.
Psychiatry Res ; 288: 112984, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315880

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 C19 (CYP2C19) metabolizes exogenous and endogenous compounds. Although CYP2C19 is highly expressed in the liver, it is also expressed in the brain during early life. Previous human and animal studies have linked CYP2C19 genotype-predicted enzyme activity to hippocampal volumes, depressive symptoms, and anxiety-like behaviors. We examined these promising associations in a general community sample comprising 386 Caucasian adults with no history of psychiatric or neurological illnesses. Contrary to previous findings, CYP2C19 genotype-predicted enzyme activity was not associated with hippocampal volumes, nor depressive and anxiety symptoms. Interstudy differences in CYP2C19 frequencies and/or study methodology may explain this discrepancy.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/metabolismo , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Genótipo , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Animais , Ansiedade/enzimologia , Ansiedade/genética , Estudos Transversais , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Depressão/enzimologia , Depressão/genética , Ativação Enzimática/fisiologia , Feminino , Hipocampo/enzimologia , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia
15.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 28(6): 609-629, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122803

RESUMO

Affecting up to 15% of older adults, late-life depression (LLD) is characterized by the occurrence of depressive symptoms after the age of 50-65 years and maybe pathophysiologically distinct from depression in younger adults. Therefore, LLD is challenging to treat, and predictive genetic testing might be essential to improve treatment in this vulnerable population. The current review aims to provide a summary of the literature exploring genetic associations with antidepressant treatment outcomes in late-life. We conducted a systematic search of three integrated electronic databases. We identified 29 articles investigating genetic associations with antidepressant treatment outcomes, pharmacokinetic parameters, and adverse drug reactions in older adults. Given the small number of investigations conducted in older adults, it is difficult to conclude the presence or absence of genetic associations with the outcomes of interest. In sum, the most substantial amount of evidence exists for the CYP2D6 metabolizer status, SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, and BDNF rs6265. These findings are consistent in the literature when not restricting to older adults, suggesting that similar treatment recommendations may be provided for older adults regarding genetic variation, such as those outlined for CYP2D6 by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium. Nonetheless, further studies are required in well-characterized samples, including genome-wide data, to validate if similar treatment adjustments are appropriate in older adults, given that there appear to be significant effects of genetic variation on antidepressant treatment factors.

16.
Can J Psychiatry ; 65(8): 521-530, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify and assess pharmacogenetic testing options relevant to psychiatry in Canada. METHOD: Searches of published literature, websites, and Standard Council of Canada's Laboratory Directory were conducted to identify pharmacogenetic tests available in Canada. Identified tests were assessed on 8 key questions related to analytical validity, accessibility, test ordering, delivery of test results, turnaround time, cost, clinical trial evidence, and gene/allele content. RESULTS: A total of 13 pharmacogenetic tests relevant to psychiatry in Canada were identified. All tests were highly accessible, and most were conducted in accredited laboratories. Both direct-to-consumer and clinician-gated testing were identified, with turnaround times and cost ranging from 2 to 40 days and CAD$199 to CAD$2310, respectively. Two tests were supported by randomized controlled trials. All tests met minimum gene and allele panel recommendations for psychiatry, but no 2 panels were identical. No test was unequivocally superior to all other tests. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacogenetic testing in Canada is readily available but highly variable in terms of ordering procedures, delivery of results, turnaround times, cost, and gene/allele content. As such, it is important for psychiatrists and other health-care providers to understand the differences between the available tests to ensure appropriate selection and implementation within their practice.

17.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(6): 528-537, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061320

RESUMO

The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a master regulator of neural development and the maintenance of brain structure and function. It influences neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, and neurotransmission by determining the localisation, interaction, and turnover of scaffolding, presynaptic, and postsynaptic proteins. Moreover, ubiquitin-proteasome system signalling transduces epigenetic changes in neurons independently of protein degradation and, as such, dysfunction of components and substrates of this system has been linked to a broad range of brain conditions. Although links between ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction and neurodegenerative disorders have been known for some time, only recently have similar links emerged for neurodevelopmental disorders, such as schizophrenia. Here, we review the components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system that are reported to be dysregulated in schizophrenia, and discuss specific molecular changes to these components that might, in part, explain the complex causes of this mental disorder.


Assuntos
Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/antagonistas & inibidores , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Animais , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/metabolismo , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/fisiologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Ubiquitina/fisiologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/uso terapêutico
18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 37, 2020 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066683

RESUMO

Clozapine is the most effective antipsychotic drug for schizophrenia, yet it can cause life-threatening adverse drug reactions, including myocarditis. The aim of this study was to determine whether schizophrenia patients with clozapine-induced myocarditis have a genetic predisposition compared with clozapine-tolerant controls. We measured different types of genetic variation, including genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), coding variants that alter protein expression, and variable forms of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genes, alongside traditional clinical risk factors in 42 cases and 67 controls. We calculated a polygenic risk score (PRS) based on variation at 96 different genetic sites, to estimate the genetic liability to clozapine-induced myocarditis. Our genome-wide association analysis identified four SNPs suggestive of increased myocarditis risk (P < 1 × 10-6), with odds ratios ranging 5.5-13.7. The SNP with the lowest P value was rs74675399 (chr19p13.3, P = 1.21 × 10-7; OR = 6.36), located in the GNA15 gene, previously associated with heart failure. The HLA-C*07:01 allele was identified as potentially predisposing to clozapine-induced myocarditis (OR = 2.89, 95% CI: 1.11-7.53), consistent with a previous report of association of the same allele with clozapine-induced agranulocytosis. Another seven HLA alleles, including HLA-B*07:02 (OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.05-1.2) were found to be putatively protective. Long-read DNA sequencing provided increased resolution of HLA typing and validated the HLA associations. The PRS explained 66% of liability (P value = 9.7 × 10-5). Combining clinical and genetic factors together increased the proportion of variability accounted for (r2 0.73, P = 9.8 × 10-9). However, due to the limited sample size, individual genetic associations were not statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. We report novel candidate genetic associations with clozapine-induced myocarditis, which may have potential clinical utility, but larger cohorts are required for replication.

20.
Dev Psychopathol ; 32(1): 139-150, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712517

RESUMO

It is unclear how individual differences in parenting and brain development interact to influence adolescent mental health outcomes. This study examined interactions between structural brain development and observed maternal parenting behavior in the prediction of adolescent depressive symptoms and psychological well-being. Whether findings supported diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility frameworks was tested. Participants completed observed interactions with their mothers during early adolescence (age 13), and the frequency of positive and aggressive maternal behavior were coded. Adolescents also completed structural magnetic resonance imaging scans at three time points: mean ages 13, 17, and 19. Regression models analyzed interactions between maternal behavior and longitudinal brain development in the prediction of late adolescent (age 19) outcomes. Indices designed to distinguish between diathesis-stress and differential susceptibility effects were employed. Results supported differential susceptibility: less thinning of frontal regions was associated with higher well-being in the context of low levels of aggressive maternal behavior, and lower well-being in the context of high levels of aggressive maternal behavior. Findings suggest that reduced frontal cortical thinning during adolescence may underlie increased sensitivity to maternal aggressive behavior for better and worse and highlight the importance of investigating biological vulnerability versus susceptibility.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Depressão/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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