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1.
Allergy ; 74 Suppl 107: 5-17, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergies to cats are the most common animal-origin allergy, and affect approximately 1 in 5 adults worldwide. The prevalence of allergy to furry animals has been increasing, and allergy to cats is a major risk factor for the development of asthma and rhinitis. The diagnosis of cat allergy is now well established. The exact significance of component-resolved diagnosis in the diagnosis of cat allergy remains to be fully understood. Allergen avoidance is effective but often has a psychologic impact. Allergen immunotherapy is not well demonstrated. There is a need for innovative approaches to better manage cat allergens. Next-generation care pathways for asthma and rhinitis will define the place of cat allergen avoidance. METHODS AND RESULTS: This manuscript, based on content presented at the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Congress 2019, provides information on the prevalence and impact of cat allergies and the molecular biology of Fel d 1, the major cat allergen. DISCUSSION: The authors present the scientific basis of a novel care pathway that utilizes anti-Fel d 1 IgY antibodies to safely and effectively neutralize Fel d 1 after its production by the cat but before human exposure. CONCLUSION: Efficacy of a feline diet with an egg product ingredient containing anti-Fel d 1 IgY antibodies was demonstrated in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, and further validated by a pilot exposure study involving cat-allergic human participants.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11614, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406137

RESUMO

The NLRs or NBS-LRRs (nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich-repeat) form the largest resistance gene family in plants, with lineage-specific contingents of TNL, CNL and RNL subfamilies and a central role in resilience to stress. The origin, evolution and distribution of NLR sequences has been unclear owing in part to the variable size and diversity of the RNL subfamily and a lack of data in Gymnosperms. We developed, searched and annotated transcriptomes assemblies of seven conifers and identified a resource of 3816 expressed NLR sequences. Our analyses encompassed sequences data spanning the major groups of land plants and determinations of NLR transcripts levels in response to drought in white spruce. We showed that conifers have among the most diverse and numerous RNLs in tested land plants. We report an evolutionary swap in the formation of RNLs, which emerged from the fusion of an RPW8 domain to a NB-ARC domain of CNL. We uncovered a quantitative relationship between RNLs and TNLs across all land plants investigated, with an average ratio of 1:10. The conifer RNL repertoire harbours four distinct groups, with two that differ from Angiosperms, one of which contained several upregulated sequences in response to drought while the majority of responsive NLRs are downregulated.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445223

RESUMO

Smart devices and internet-based applications are largely used in allergic rhinitis and may help to address some unmet needs. However, these new tools need to first of all be tested for privacy rules, acceptability, usability and cost-effectiveness. Secondly, they should be evaluated in the frame of the digital transformation of health, their impact on healthcare delivery and health outcomes. This review (i) summarizes some existing mHealth apps for allergic rhinitis and reviews those in which testing has been published, (ii) discusses apps that include risk factors of allergic rhinitis, (iii) examines the impact of mHealth apps in phenotype discovery, (iv) provides real-world evidence for care pathways, and finally (v) discusses mHealth tools enabling the digital transformation of health and care, empowering citizens and building a healthier society.

4.
Allergy ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to study the association between allergic multimorbidity and adult-onset asthma considering the number of allergic diseases and the age effect. METHODS: We used population-based data from Finnish national registers including 1205 adults over 30 years of age with recently diagnosed asthma (age range: 30-93), matched for gender, age, and living region with one or two controls (n = 2050). Allergic rhinitis (AR), allergic conjunctivitis (AC), and allergic dermatitis (AD) were defined from self-completed questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression adjusted on potential confounders (smoking, growing in countryside, childhood hospitalized infection/pneumonia, parental asthma/allergy, parental smoking, education level, professional training, number of siblings, and birth order) was applied to estimate the asthma risk associated with allergic multimorbidity. RESULTS: A total of 1118 cases with asthma and 1772 matched controls were included [mean (SD, min-max) 53 (11, 31-71) years, 37% men)]. AR, AC, and AD were reported by 50.2%, 39.6%, and 33.8%, respectively, among subjects with asthma and 26.1%, 20.0%, and 23.5%, respectively, among controls. Compared to nonatopics, adult-onset asthma increased with the number of allergic diseases; adjusted OR for asthma [95% CI] associated with 1, 2, and 3 allergic diseases was 1.95 [1.52-2.49], 2.87 [2.19-3.77], and 4.26 [3.07-5.90], respectively. The association between adult-onset asthma and ≥ 1 allergic multimorbidity decreased with increasing age (3.52 [2.51-4.94], 2.44 [1.74-3.42], and 1.68 [1.04-2.71]) in subjects < 50 years, 50-62 years, and > 62 years, respectively (p for age*≥1 allergic multimorbidity interaction, 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Adult-onset asthma was positively associated with the number of allergic diseases, and this association decreases with age.

5.
J Asthma ; : 1-12, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274044

RESUMO

Objective: People with allergic rhinitis (AR) often self-manage in the community pharmacy setting without consulting health care professionals and trivialize their comorbidities such as asthma. A mobile health application (mHealth app) with a self-monitoring and medication adherence system can assist with the appropriate self-management of AR and asthma. This study aimed to identify an app effective for the self-management of AR and/or asthma. Methods: MHealth apps retrieved from the Australian Apple App Store and Android Google Play Store were included in this study if they were developed for self-management of AR and/or asthma; in English language; free of charge for the full version; and accessible to users of the mHealth app. The mHealth app quality was evaluated on three domains using a two-stage process. In Stage 1, the apps were ranked along Domain 1 (Accessibility in both app stores). In Stage 2, the apps with Stage 1, maximum score were ranked along Domain 2 (alignment with theoretical principles of the self-management of AR and/or asthma) and Domain 3 (usability of the mHealth app using Mobile App Rating Scale instrument). Results: Of the 418 apps retrieved, 31 were evaluated in Stage 1 and 16 in Stage 2. The MASK-air achieved the highest mean rank and covered all self-management principles except the doctor's appointment reminder and scored a total MARS mean score of 0.91/1. Conclusions: MASK-air is ranked most highly across the assessment domains for the self-management of both AR and coexisting asthma. This mHealth app covers the majority of the self-management principles and is highly engaging.

6.
Eur Respir J ; 54(3)2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285304

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Evidence is accumulating that Staphylococcus aureus plays an important role as disease modifier in upper and lower airway diseases. Sensitisation to S. aureus enterotoxins (SEs) was associated with an increased risk of severe asthma in previous cross-sectional studies, but evidence from longitudinal studies is lacking. We aimed to assess associations between SE-sensitisation and the subsequent risk for asthma severity and exacerbations. METHODS: This is a nested case-control study from the 20-year Epidemiological Study of the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) cohort, including 225 adults (75 without asthma, 76 with mild asthma and 74 with severe asthma) in EGEA2 (2003-2007). For 173 of these individuals, SE-sensitisation was measured on samples collected 11 years earlier (EGEA1). Cross-sectional associations were conducted for EGEA1 and EGEA2. Longitudinal analyses estimated the association between SE-sensitisation in EGEA1 and the risk of severe asthma and asthma exacerbations assessed in the follow-up. Models were adjusted for sex, age, smoking, parental asthma/allergy and skin-prick test to house dust mite. RESULTS: SE-sensitisation varied between 39% in controls to 58% and 76% in mild and severe asthma, respectively, in EGEA1. An adjusted cross-sectional association showed that SE-sensitisation was associated with an increased risk of severe, but not for mild asthma. SE-sensitisation in EGEA1 was associated with severe asthma (adjusted OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.18-6.15) and asthma exacerbations (adjusted OR 4.59, 95% CI 1.40-15.07) assessed 10-20 years later. CONCLUSION: For the first time, this study shows that being sensitised to SEs is associated with an increased subsequent risk of severe asthma and asthma exacerbations.

7.
Allergy ; 2019 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230373

RESUMO

Mobile Health (mHealth) uses mobile communication devices such as smartphones and tablet computers to support and improve health-related services, data flow and information, patient self-management, surveillance, and disease management from the moment of first diagnosis to an optimized treatment. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology created a task force to assess the state of the art and future potential of mHealth in allergology. The task force endorsed the "Be He@lthy, Be Mobile" WHO initiative and debated the quality, usability, efficiency, advantages, limitations, and risks of mobile solutions for allergic diseases. The results are summarized in this position paper, analyzing also the regulatory background with regard to the "General Data Protection Regulation" and Medical Directives of the European Community. The task force assessed the design, user engagement, content, potential of inducing behavioral change, credibility/accountability, and privacy policies of mHealth products. The perspectives of health care professionals and allergic patients are discussed, underlining the need of thorough investigation for an effective design of mHealth technologies as auxiliary tools to improve quality of care. Within the context of precision medicine, these could facilitate the change in perspective from clinician- to patient-centered care. The current and future potential of mHealth is then examined for specific areas of allergology, including allergic rhinitis, aerobiology, allergen immunotherapy, asthma, dermatological diseases, food allergies, anaphylaxis, insect venom, and drug allergy. The impact of mobile technologies and associated big data sets are outlined. Facts, recommendations, and an action plan for future mHealth initiatives within EAACI are listed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 66(2): 263-268, 2019 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200425

RESUMO

Although there are high quality clinical guidelines about allergic rhinitis, many patients receive deficient treatment, partly due to the high level of self-medication. MASK (Mobile Airways Sentinel Network) is an integral part of a project against chronic diseases which it is focused on active and healthy aging and is supported by the European Union. It forms the third phase of ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) in which, through a mobile app on a smart device, the purpose is to guide patients in the control of their multimorbidity, allergic rhinitis or conjunctivitis, or asthma. The "Allergy Diary" app by MACVIA-ARIA is free and it is available for Android and iOS; on it, patients indicate how unpleasant the symptoms are on a daily basis through five screens with an analogous visual scale; two more screens were recently added (sleep affectation). With the app, it is also possible to download the information of the "Allergy Diary" on the physician's computer through a QR code at the moment of the medical consultation. In this article, we review the first year of experience in Spain, Mexico and Argentina, where the Spanish version is used.

9.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

10.
Eur Respir J ; 54(3)2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221806

RESUMO

Bronchodilator response (BDR) testing is used as a diagnostic method in obstructive airway diseases. The aim of this investigation was to compare different methods for measuring BDR in participants with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to study to the extent to which BDR was related to symptom burden and phenotypic characteristics.Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured before and 15 min after 200 µg of salbutamol in 35 628 subjects aged ≥16 years from three large international population studies. The subjects were categorised in three groups: current asthma (n=2833), COPD (n=1146) and no airway disease (n=31 649). Three definitions for flow-related reversibility (increase in FEV1) and three for volume-related reversibility (increase in FVC) were used.The prevalence of bronchodilator reversibility expressed as increase FEV1 ≥12% and 200 mL was 17.3% and 18.4% in participants with asthma and COPD, respectively, while the corresponding prevalence was 5.1% in those with no airway disease. In asthma, bronchodilator reversibility was associated with wheeze (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.04-1.79), atopy (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.04-1.79) and higher exhaled nitric oxide fraction, while in COPD neither flow- nor volume-related bronchodilator reversibility was associated with symptom burden, exacerbations or health status after adjusting for pre-bronchodilator FEV1Bronchodilator reversibility was at least as common in participants with COPD as those with asthma. This indicates that measures of reversibility are of limited value for distinguishing asthma from COPD in population studies. However, in asthma, bronchodilator reversibility may be a phenotypic marker.

11.
Bioinformatics ; 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095290

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: In the modern genomics era, genome sequence assemblies are routine practice. However, depending on the methodology, resulting drafts may contain considerable base errors. Although utilities exist for genome base polishing, they work best with high read coverage and do not scale well. We developed ntEdit, a Bloom filter-based genome sequence editing utility that scales to large mammalian and conifer genomes. RESULTS: We first tested ntEdit and the state-of-the-art assembly improvement tools GATK, Pilon and Racon on controlled E. coli and C. elegans sequence data. Generally, ntEdit performs well at low sequence depths (<20X), fixing the majority (>97%) of base substitutions and indels, and its performance is largely constant with increased coverage. In all experiments conducted using a single CPU, the ntEdit pipeline executed in < 14s and <3m, on average, on E. coli and C. elegans, respectively. We performed similar benchmarks on a sub-20X coverage human genome sequence dataset, inspecting accuracy and resource usage in editing chromosomes 1 and 21, and whole genome. ntEdit scaled linearly, executing in 30-40m on those sequences. We show how ntEdit ran in < 2h20m to improve upon long and linked read human genome assemblies of NA12878, using high coverage (54X) Illumina sequence data from the same individual, fixing frame shifts in coding sequences. We also generated 17-fold coverage spruce sequence data from haploid sequence sources (seed megagametophyte), and used it to edit our pseudo haploid assemblies of the 20 Gbp interior and white spruce genomes in < 4 and <5h, respectively, making roughly 50M edits at a (substitution+indel) rate of 0.0024. AVAILABILITY: https://github.com/bcgsc/ntedit. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

12.
Allergy ; 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090937

RESUMO

Novel therapies such as type 2 targeting biologics are emerging treatment options for patients with chronic inflammatory respiratory diseases, fulfilling the needs of severely uncontrolled patients. The majority of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and over half of patients with asthma show a type 2 inflammatory signature in sinonasal mucosa and/or lungs. Importantly, both chronic respiratory diseases are frequent comorbidities, ensuring alleviation of both upper and lower airway pathology by systemic biological therapy. Type 2-targeting biologics such as anti-IgE, anti-IL4Rα, anti-IL5, and anti-IL5Rα have entered the market for selected pheno/endotypes of asthma patients and may soon also become available for CRSwNP patients. Given the high prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases and the high cost associated with biologics, patient selection is crucial in order to implement such therapies into chronic respiratory disease care pathways. The European Forum for Research and Education in Allergy and Airway Diseases (EUFOREA) organized a multidisciplinary Expert Board Meeting to discuss the positioning of biologics into the care pathways for CRSwNP patients with and without comorbid asthma.

13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(5): 1418-1429, 2019 May - Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928481

RESUMO

Allergic asthma often coexists with different pathological conditions, called multimorbidities, that are mostly of allergic nature and share a common underlying inflammatory pathophysiological mechanism. Multimorbidities of allergic asthma may influence asthma control, its severity, and patients' response to treatment, and contribute to the overall socioeconomic burden of the disease. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is known to play a central role in the pathogenesis of various allergic diseases, including asthma. Thus, IgE-mediated immunologic pathways present an attractive target for intervention in asthma and multimorbidities. In this review, we discuss the most frequently reported IgE-mediated multimorbidities in allergic asthma, including allergic rhinitis, rhinoconjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, food allergies, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody against IgE and has been in use to treat allergic asthma for more than a decade. We comprehensively review the clinical evidence for omalizumab in the treatment of the aforementioned multimorbidities in allergic asthma.

15.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 66(1): 140-146, 2019 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013416

RESUMO

The vast majority of patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) do not receive the proper management which is recommended by the guidelines, but they frequently self-medicate. MASK (Mobile Airways Sentinel Network) is an integral part of a project that is supported by the European Union against chronic diseases and focused on active and healthy aging. MASK represents the third phase of ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma), in which, by using a mobile application in a smart device, the objective is to guide the patient in the control of his/her multi-morbidity, AR and/or allergic conjunctivitis (AC) and/or asthma. The mobile app Allergy Diary by MACVIA-ARIA is free and it is available for both Android and iOS platforms. After it is downloaded to the patient's cell phone, it first requests some information about the patient's profile, allergic pathologies and medication; afterwards, through a visual analog scale, the patient is invited to determine the degree of affectation in the nose, eyes, and bronchi, and its influence on their productivity at work / school. After analyzing the data generated by filling the Allergy Diary, it became clear there is a new clinical entity: allergic rhinitis+ allergic conjunctivitis +asthma, with greater effect; in addition to a high level of self-medication: in general, the patient takes medication on days when symptoms are present. The app has already been deployed in 23 countries, including several Spanish-speaking countries.

16.
Respir Med ; 150: 51-62, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961951

RESUMO

Systemic/oral corticosteroids (OCS) have been used for decades in the management of acute asthma exacerbations and chronically in patients with uncontrolled severe asthma. However, while OCS are effective at treating acute exacerbations, there is only empirical evidence regarding the efficacy of OCS at reducing the rate of exacerbations. Evidence, although scarce, is suggestive of high exacerbation rates in severe asthma patients even when receiving maintenance treatment with OCS. In addition, use of OCS is associated with undesirable effects. Despite all this, physicians have continued to use OCS for managing severe asthma and acute exacerbation due to the lack of availability of effective alternatives. Fortunately, in the last decade several biologics have been proven safe and effective for patients with uncontrolled severe asthma. This has led to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) recommending the use of biologics, instead of maintenance OCS, in patients with severe asthma (GINA Step 5). These include one biologic targeting immunoglobulin E (IgE) (omalizumab), and different biologics targeting interleukin-5 (IL-5), the IL-5 receptor (IL-5R) or IL-4 receptor α-unit (IL-4R α), including mepolizumab (subcutaneous), reslizumab (intravenous), benralizumab (subcutaneous) and dupilumab (subcutaneous). Omalizumab for the treatment of severe allergic asthma reduces exacerbations, irrespective of blood eosinophil levels. Anti-IL-5/IL-5R biologics are indicated in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma and repetitive exacerbations, irrespective of the presence or absence of allergy. Recently, an anti-IL4Rα biologic has been approved by the FDA for eosinophilic phenotype or oral corticosteroid-dependent asthma. Finally, physicians should consider using biologics as an alternative to chronic OCS therapy.

18.
Allergy ; 2019 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955224

RESUMO

Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is a proven therapeutic option for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. Many guidelines or national practice guidelines have been produced but the evidence-based method varies, many are complex and none propose care pathways. This paper reviews care pathways for AIT using strict criteria and provides simple recommendations that can be used by all stakeholders including healthcare professionals. The decision to prescribe AIT for the patient should be individualized and based on the relevance of the allergens, the persistence of symptoms despite appropriate medications according to guidelines as well as the availability of good-quality and efficacious extracts. Allergen extracts cannot be regarded as generics. Immunotherapy is selected by specialists for stratified patients. There are no currently available validated biomarkers that can predict AIT success. In adolescents and adults, AIT should be reserved for patients with moderate/severe rhinitis or for those with moderate asthma who, despite appropriate pharmacotherapy and adherence, continue to exhibit exacerbations that appear to be related to allergen exposure, except in some specific cases. Immunotherapy may be even more advantageous in patients with multimorbidity. In children, AIT may prevent asthma onset in patients with rhinitis. mHealth tools are promising for the stratification and follow-up of patients.

19.
Allergy ; 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Google Trends (GTs) is a web-based surveillance tool that explores the searching trends of specific queries via Google. This tool proposes to reflect the real-life epidemiology of allergic rhinitis and asthma. However, the validation of GTs against pollen concentrations is missing at the country level. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we used GTs (a) to compare the terms related to allergy in France, (b) to assess seasonal variations across the country for 5 years and (c) to compare GTs and pollen concentrations for 2016. METHODS: Google Trends queries were initially searched to investigate the terms reflecting pollen and allergic diseases. 13- and 5-year GTs were used in France. Then, 5-year GTs were assessed in all metropolitan French regions to assess the seasonality of GTs. Finally, GTs were compared with pollen concentrations (Réseau National de Surveillance en Aerobiology) for 2016 in seven regions (GTs) and corresponding cities (pollen concentrations). RESULTS: The combination of searches for "allergy" as a disease, "pollen" as a disease cause and "ragweed" as a plant was needed to fully assess the pollen season in France. "Asthma" did not show any seasonality. Using the 5-year GTs, an annual and clear seasonality of queries was found in all regions depending on the predicted pollen exposure for spring and a summer peak but not for winter peaks. The agreement between GT queries and pollen concentrations is usually poor except for spring trees and grasses. Moreover, cypress pollens are insufficiently reported by GTs. CONCLUSIONS: Google Trends cannot predict the pollen season in France.

20.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 123(1): 57-63.e2, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2004, the landmark Gaining Optimal Asthma Control (GOAL) study demonstrated that most patients can achieve asthma control through sustained treatment and that adding a long-acting ß2-adrenoreceptor agonist to an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) is more effective than ICS alone in this regard. Definitions of asthma control have since evolved, and the consequent implications for the GOAL study findings are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol and fluticasone propionate alone in achieving and maintaining asthma control, as derived from the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) 2016 report. METHODS: In total, 3416 patients were stratified by prior medication (ICS-naive [stratum 1], low-dose ICS [stratum 2], or medium-dose ICS [stratum 3]) and randomized to receive fluticasone propionate and salmeterol or fluticasone propionate. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving well-controlled or partly controlled asthma; secondary end points included the proportion of patients achieving well-controlled asthma. Control was evaluated during the last 4 weeks of each dose titration. RESULTS: In all strata, more patients achieved well-controlled or partly controlled asthma with fluticasone propionate and salmeterol vs fluticasone propionate alone (stratum 1: 91% vs 85%; P = .003; stratum 2: 86% vs 82%; P = .07; and stratum 3: 76% vs 66%; P < .001), as well as patients with well-controlled asthma (stratum 1: 64% vs 56%; P = .005; stratum 2: 59% vs 41%; P < .001; and stratum 3: 40% vs 22%; P < .001). CONCLUSION: A markedly higher proportion of patients with uncontrolled asthma in each stratum achieved control according to GINA 2016 criteria compared with the original study criteria. The proportion of patients achieving control remained greater with fluticasone propionate and salmeterol than with fluticasone propionate alone.

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