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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3611, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681047

RESUMO

Temperature measurement at the nanoscale is of paramount importance in the fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology, and calls for the development of versatile, high-resolution thermometry techniques. Here, the working principle and quantitative performance of a cost-effective nanothermometer are experimentally demonstrated, using a molecular spin-crossover thin film as a surface temperature sensor, probed optically. We evidence highly reliable thermometric performance (diffraction-limited sub-µm spatial, µs temporal and 1 °C thermal resolution), which stems to a large extent from the unprecedented quality of the vacuum-deposited thin films of the molecular complex [Fe(HB(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)3)2] used in this work, in terms of fabrication and switching endurance (>107 thermal cycles in ambient air). As such, our results not only afford for a fully-fledged nanothermometry method, but set also a forthcoming stage in spin-crossover research, which has awaited, since the visionary ideas of Olivier Kahn in the 90's, a real-world, technological application.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466653

RESUMO

In this work, scanning probe microscopies (SPMs) are used for the analysis of PBDB-T, ITIC, and PBDB-T:ITIC layers of solar cells (OSCs). Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of PBDB-T reveal that thin films (<1 nm) tend to form worm-like pattern (amorphous type) domains with an average chain-to-chain distance of 950 pm; likewise, STM images of ITIC show that side arms form chain-like patterns. STM images of PBDB-T:ITIC blend suggest why PBDB-T domains could facilitate charge dissociation. Further, a strong interchain π-π interaction of the ITIC molecules could promote self-organization, and under the mutual interaction with the PBDB-T polymer, it could influence the pathway formation for electron transport. Moreover, when correlating electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) and photoconductive atomic force microscopy (pc-AFM), the blend morphology and its electrical/electronic properties are determined; the ideal domain size of PBDB-T:ITIC blend phases for maximizing the generated photocurrent is 15-35 nm. Furthermore, phase contrast and surface electric potential characteristics with Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) are measured to examine additional details about the surface and potential changes due to the domain differences in the active layer. OSCs based on the nonfullerene PBDB-T:ITIC active layer reach an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.1% (best 9.2%).

3.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248213

RESUMO

A main goal of molecular electronics is to relate the performance of devices to the structure and electronic state of molecules. Among the variety of possibilities that organic, organometallic and coordination chemistries offer to tune the energy levels of molecular components, spin crossover phenomenon is a perfect candidate for elaboration of molecular switches. The reorganization of the electronic state population of the molecules associated to the spin crossover can indeed lead to a significant change in conductivity. However, molecular spin crossover is very sensitive to the environment and can disappear once the molecules are integrated into devices. Here, we show that the association of ultra-small 1.2 nm platinum nanoparticles with FeII triazole-based spin crossover coordination polymers leads to self-assemblies, extremely well organized at the sub-3 nm scale. The quasi-perfect alignment of nanoparticles observed by transmission electron microscopy, in addition to specific signature in infrared spectroscopy, demonstrates the coordination of the long-chain molecules with the nanoparticles. Spin crossover is confirmed in such assemblies by X-ray absorption spectroscopic measurements and shows unambiguous characteristics both in magnetic and charge transport measurements. Coordinating polymers are therefore ideal candidates for the elaboration of robust, well-organized, hybrid self-assemblies with metallic nanoparticles, while maintaining sensitive functional properties, such as spin crossover.

4.
Adv Mater ; : e2000987, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301210

RESUMO

The thermally induced spin-crossover (SCO) phenomenon in transition metal complexes is an entropy-driven process, which has been extensively studied through calorimetric methods. Yet, the excess heat capacity associated with the molecular spin-state switching has never been explored for practical applications. Herein, the thermal damping effect of an SCO film is experimentally assessed by monitoring the transient heating response of SCO-coated metallic microwires, Joule-heated by current pulses. A damping of the wire temperature, up to 10%, is evidenced on a time scale of tens of microseconds due to the spin-state switching of the molecular film. Fast heat-charging dynamics and negligible fatigability are demonstrated, which, together with the solid-solid nature of the spin transition, appear as promising features for achieving thermal energy management applications in functional devices.

5.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(26): 264002, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120350

RESUMO

The complex dielectric permittivity of a series of spin crossover complexes, with variable ligand stoichiometry [Fe(Htrz)1+y-x (trz)2-y (NH2trz) x ](BF4) y ·nH2O, has been investigated as a function of temperature in a wide frequency range. In each compound, a substantial drop of the conductivity and permittivity is evidenced when going from the low spin to the high spin state, albeit with decreasing amplitude for increasing ligand substitution (i.e. for increasing x). The deconvolution of the dielectric spectra using the Havriliak-Negami equation allowed to extract the dipole and conductivity relaxation times, their distributions as well as the dielectric strengths in both spin states. Remarkably, no clear correlation appears between the conductivity changes and the lattice properties (Debye temperature) in the dilution series. We rationalize these results by considering the dimensionality of the system (1D), wherein the charge transport occurs most likely by hopping along the [Fe(Rtrz)3] n n+ chains.

6.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(21): 214010, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032965

RESUMO

Multilayer crossbar junctions composed of ITO/[Fe(HB(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)3)2]/M (with M = Al or Ca) were fabricated and investigated for their resistance switching properties. Current-voltage-temperature maps revealed ON/OFF resistance ratios as high as 400, with the ON and OFF states defined, respectively, as the low-resistance, low spin state and the high-resistance, high spin state of the spin crossover layer. Similar results were obtained with Al and Ca cathodes indicating that the charge transport in the insulating spin crossover film is at the origin of the resistance switching instead of electron injection at the electrodes. The reproducibility and stability of the device properties were also studied.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943578

RESUMO

A mixed-valence {MnII 3 MnIII FeII 2 FeIII 2 } cyanide-bridged molecular cube hosting a caesium cation, Cs⊂{Mn4 Fe4 }, was synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. Cyclic-voltammetry measurements show that its electronic state can be switched between five different redox states, which results in a remarkable electrochromic effect. Magnetic measurements on fresh samples point to the occurrence of a spin-state change near room temperature, which could be ascribed to a metal-to-metal electron transfer converting the {FeII -CN-MnIII } pair into a {FeIII -CN-MnII } pair. This feature was only previously observed in the polymeric MnFe Prussian-blue analogues (PBAs). Moreover, this novel switchable molecule proved to be soluble and stable in organic solvents, paving the way for its integration into advanced materials.

8.
Inorg Chem ; 59(2): 1091-1103, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887022

RESUMO

The modulation of light emission by Fe(II) spin-crossover processes in multifunctional materials has recently attracted major interest for the indirect and noninvasive monitoring of magnetic information storage. In order to approach this goal at the molecular level, three segmental ligand strands, L4-L6, were reacted with stoichiometric mixtures of divalent d-block cations (M(II) = Fe(II) or Zn(II)) and trivalent lanthanides (Ln(III) = La(III) or Eu(III)) in acetonitrile to give C3-symmetrical dinuclear triple-stranded helical [LnM(Lk)3]5+ cations, which can be crystallized with noncoordinating counter-anions. The divalent metal M(II) is six-coordinate in the pseudo-octahedral sites produced by the facial wrapping of the three didentate binding units, the ligand field of which induces variable Fe(II) spin-state properties in [LnFe(L4)3]5+ (strictly high-spin), [LnFe(L5)3]5+ (spin-crossover (SCO) around room temperature), and [LnFe(L6)3]5+ (SCO at very low temperature). The introduction of the photophysically active Eu(III) probe in [EuFe(Lk)3]5+ results in europium-centered luminescence modulated by variable intramolecular Eu(III) → Fe(II) energy-transfer processes. The kinetic analysis implies Eu(III) → Fe(II) quenching efficiencies close to 100% for the low-spin configuration and greater than 95% for the high-spin state. Consequently, the sensitivity of indirect luminescence detection of Fe(II) spin crossover is limited by the resulting weak Eu(III)-centered emission intensities, but the dependence of the luminescence on the temperature unambiguously demonstrates the potential of indirect lanthanide-based spin-state monitoring at the molecular scale.

9.
Dalton Trans ; 48(45): 16853-16856, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693038

RESUMO

The post-synthetic reaction between p-anisaldehyde and the spin-crossover compound [Fe(NH2-trz)3](NO3)2 was explored, obtaining different degrees of transformation from 23% to full conversion by varying the reaction time. The post-synthetic SCO complexes obtained were studied by magnetometry, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), elemental analysis, solid state NMR and IR and compared with the corresponding compounds obtained by direct synthetic routes, revealing new spin crossover properties.

10.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(23): 7391-7396, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714791

RESUMO

We use broad-band dielectric spectroscopy to investigate the spin-state dependence of electrical properties of the [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)](BF4) spin crossover complex. We show that the Havriliak-Negami theory can fully describe the variation of the complex dielectric permittivity of the material across the pressure-temperature phase diagram. The analysis reveals three dielectric relaxation processes, which we attribute to electrode/interface polarization, dipole relaxation, and charge transport relaxation. The contribution of the latter appears significant to the dielectric strength. Remarkably, the permittivity and conductivity changes between the high spin and low spin states are amplified at the corresponding relaxation frequencies.

11.
Small ; 15(47): e1903892, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617319

RESUMO

Thin films of the molecular spin-crossover complex [Fe(HB(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)3 )2 ] undergo spin transition above room temperature, which can be exploited in sensors, actuators, and information processing devices. Variable temperature viscoelastic mapping of the films by atomic force microscopy reveals a pronounced decrease of the elastic modulus when going from the low spin (5.2 ± 0.4 GPa) to the high spin (3.6 ± 0.2 GPa) state, which is also accompanied by increasing energy dissipation. This technique allows imaging, with high spatial resolution, of the formation of high spin puddles around film defects, which is ascribed to local strain relaxation. On the other hand, no clustering process due to cooperative phenomena was observed. This experimental approach sets the stage for the investigation of spin transition at the nanoscale, including phase nucleation and evolution as well as local strain effects.

12.
Adv Mater ; 31(25): e1901361, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034107

RESUMO

Using ultrafast optical absorption spectroscopy, the room-temperature spin-state switching dynamics induced by a femtosecond laser pulse in high-quality thin films of the molecular spin-crossover (SCO) complex [Fe(HB(tz)3 )2 ] (tz = 1,2,4-triazol-1-yl) are studied. These measurements reveal that the early, sub-picosecond, low-spin to high-spin photoswitching event, with linear response to the laser pulse energy, can be followed under certain conditions by a second switching process occurring on a timescale of tens of nanoseconds, enabling nonlinear amplification. This out-of-equilibrium dynamics is discussed in light of the characteristic timescales associated with the different switching mechanisms, i.e., the electronic and structural rearrangements of photoexcited molecules, the propagation of strain waves at the material scale, and the thermal activation above the molecular energy barrier. Importantly, the additional, nonlinear switching step appears to be completely suppressed in the thinnest (50 nm) film due to the efficient heat transfer to the substrate, allowing the system to retrieve the thermal equilibrium state on the 100 ns timescale. These results provide a first milestone toward the assessment of the physical parameters that drive the photoresponse of SCO thin films, opening up appealing perspectives for their use as high-frequency all-optical switches working at room temperature.

13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(33): 4769-4772, 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924832

RESUMO

A series of spin-crossover (SCO) coordination nanoparticles (ca. 60 nm) with the general formulae [Fe(Htrz)1+y-x(trz)2-y(NH2trz)x](BF4)y·nH2O (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) were synthesized in concentrated solutions without using any surfactant or polymer. The nanoparticle powders were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, magnetometry, calorimetry, Raman/IR spectroscopies, elemental analysis and 57Fe Mössbauer spectrometry. Remarkably, the latter revealed a large decrease of the lattice stiffness when incorporating a small amount of amino-triazole ligand, reflected by the drop of the Debye temperature from 285 K (x = 0) to 205 K (x = 0.3). This collapse of the lattice cohesion was attributed to a reorganization of the supramolecular interactions between the Fe-triazole chains. This effect on the SCO properties is also discussed.

14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(7): 1511-1515, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883126

RESUMO

Spin-crossover nanomaterials have been actively studied in the past decade for their potential technological applications in sensing, actuating, and information processing devices. Unfortunately, an increasing number of the metallic centers become inactive at reduced sizes, presumably due to surface effects, limiting their switching ability and thus the scope of applications. Here we report on the investigation of "frozen" metallic centers in nanoparticles (2-80 nm size) of the spin-crossover compound Fe(pyrazine)[Ni(CN)4]. Magnetic measurements reveal both high-spin and low-spin residual fractions at atmospheric pressure. A pressure-induced transition of the high-spin residue is observed at around 1.5 GPa by synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy. We show that it is equivalent to a downshift of the transition temperature by ca. 400 K due to the size reduction. Unexpectedly, small-angle neutron scattering experiments demonstrate that these high-spin residual centers are not confined to the surface, which contradicts general theoretical considerations.

15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(45): 14758-14763, 2018 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30230674

RESUMO

Despite stated in some highly cited articles, magnetite is devoided of peroxidase activity. In fact, this very stable mixed valence FeII O⋅FeIII 2 O3 complex is not catalytically competent to oxidize standard peroxidase substrates, especially at the biologically relevant pH value of 7.4. In addition, magnetite whose deleterious redox activity has been suspected in Alzheimer's disease brain damages, does not significantly interact with amyloid peptide Aß in vitro, and is not able to induce, either in the presence or absence of Aß, the reductive activation of dioxygen, the first step of an oxidative stress. In fact, this highly insoluble mineral iron derivative is probably not involved in the oxidative damage of brain neurons of patients with AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Amiloide/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Peroxidase/metabolismo
16.
Chemistry ; 24(63): 16873-16888, 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171722

RESUMO

Chelate coordination of non-symmetrical didentate pyrazine-benzimidazole (L1) or pyridine-benzimidazole (L2) N-donor ligands around divalent iron in acetonitrile produces stable homoleptic triple-helical spin crossover [Fe(Lk)3 ]2+ complexes existing as mixtures of meridional (C1 -symmetry) and facial (C3 -symmetry) isomers in slow exchange on the NMR timescale. The speciation deviates from the expected statistical ratio mer/fac=3:1, a trend assigned to the thermodynamic trans-influence, combined with solvation effects. Consequently, the observed spin state FeII low-spin ↔FeII high-spin equilibria occurring in [Fe(Lk)3 ]2+ refer to mixtures of complexes in solution, an issue usually not considered in this field, but which limits rational structure-properties correlations. Taking advantage of the selective and quantitative formation of isostructural facial isomers in non-constrained related spin crossover d-f helicates (HHH)-[LnFe(Lk)3 ]5+ (Ln is a trivalent lanthanide, Lk=L5, L6), we propose a novel strategy for assigning pertinent thermodynamic driving forces to each spin crossover triple-helical isomer. The different enthalpic contributions to the spin state equilibrium found in mer-[Fe(Lk)3 ]2+ and fac-[Fe(Lk)3 ]2+ reflect the Fe-N bond strengths dictated by the trans-influence, whereas a concomitant solvent-based entropic contribution reinforces the latter effect and results in systematic shifts of the spin crossover transitions toward higher temperature in the facial isomers.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(28): 8970-8979, 2018 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29920196

RESUMO

Molecular spin crossover complexes are promising candidates for mechanical actuation purposes. The relationships between their crystal structure and mechanical properties remain, however, not well understood. In this study, combining high pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction, nuclear inelastic scattering, and micromechanical measurements, we assessed the effective macroscopic bulk modulus ( B = 11.5 ± 1.5 GPa), Young's modulus ( Y = 10.9 ± 1.0 GPa), and Poisson's ratio (ν = 0.34 ± 0.04) of the spin crossover complex [FeII(HB(tz)3)2] (tz = 1,2,4-triazol-1-yl). Crystal structure analysis revealed a pronounced anisotropy of the lattice compressibility, which was correlated with the difference in spacing between the molecules as well as by the distribution of the stiffest C-H···N interactions in different crystallographic directions. Switching the molecules from the low spin to the high spin state leads to a remarkable drop of the Young's modulus to 7.1 ± 0.5 GPa both in bulk and thin film samples. The results highlight the application potential of these films in terms of strain (ε = -0.17 ± 0.05%), recoverable stress (σ = -21 ± 1 MPa), and work density ( W/V = 15 ± 6 mJ/cm3).

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(14): 9139-9145, 2018 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29577144

RESUMO

Using optical microscopy we studied the vacuum pressure dependence (0.1-1000 mbar) of the nucleation and growth dynamics of the thermally induced first-order spin transition in a single crystal of the spin-crossover compound [Fe(HB(tz)3)2] (tz = 1,2,4-triazol-1-yl). A crossover between a quasi-static hysteresis regime and a temperature-scan-rate-dependent kinetic regime is evidenced around 5 mbar due to the change of the heat exchange coupling between the crystal and its external environment. Remarkably, the absorption/dissipation rate of latent heat was identified as the key factor limiting the switching speed of the crystal.

19.
Adv Mater ; 30(8)2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315914

RESUMO

Spin crossover particles of formula [Fe{(Htrz)2 (trz)}0.9 (NH2 -trz)0.3 ](BF4 )1.1 and average size of 20 nm ± 8 nm are homogeneously dispersed in poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoro-ethylene), P(VDF-TrFE), and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrices to form macroscopic (cm-scale), freestanding, and flexible nanocomposite materials. The composites exhibit concomitant thermal expansion and discharge current peaks on cycling around the spin transition temperatures, i.e., new "product properties" resulting from the synergy between the particles and the matrix. Poling the P(VDF-TrFE) (70-30 mol%) samples loaded with 25 wt% of particles in 18 MV m-1 electric field results in a piezoelectric coefficient d33 = -3.3 pC N-1 . The poled samples display substantially amplified discharges and altered spin transition properties. Analysis of mechanical and dielectric properties reveals that both strain (1%) and permittivity (40%) changes in the composite accompany the spin transition in the particles, giving direct evidence for strong electromechanical couplings between the components. These results provide a novel route for the deployment of molecular spin crossover materials as actuators in artificial muscles and generators in thermal energy harvesting devices.

20.
Adv Mater ; 30(5)2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29171924

RESUMO

Nanoscale spin crossover materials capable of undergoing reversible switching between two electronic configurations with markedly different physical properties are excellent candidates for various technological applications. In particular, they can serve as active materials for storing and processing information in photonic, mechanical, electronic, and spintronic devices as well as for transducing different forms of energy in sensors and actuators. In this progress report, a brief overview on the current state-of-the-art of experimental and theoretical studies of nanomaterials displaying spin transition is presented. Based on these results, a detailed analysis and discussions in terms of finite size effects and other phenomena inherent to the reduced size scale are provided. Finally, recent research devices using spin crossover complexes are highlighted, emphasizing both challenges and prospects.

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