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1.
Environ Pollut ; 245: 235-242, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423538

RESUMO

While numerous studies have examined the effect of N deposition on ecosystem N retention, few have analyzed the involvement of plant species and climate warming in this process. We experimentally investigated the effects of increasing N deposition (Nexo) and climate warming on the fate of Nexo in a subalpine meadow and established the involvement of plant species. Using 15N tracer, we tracked Nexo sprayed on the vegetation in belowground and aboveground plant biomasses (AGB) and in bulk soil over three growing seasons. We assessed the Nexo absorption capacity of plant species and the contribution of Nexo to their AGB N pool. The meadow retained a large proportion of Nexo (≈65%, mostly in AGB) for depositions up to four times the background N rate. Nexo present in the meadow compartments in year 2 was still present in year 3, suggesting that the ecosystem was unsaturated after three years of high N input. Nexo retention resulted more from an increase in N concentration in plant tissues than from the increase in AGB. The species-specific Nexo absorption capacity was inversely related to their AGB N concentration. Nexo accounted for up to 40% of total AGB N depending on the species and the N treatments. The contribution of species to ecosystem Nexo retention more contingent on their AGB than on their relative cover in the community, ranked as follows: C. vulgaris (14.0%) > N. stricta (7.0%) > other Poaceae = C. caryophyllea (2.5%) > other Eudicotyledons (1.5%) > non-vascular species = P. erecta > Fabaceae (0.8-0.2%). Climate warming increased AGB and decreased tissue N concentration. No warming-Nexo interaction was observed. Thus, Pyrenean subalpine meadows that have not undergone a decline in plant species richness in recent decades paradoxically display a high potential to sequester atmospheric N deposition.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Mudança Climática , Clima , Nitrogênio/análise , Poaceae/classificação , Poaceae/metabolismo , Biomassa , Pradaria , Plantas/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Solo , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Ecology ; 96(7): 1846-55, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26378307

RESUMO

Induced defense is a common plant strategy in response to herbivory. Although abiotic damage, such as physical wounding, pruning, and heating, can induce plant defense, the effect of such damage by large-scale abiotic disturbances on induced defenses has not been explored and could have important consequences for plant survival facing future biotic disturbances. Historically, low-severity wildfire was a widespread, frequent abiotic disturbance in many temperate coniferous forests. Native Dendroctonus and Ips bark beetles are also a common biotic disturbance agent in these forest types and can influence tree mortality patterns after wildfire. Therefore, species living in these disturbance-prone environments with strategies to survive both frequent fire and bark beetle attack should be favored. One such example is Pinus ponderosa forests of western North America. These forests are susceptible to bark beetle attack and frequent, low-severity fire was common prior to European settlement. However, since the late 1800s, frequent, low-severity fires have greatly decreased in these forests. We hypothesized that non-lethal, low-severity, wildfire induces resin duct defense in P. ponderosa and that lack of low-severity fire relaxes resin duct defense in forests dependent on frequent, low-severity fire. We first compared axial resin duct traits between trees that either survived or died from bark beetle attacks. Next, we studied axial ducts using tree cores with crossdated chronologies in several natural P. ponderosa stands before and after an individual wildfire and, also, before and after an abrupt change in fire frequency in the 20th century. We show that trees killed by bark beetles invested less in resin ducts relative to trees that survived attack, suggesting that resin duct-related traits provide resistance against bark beetles. We then show low-severity fire induces resin duct production, and finally, that resin duct production declines when fire ceases. Our results demonstrate that low-severity fire can trigger a long-lasting induced defense that may increase tree survival from subsequent herbivory.


Assuntos
Besouros/fisiologia , Fogo , Pinus ponderosa/parasitologia , Animais , Pinus ponderosa/fisiologia , Resinas Vegetais , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Sci Rep ; 5: 12942, 2015 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26255956

RESUMO

Deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere is expected to be the third greatest driver of biodiversity loss by the year 2100. Chemistry-transport models are essential tools to estimate spatially explicit N deposition but the reliability of their predictions remained to be validated in mountains. We measured N deposition and air concentration over the subalpine Pyrenees. N deposition was found to range from 797 to 1,463 mg N m(-2) year(-1). These values were higher than expected from model predictions, especially for nitrate, which exceeded the estimations of EMEP by a factor of 2.6 and CHIMERE by 3.6. Our observations also displayed a reversed reduced-to-oxidized ratio in N deposition compared with model predictions. The results highlight that the subalpine Pyrenees are exposed to higher levels of N deposition than expected according to standard predictions and that these levels exceed currently recognized critical loads for most high-elevation habitats. Our study reveals a need to improve the evaluation of N deposition in mountains which are home to a substantial and original part of the world's biodiversity.

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