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1.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578528

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. We performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in 457,690 individuals, identifying 183 loci (147 previously unknown) that improve the prediction of gout in an independent cohort of 334,880 individuals. Serum urate showed significant genetic correlations with many cardiometabolic traits, with genetic causality analyses supporting a substantial role for pleiotropy. Enrichment analysis, fine-mapping of urate-associated loci and colocalization with gene expression in 47 tissues implicated the kidney and liver as the main target organs and prioritized potentially causal genes and variants, including the transcriptional master regulators in the liver and kidney, HNF1A and HNF4A. Experimental validation showed that HNF4A transactivated the promoter of ABCG2, encoding a major urate transporter, in kidney cells, and that HNF4A p.Thr139Ile is a functional variant. Transcriptional coregulation within and across organs may be a general mechanism underlying the observed pleiotropy between urate and cardiometabolic traits.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10964, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358886

RESUMO

The Viking Health Study Shetland is a population-based research cohort of 2,122 volunteer participants with ancestry from the Shetland Isles in northern Scotland. The high kinship and detailed phenotype data support a range of approaches for associating rare genetic variants, enriched in this isolate population, with quantitative traits and diseases. As an exemplar, the c.1750G > A; p.Gly584Ser variant within the coding sequence of the KCNH2 gene implicated in Long QT Syndrome (LQTS), which occurred once in 500 whole genome sequences from this population, was investigated. Targeted sequencing of the KCNH2 gene in family members of the initial participant confirmed the presence of the sequence variant and identified two further members of the same family pedigree who shared the variant. Investigation of these three related participants for whom single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array genotypes were available allowed a unique shared haplotype of 1.22 Mb to be defined around this locus. Searching across the full cohort for this haplotype uncovered two additional apparently unrelated individuals with no known genealogical connection to the original kindred. All five participants with the defined haplotype were shown to share the rare variant by targeted Sanger sequencing. If this result were verified in a healthcare setting, it would be considered clinically actionable, and has been actioned in relatives ascertained independently through clinical presentation. The General Practitioners of four study participants with the rare variant were alerted to the research findings by letters outlining the phenotype (prolonged electrocardiographic QTc interval). A lack of detectable haplotype sharing between c.1750G > A; p.Gly584Ser chromosomes from previously reported individuals from Finland and those in this study from Shetland suggests that this mutation has arisen more than once in human history. This study showcases the potential value of isolate population-based research resources for genomic medicine. It also illustrates some challenges around communication of actionable findings in research participants in this context.

3.
Nat Genet ; 51(6): 957-972, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152163

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for a public health burden with multi-systemic complications. Through trans-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and independent replication (n = 1,046,070), we identified 264 associated loci (166 new). Of these, 147 were likely to be relevant for kidney function on the basis of associations with the alternative kidney function marker blood urea nitrogen (n = 416,178). Pathway and enrichment analyses, including mouse models with renal phenotypes, support the kidney as the main target organ. A genetic risk score for lower eGFR was associated with clinically diagnosed CKD in 452,264 independent individuals. Colocalization analyses of associations with eGFR among 783,978 European-ancestry individuals and gene expression across 46 human tissues, including tubulo-interstitial and glomerular kidney compartments, identified 17 genes differentially expressed in kidney. Fine-mapping highlighted missense driver variants in 11 genes and kidney-specific regulatory variants. These results provide a comprehensive priority list of molecular targets for translational research.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Testes de Função Renal , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Uromodulina/urina
4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2069, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043600

RESUMO

In the original version of this Article, the legend in the upper panel of Figure 2 incorrectly read 'paternal imprinting' and should have read 'maternal imprinting'. This has been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

5.
Thyroid ; 29(6): 886-893, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929638

RESUMO

Background: Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a 660 kDa iodoglycoprotein that serves as a scaffold for thyroid hormone synthesis. Although a twin study showed that variability of serum Tg levels has a substantial genetic basis, no genome-wide association study (GWAS) of serum/plasma Tg levels has been performed to date. The aim of this study was to identify genetic variants associated with plasma Tg levels among healthy individuals. Methods: A GWAS was conducted on two Croatian cohorts, and a combined analysis was performed. The analyses included 1094 individuals. A total of 7,597,379 variants, imputed using the 1000 Genomes reference panel, were analyzed for association. GWAS was performed under an additive model, controlling for age, sex, and relatedness within each data set. Combined analysis was conducted using the inverse-variance fixed-effects method. Results: Sixteen variants located on chromosome 3, within the ST6GAL1 gene, reached genome-wide significance. The lead SNP was rs4012172 ( \documentclass{aastex}\usepackage{amsbsy}\usepackage{amsfonts}\usepackage{amssymb}\usepackage{bm}\usepackage{mathrsfs}\usepackage{pifont}\usepackage{stmaryrd}\usepackage{textcomp}\usepackage{portland, xspace}\usepackage{amsmath, amsxtra}\usepackage{upgreek}\pagestyle{empty}\DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6}\begin{document} $$p = 1.29 \times {10^{ - 10}}$$ \end{document} ), which explained 3.19% of the variance in Tg levels. ST6GAL1 belongs to the sialyltransferase protein family, which has a fundamental role in the synthesis of specific sialylated structures on various glycoproteins, including Tg. It is known that only immature Tg (poorly sialylated or desialylated) can be transferred to the bloodstream. Conclusions: A highly biologically plausible locus was identified that could have a role in the regulation of plasma Tg levels in healthy individuals.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1383, 2019 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918249

RESUMO

Parent-of-origin effects (POE) exist when there is differential expression of alleles inherited from the two parents. A genome-wide scan for POE on DNA methylation at 639,238 CpGs in 5,101 individuals identifies 733 independent methylation CpGs potentially influenced by POE at a false discovery rate ≤ 0.05 of which 331 had not previously been identified. Cis and trans methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTL) regulate methylation variation through POE at 54% (399/733) of the identified POE-influenced CpGs. The combined results provide strong evidence for previously unidentified POE-influenced CpGs at 171 independent loci. Methylation variation at 14 of the POE-influenced CpGs is associated with multiple metabolic traits. A phenome-wide association analysis using the POE mQTL SNPs identifies a previously unidentified imprinted locus associated with waist circumference. These results provide a high resolution population-level map for POE on DNA methylation sites, their local and distant regulators and potential consequences for complex traits.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Impressão Genômica/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Adulto , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Escócia
7.
J Hum Genet ; 64(5): 473-480, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824882

RESUMO

Thyroid hormones (THs) are key regulators of cellular growth, development, and metabolism. The thyroid gland secretes two THs, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), into the plasma where they are almost all bound reversibly to plasma proteins. Free forms of THs are metabolically active, however, they represent a very small fraction of total TH levels. No genome-wide studies have been performed to date on total TH levels, comprising of protein-bound and free forms of THs. To detect genetic variants associated with total TH levels, we carried out the first GWAS meta-analysis of total T4 levels in 1121 individuals from two Croatian cohorts (Split and Korcula). We also performed GWAS analyses of total T3 levels in 577 individuals and T3/T4 ratio in 571 individuals from the Split cohort. The top association in GWAS meta-analysis of total T4 was detected for an intronic variant within SLC22A9 gene (rs12282281, P = 4.00 × 10-7). Within the same region, a genome-wide significant variant (rs11822642, P = 2.50 × 10-8) for the T3/T4 ratio was identified. SLC22A9 encodes for an organic anion transporter protein expressed predominantly in the liver and belongs to the superfamily of solute carriers (SLC), a large group of transport membrane proteins. The transport of THs across the plasma membrane in peripheral tissues is facilitated by the membrane proteins, and all TH transport proteins known to date belong to the same SLC superfamily as SLC22A9. These results suggest a potential role for SLC22A9 as a novel transporter protein of THs.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Íntrons , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes , Tiroxina , Tri-Iodotironina , Estudos de Coortes , Croácia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/metabolismo , Tiroxina/sangue , Tiroxina/genética , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/genética
9.
Nat Genet ; 51(1): 51-62, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578418

RESUMO

In this trans-ethnic multi-omic study, we reinterpret the genetic architecture of blood pressure to identify genes, tissues, phenomes and medication contexts of blood pressure homeostasis. We discovered 208 novel common blood pressure SNPs and 53 rare variants in genome-wide association studies of systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure in up to 776,078 participants from the Million Veteran Program (MVP) and collaborating studies, with analysis of the blood pressure clinical phenome in MVP. Our transcriptome-wide association study detected 4,043 blood pressure associations with genetically predicted gene expression of 840 genes in 45 tissues, and mouse renal single-cell RNA sequencing identified upregulated blood pressure genes in kidney tubule cells.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Túbulos Renais/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
11.
Nat Genet ; 50(10): 1412-1425, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224653

RESUMO

High blood pressure is a highly heritable and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We report the largest genetic association study of blood pressure traits (systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure) to date in over 1 million people of European ancestry. We identify 535 novel blood pressure loci that not only offer new biological insights into blood pressure regulation but also highlight shared genetic architecture between blood pressure and lifestyle exposures. Our findings identify new biological pathways for blood pressure regulation with potential for improved cardiovascular disease prevention in the future.

12.
Mol Med ; 24(1): 15, 2018 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is one of the principal regulators of calcium homeostasis. Although serum PTH level is mostly accounted by genetic factors, genetic background underlying PTH level is insufficiently known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel genetic variants associated with PTH levels. METHODS: We performed GWAS meta-analysis within two genetically isolated Croatian populations followed by replication analysis in a Croatian mainland population and we also combined results across all three analyzed populations. The analyses included 2596 individuals. A total of 7,411,206 variants, imputed using the 1000 Genomes reference panel, were analysed for the association. In addition, a sex-specific GWAS meta-analyses were performed. RESULTS: Polymorphisms with the lowest P-values were located on chromosome 4 approximately 84 kb of the 5' of RASGEF1B gene. The most significant SNP was rs11099476 (P = 1.15 × 10-8). Sex-specific analysis identified genome-wide significant association of the variant rs77178854, located within DPP10 gene in females only (P = 2.21 × 10- 9). There were no genome-wide significant findings in the meta-analysis of males. CONCLUSIONS: We identified two biologically plausible novel loci associated with PTH levels, providing us with further insights into the genetics of this complex trait.

13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1864, 2018 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760442

RESUMO

Central corneal thickness (CCT) is a highly heritable trait associated with complex eye diseases such as keratoconus and glaucoma. We perform a genome-wide association meta-analysis of CCT and identify 19 novel regions. In addition to adding support for known connective tissue-related pathways, pathway analyses uncover previously unreported gene sets. Remarkably, >20% of the CCT-loci are near or within Mendelian disorder genes. These included FBN1, ADAMTS2 and TGFB2 which associate with connective tissue disorders (Marfan, Ehlers-Danlos and Loeys-Dietz syndromes), and the LUM-DCN-KERA gene complex involved in myopia, corneal dystrophies and cornea plana. Using index CCT-increasing variants, we find a significant inverse correlation in effect sizes between CCT and keratoconus (r = -0.62, P = 5.30 × 10-5) but not between CCT and primary open-angle glaucoma (r = -0.17, P = 0.2). Our findings provide evidence for shared genetic influences between CCT and keratoconus, and implicate candidate genes acting in collagen and extracellular matrix regulation.


Assuntos
Córnea/metabolismo , Genoma Humano , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , Ceratocone/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Proteínas ADAMTS/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Córnea/anormalidades , Córnea/patologia , Doenças da Córnea/etnologia , Doenças da Córnea/genética , Doenças da Córnea/metabolismo , Doenças da Córnea/patologia , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/etnologia , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/genética , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/metabolismo , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/patologia , Decorina/genética , Decorina/metabolismo , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/etnologia , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/genética , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/metabolismo , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/etnologia , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/genética , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/metabolismo , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/patologia , Fibrilina-1/genética , Fibrilina-1/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/etnologia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/metabolismo , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/patologia , Humanos , Ceratocone/etnologia , Ceratocone/metabolismo , Ceratocone/patologia , Síndrome de Loeys-Dietz/etnologia , Síndrome de Loeys-Dietz/genética , Síndrome de Loeys-Dietz/metabolismo , Síndrome de Loeys-Dietz/patologia , Lumicana/genética , Lumicana/metabolismo , Síndrome de Marfan/etnologia , Síndrome de Marfan/genética , Síndrome de Marfan/metabolismo , Síndrome de Marfan/patologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Miopia/etnologia , Miopia/genética , Miopia/metabolismo , Miopia/patologia
14.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(5): e002037, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrical conduction from the cardiac sinoatrial node to the ventricles is critical for normal heart function. Genome-wide association studies have identified more than a dozen common genetic loci that are associated with PR interval. However, it is unclear whether rare and low-frequency variants also contribute to PR interval heritability. METHODS: We performed large-scale meta-analyses of the PR interval that included 83 367 participants of European ancestry and 9436 of African ancestry. We examined both common and rare variants associated with the PR interval. RESULTS: We identified 31 genetic loci that were significantly associated with PR interval after Bonferroni correction (P<1.2×10-6), including 11 novel loci that have not been reported previously. Many of these loci are involved in heart morphogenesis. In gene-based analysis, we found that multiple rare variants at MYH6 (P=5.9×10-11) and SCN5A (P=1.1×10-7) were associated with PR interval. SCN5A locus also was implicated in the common variant analysis, whereas MYH6 was a novel locus. CONCLUSIONS: We identified common variants at 11 novel loci and rare variants within 2 gene regions that were significantly associated with PR interval. Our findings provide novel insights to the current understanding of atrioventricular conduction, which is critical for cardiac activity and an important determinant of health.

15.
Genomics ; 2018 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29678681

RESUMO

Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are multifactorial endocrine diseases most frequently accompanied by Tg and TPO autoantibodies. Both antibodies have a higher prevalence in females and act under a strong genetic influence. To identify novel variants underlying thyroid antibody levels, we performed GWAS meta-analysis on the plasma levels of TgAb and TPOAb in three Croatian cohorts, as well as gender specific GWAS and a bivariate analysis. No significant association was detected with the level of TgAb and TPOAb in the meta-analysis of GWAS or bivariate results for all individuals. The bivariate analysis in females only revealed a genome-wide significant association for the locus near GRIN3A (rs4457391, P = 7.76 × 10-9). The same locus had borderline association with TPOAb levels in females (rs1935377, P = 8.58 × 10-8). In conclusion, we identified a novel gender specific locus associated with TgAb and TPOAb levels. Our findings provide a novel insight into genetic and gender differences associated with thyroid antibodies.

16.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 9, 2018 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29317602

RESUMO

Few replicable genetic associations for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have been identified. Recent studies of MDD have identified common risk variants by using a broader phenotype definition in very large samples, or by reducing phenotypic and ancestral heterogeneity. We sought to ascertain whether it is more informative to maximize the sample size using data from all available cases and controls, or to use a sex or recurrent stratified subset of affected individuals. To test this, we compared heritability estimates, genetic correlation with other traits, variance explained by MDD polygenic score, and variants identified by genome-wide meta-analysis for broad and narrow MDD classifications in two large British cohorts - Generation Scotland and UK Biobank. Genome-wide meta-analysis of MDD in males yielded one genome-wide significant locus on 3p22.3, with three genes in this region (CRTAP, GLB1, and TMPPE) demonstrating a significant association in gene-based tests. Meta-analyzed MDD, recurrent MDD and female MDD yielded equivalent heritability estimates, showed no detectable difference in association with polygenic scores, and were each genetically correlated with six health-correlated traits (neuroticism, depressive symptoms, subjective well-being, MDD, a cross-disorder phenotype and Bipolar Disorder). Whilst stratified GWAS analysis revealed a genome-wide significant locus for male MDD, the lack of independent replication, and the consistent pattern of results in other MDD classifications suggests that phenotypic stratification using recurrence or sex in currently available sample sizes is currently weakly justified. Based upon existing studies and our findings, the strategy of maximizing sample sizes is likely to provide the greater gain.

17.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 910, 2017 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29030599

RESUMO

Genomic analysis of longevity offers the potential to illuminate the biology of human aging. Here, using genome-wide association meta-analysis of 606,059 parents' survival, we discover two regions associated with longevity (HLA-DQA1/DRB1 and LPA). We also validate previous suggestions that APOE, CHRNA3/5, CDKN2A/B, SH2B3 and FOXO3A influence longevity. Next we show that giving up smoking, educational attainment, openness to new experience and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are most positively genetically correlated with lifespan while susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD), cigarettes smoked per day, lung cancer, insulin resistance and body fat are most negatively correlated. We suggest that the effect of education on lifespan is principally mediated through smoking while the effect of obesity appears to act via CAD. Using instrumental variables, we suggest that an increase of one body mass index unit reduces lifespan by 7 months while 1 year of education adds 11 months to expected lifespan.Variability in human longevity is genetically influenced. Using genetic data of parental lifespan, the authors identify associations at HLA-DQA/DRB1 and LPA and find that genetic variants that increase educational attainment have a positive effect on lifespan whereas increasing BMI negatively affects lifespan.


Assuntos
Cadeias alfa de HLA-DQ/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Estilo de Vida , Lipoproteína(a)/genética , Longevidade/genética , Alelos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Educação , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Nat Genet ; 49(6): 834-841, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28436984

RESUMO

The timing of puberty is a highly polygenic childhood trait that is epidemiologically associated with various adult diseases. Using 1000 Genomes Project-imputed genotype data in up to ∼370,000 women, we identify 389 independent signals (P < 5 × 10-8) for age at menarche, a milestone in female pubertal development. In Icelandic data, these signals explain ∼7.4% of the population variance in age at menarche, corresponding to ∼25% of the estimated heritability. We implicate ∼250 genes via coding variation or associated expression, demonstrating significant enrichment in neural tissues. Rare variants near the imprinted genes MKRN3 and DLK1 were identified, exhibiting large effects when paternally inherited. Mendelian randomization analyses suggest causal inverse associations, independent of body mass index (BMI), between puberty timing and risks for breast and endometrial cancers in women and prostate cancer in men. In aggregate, our findings highlight the complexity of the genetic regulation of puberty timing and support causal links with cancer susceptibility.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Menarca/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Puberdade/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas/genética , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Impressão Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Risco
19.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 23, 2017 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28270201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) is a family-based population cohort with DNA, biological samples, socio-demographic, psychological and clinical data from approximately 24,000 adult volunteers across Scotland. Although data collection was cross-sectional, GS:SFHS became a prospective cohort due to of the ability to link to routine Electronic Health Record (EHR) data. Over 20,000 participants were selected for genotyping using a large genome-wide array. METHODS: GS:SFHS was analysed using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to test the effects of a large spectrum of variants, imputed using the Haplotype Research Consortium (HRC) dataset, on medically relevant traits measured directly or obtained from EHRs. The HRC dataset is the largest available haplotype reference panel for imputation of variants in populations of European ancestry and allows investigation of variants with low minor allele frequencies within the entire GS:SFHS genotyped cohort. RESULTS: Genome-wide associations were run on 20,032 individuals using both genotyped and HRC imputed data. We present results for a range of well-studied quantitative traits obtained from clinic visits and for serum urate measures obtained from data linkage to EHRs collected by the Scottish National Health Service. Results replicated known associations and additionally reveal novel findings, mainly with rare variants, validating the use of the HRC imputation panel. For example, we identified two new associations with fasting glucose at variants near to Y_RNA and WDR4 and four new associations with heart rate at SNPs within CSMD1 and ASPH, upstream of HTR1F and between PROKR2 and GPCPD1. All were driven by rare variants (minor allele frequencies in the range of 0.08-1%). Proof of principle for use of EHRs was verification of the highly significant association of urate levels with the well-established urate transporter SLC2A9. CONCLUSIONS: GS:SFHS provides genetic data on over 20,000 participants alongside a range of phenotypes as well as linkage to National Health Service laboratory and clinical records. We have shown that the combination of deeper genotype imputation and extended phenotype availability make GS:SFHS an attractive resource to carry out association studies to gain insight into the genetic architecture of complex traits.


Assuntos
Haplótipos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Glicemia/genética , Estudos Transversais , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Jejum , Feminino , Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Frequência Cardíaca/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Escócia , Ácido Úrico/sangue
20.
Biol Psychiatry ; 82(5): 312-321, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28153336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the second largest cause of global disease burden. It has an estimated heritability of 37%, but published genome-wide association studies have so far identified few risk loci. Haplotype-block-based regional heritability mapping (HRHM) estimates the localized genetic variance explained by common variants within haplotype blocks, integrating the effects of multiple variants, and may be more powerful for identifying MDD-associated genomic regions. METHODS: We applied HRHM to Generation Scotland: The Scottish Family Health Study, a large family- and population-based Scottish cohort (N = 19,896). Single-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and haplotype-based association tests were used to localize the association signal within the regions identified by HRHM. Functional prediction was used to investigate the effect of MDD-associated SNPs within the regions. RESULTS: A haplotype block across a 24-kb region within the TOX2 gene reached genome-wide significance in HRHM. Single-SNP- and haplotype-based association tests demonstrated that five of nine genotyped SNPs and two haplotypes within this block were significantly associated with MDD. The expression of TOX2 and a brain-specific long noncoding RNA RP1-269M15.3 in frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens basal ganglia, respectively, were significantly regulated by MDD-associated SNPs within this region. Both the regional heritability and single-SNP associations within this block were replicated in the UK-Ireland group of the most recent release of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC), the PGC2-MDD (Major Depression Dataset). The SNP association was also replicated in a depressive symptom sample that shares some individuals with the PGC2-MDD. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the value of HRHM for MDD and provides an important target within TOX2 for further functional studies.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas HMGB/genética , Haplótipos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido
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