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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610501
2.
Eur J Nutr ; 2022 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36482209

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Saturated fat has long been associated with cardiovascular disease in multiple prospective studies, and randomized controlled trials. Few studies have assessed the relative associations between saturated fat and other macronutrients with hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the relative associations between saturated fat, other macronutrients such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat, proteins, and carbohydrates, and incident hypertension in a large prospective cohort of French women. METHODS: This study used data from the E3N cohort study, including participants free of hypertension at baseline. A food frequency questionnaire was used to determine dietary intakes of saturated fat (SFA), monounsaturated fat (MUFA), polyunsaturated fat (PUFA), animal protein (AP), vegetable protein (VP), carbohydrates (CH) and various foods. Cases of hypertension were based on self-report, validated by drug reimbursement data. Covariates were based on self-report. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the relative associations between different macronutrients and hypertension risk, using the 'substitution' framework. Bootstrapping was used to generate 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: This study included 45,854 women free of hypertension at baseline. During 708,887 person-years of follow-up, 12,338 incident cases of hypertension were identified. Compared to saturated fat, higher consumption of all other macronutrients was associated with a lower risk of hypertension (HRMUFA = 0.74 [0.67: 0.81], HRPUFA = 0.84 [0.77: 0.92], HRCH = 0.83 [0.77: 0.88], HRAP = 0.91 [0.85: 0.97], HRVP = 0.93 [0.83: 1.03]). CONCLUSION: This study finds that relative to other macronutrients such as monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat, higher intake of saturated fat is associated with a higher risk of hypertension among women.

3.
Brain ; 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415953

RESUMO

Despite experimental studies suggesting a disease-modifying role of oestrogens, results from epidemiological studies on the relation of reproductive characteristics and hormonal exposures with Parkinson disease in women are conflicting. We used the data from the E3N cohort study including 98,068 women aged 40-65y in 1990 followed until 2018. Parkinson disease was ascertained using a validation process based on drug claim databases and medical records. Reproductive characteristics and hormonal exposures were self-reported (11 questionnaires). Associations of exposures with Parkinson disease incidence were investigated using time-varying Cox proportional hazards regression with a 5-year exposure lag and age as the time scale adjusted for confounders. We identified 1165 incident Parkinson disease cases during a mean follow-up of 22.0 years (incidence rate = 54.7 per 100 000 person-years). Parkinson disease incidence was higher in women with early (<12y, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.40) or late age at menarche (≥14y, HR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.03-1.35) than in women with menarche at 12-13y. Nulliparity was not associated with Parkinson disease, but Parkinson disease incidence increased with the number of children in parous women (P-trend = 0.009). Women with artificial (surgical, iatrogenic) menopause were at greater risk than women with natural menopause (HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.09-1.47), especially when artificial menopause occurred at an early age (≤45.0 years). Postmenopausal hormone therapy tended to mitigate greater risk associated with artificial or early menopause (≤45.0 years). While fertility treatments were not associated with Parkinson disease overall, ever users of clomiphene were at greater Parkinson disease risk than never users (HR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.14-2.88). Other exposures (breastfeeding, oral contraceptives) were not associated with Parkinson disease. Our findings suggest that early and late age at menarche, higher parity, and artificial menopause, in particular at an early age, are associated with increased Parkinson disease incidence in women. In addition, there was some evidence that use of exogenous hormones may increase (fertility treatments) or decrease (postmenopausal hormone therapy) Parkinson disease incidence. These findings support the hypothesis that hormonal exposures play a role in the susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases. If confirmed, they could help to identify subgroups at high risk for Parkinson disease.

4.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36256851

RESUMO

In a previous systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting associations between hyper-/hypothyroidism and breast cancer incidence published through January 29, 2019, we identified a higher risk with diagnosed hyperthyroidism compared to euthyroidism, but no association with diagnosed hypothyroidism. This two-year updated meta-analysis aims to investigate the role of menopause in this association and the dose-response relationship with blood levels of TSH and thyroid hormones. After exclusion of studies with only mortality follow-up, with thyroid dysfunction evaluated as a cancer biomarker or after prior breast cancer diagnosis, we reviewed 25 studies that were published up to December 01, 2021 and identified in MEDLINE, the COCHRANE library, Embase, or Web of Science; of these, 9 were included in the previous meta-analysis. Risk estimates from 22 of the 25 studies were included in the meta-analysis and pooled using random-effects models. Compared to euthyroidism, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism diagnoses were associated with higher [pooled risk ratio (RR): 1.12, 95%CI: 1.06-1.18, 3829 exposed cases] and lower risks (RR = 0.93, 95%CI: 0.86-1.00, 5632 exposed cases) of breast cancer, respectively. The increased risk after hyperthyroidism was greater among postmenopausal women (RR=1.19, 95%CI 1.09-1.30) and the decreased risk after hypothyroidism was more pronounced among premenopausal women (RR=0.69, 95%CI 0.53-0.89). Among women with no prior history of thyroid disease, every 1 mIU/L increase in TSH level was associated with a 0.8% (95%CI >0 to 1.5%) lower risk of breast cancer. In conclusion, this meta-analysis supports an association between thyroid hormone levels and breast cancer risk, which could be modified by menopausal status.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Established risk factors for breast cancer include genetic disposition, reproductive factors, hormone therapy, and lifestyle-related factors such as alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, smoking, and obesity. More recently a role of environmental exposures, including air pollution, has also been suggested. The aim of this study, was to investigate the relationship between long-term air pollution exposure and breast cancer incidence. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis among six European cohorts (n=199,719) on the association between long-term residential levels of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particles (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), and ozone in the warm season (O3) and breast cancer incidence in women. The selected cohorts represented the lower range of air pollutant concentrations in Europe. We applied Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders at the individual and area-level. RESULTS: During 3,592,885 person-years of follow-up, we observed a total of 9,659 incident breast cancer cases. The results of the fully adjusted linear analyses showed a hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.03 (1.00, 1.06) per 10 µg/m³ NO2, 1.06 (1.01, 1.11) per 5 µg/m³ PM2.5, 1.03 (0.99, 1.06) per 0.5 10-5m-1 BC, and 0.98 (0.94, 1.01) per 10 µg/m³ O3. The effect estimates were most pronounced in the group of middle-aged women (50-54 years) and among never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The results were in support of an association between especially PM2.5 and breast cancer. IMPACT: The findings of this study suggest a role of exposure to NO2, PM2.5 and BC in development of breast cancer.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Industrial foods have been associated with increased risks of several chronic conditions. We investigated the relationship between the degree of food processing and risks of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Analyses included 413,590 participants (68.6% women; mean baseline age, 51.7 y) from 8 European countries. Dietary data were collected at baseline from validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. Associations between proportions of unprocessed/minimally processed and ultraprocessed food intake and CD and UC risks were estimated using Cox models to obtain hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Models were stratified by center, age, and sex, and adjusted for smoking status, body mass index, physical activity, energy intake, educational level, and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 13.2 years, 179 incident cases of CD and 431 incident cases of UC were identified. The risk of CD was lower in people consuming high proportions of unprocessed/minimally processed foods (adjusted HR for the highest vs lowest quartile: 0.57; 95% CI, 0.35-0.93; P trend < .01), particularly fruits and vegetables (adjusted HRs, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.34-0.87 and 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.91, respectively). There was no association between unprocessed/minimally processed food intake and the risk of UC. No association was detected between ultraprocessed food consumption and CD or UC risks. CONCLUSIONS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, consumption of unprocessed/minimally processed foods was associated with a lower risk of CD. No association between UC risk and food processing was found.

7.
Environ Int ; 170: 107581, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244228

RESUMO

Ambient air pollution is an established risk factor for premature mortality from chronic cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic diseases, while evidence on neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders remains limited. We examined the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality from dementia, psychiatric disorders, and suicide in seven European cohorts. Within the multicenter project 'Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe' (ELAPSE), we pooled data from seven European cohorts from six countries. Based on the residential addresses, annual mean levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), ozone (O3), and 8 PM2.5 components were estimated using Europe-wide hybrid land-use regression models. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazard models to investigate the associations between air pollution and mortality from dementia, psychiatric disorders, and suicide. Of 271,720 participants, 900 died from dementia, 241 from psychiatric disorders, and 164 from suicide, during a mean follow-up of 19.7 years. In fully adjusted models, we observed positive associations of NO2 (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.38; 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.13, 1.70 per 10 µg/m3), PM2.5 (HR = 1.29; 95 % CI: 0.98, 1.71 per 5 µg/m3), and BC (HR = 1.37; 95 % CI: 1.11, 1.69 per 0.5 × 10-5/m) with psychiatric disorders mortality, as well as with suicide (NO2: HR = 1.13 [95 % CI: 0.92, 1.38]; PM2.5: HR = 1.19 [95 % CI: 0.76, 1.87]; BC: HR = 1.08 [95 % CI: 0.87, 1.35]), and no association with dementia mortality. We did not detect any positive associations of O3 and 8 PM2.5 components with any of the three mortality outcomes. Long-term exposure to NO2, PM2.5, and BC may lead to premature mortality from psychiatric disorders and suicide.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36179075

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between consumption of largely consumed beverages (coffee, tea, alcohol, and soft drinks) and the risk of RA. METHODS: The E3N Study (Étude Épidémiologique auprès des femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Éducation Nationale) is a French prospective cohort including 98 995 women since 1990. Food and beverage consumption was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for incident RA were estimated by Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Among 62 631 women, 481 incident RA cases were identified. Consumptions of tea, alcohol, and sugar-sweetened soft drinks were not associated with RA risk. We observed a linear association between coffee consumption and RA risk (≥4 cups/day vs ≤1cup/day, HR = 1.24; 95% CI [0.94; 1.64], ptrend = 0.04), and a higher risk of RA with artificially-sweetened soft-drinks consumption (consumers vs not, HR = 1.66; 95% CI [1.12; 2.45]), particularly in never-smokers. Among ever-smokers, moderate liquor intake was associated with a reduced risk of RA (1-3 glasses/week vs non-consumers, HR = 0.63; 95% CI [0.43; 0.91]) and moderate wine consumption with a reduced risk of seropositive RA. CONCLUSION: In a large cohort of women, tea, alcohol, and sugar-sweetened soft drinks consumption was not associated with RA risk, whereas consumptions of coffee (especially caffeinated coffee), and artificially-sweetened soft drinks were associated with higher RA risk, particularly among never-smokers. If further confirmed, these results could lead to novel mechanistic hypotheses and to simple prevention measures.

9.
Front Nutr ; 9: 982369, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36118743

RESUMO

Background: The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been proposed as a healthy diet with a potential to lower the incidence of several types of cancer, but there is no data regarding thyroid cancer (TC). We investigated the association between MD adherence, and its components, and the differentiated TC risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Methods: Over 450,000 men and women from nine European countries were followed up for a mean of 14.1 years, during which 712 differentiated TC cases were identified. Adherence to MD was estimated using the relative MD (rMED) score, an 18-point scale including alcohol, and the adapted rMED (arMED) score, a 16-point scale excluding alcohol. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors. Results: Adherence to the arMED score was not associated with the risk of differentiated TC (HRhigh vs. low adherence = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.70-1.25; p-trend 0.27), while a suggestive, but non-statistically significant inverse relationship was observed with rMED (HRhigh vs. low adherence = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.68-1.14; p-trend 0.17). Low meat (HRlow vs. high meat intake = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.67-0.99; p-trend = 0.04) and moderate alcohol (HRmoderate vs. non-moderate intake = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.75-1.03) intake were related with lower differentiated TC risk. Conclusions: Our study shows that a high adherence to MD is not strongly related to differentiated TC risk, although further research is required to confirm the impact of MD and, especially, meat intake in TC risk.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053839

RESUMO

Experimental evidence suggests that alcohol induces cutaneous carcinogenesis, yet epidemiological studies on the link between alcohol intake and skin cancer have been inconsistent. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is a prospective cohort initiated in 1992 in 10 European countries. Alcohol intake at baseline and average lifetime alcohol intake were assessed using validated country-specific dietary and lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated in Cox models. A total of 14 037 skin cancer cases (melanoma: n = 2457; basal-cell carcinoma (BCC): n = 8711; squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC): n = 1928; unknown: n = 941) were identified among 450 112 participants (average follow-up: 15 years). Baseline alcohol intake was positively associated with SCC (>15 vs 0.1-4.9 g/day: HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.17-1.77; Ptrend  = .001), BCC (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.01-1.23; Ptrend  = .04), and melanoma risks in men (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.95-1.44; Ptrend  = .17), while associations were more modest in women (SCC: HR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.90-1.30; Ptrend  = .13; BCC: HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00-1.17, Ptrend  = .03; melanoma: HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.80-1.08, Ptrend  = .13). Associations were similar for lifetime alcohol intake, with an attenuated linear trend. Lifetime liquor/spirit intake was positively associated with melanoma (fourth vs first quartile: HR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.08-1.99; Ptrend  = .0009) and BCC risks in men (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.04-1.31; Ptrend  = .14). Baseline and lifetime intakes of wine were associated with BCC risk (HR = 1.25 in men; HR = 1.11-1.12; in women). No statistically significant associations were found between beverage types and SCC risk. Intake of beer was not associated with skin cancer risk. Our study suggests positive relationships between alcohol intake and skin cancer risk, which may have important implications for the primary prevention of skin cancer.

11.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-31, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045127

RESUMO

Many dietary guidelines recommend restricting the consumption of processed red meat (PRM) in favour of healthier foods such as fish, to reduce the risk of chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes. The objective of this study was to estimate the potential effect of replacing PRM for fatty fish, lean fish, red meat, eggs, pulses, or vegetables, on the risk of incident hypertension and diabetes. This was a prospective study of women in the E3N cohort study. Cases of diabetes and hypertension were based on self-report, specific questionnaires, and drug reimbursements. In the main analysis, information on regular dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire, and food substitutions were modelled using cox proportional hazard models 95 % confidence intervals were generated via bootstrapping. 71,081 women free of diabetes and 45,771 women free of hypertension were followed for an average of 18.7 and 18.3 years respectively. 2,681 incident cases of diabetes and 12,327 incident cases of hypertension were identified. Replacing PRM with fatty fish was associated with a 15 % lower risk of diabetes (HR = 0.85, 95 CI [0.73: 0.97]), and hypertension (HR =0 .85 [0.79: 0.91]). Between 3 - 10 % lower risk of hypertension or diabetes was also observed when replacing PRM with vegetables, unprocessed red meat, or pulses. The replacement of PRM with alternative protein sources such as fatty fish, unprocessed red meat, vegetables, or pulses was associated with a reduced risk of hypertension and diabetes.

12.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(19): 6710-6715, 2022 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35979321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enteric-coated medications are supposed to pass intact through the gastric environment and to release the drug content into the small intestine or the colon. Before dissolution of the enteric coating, they may appear hyperdense on computed tomography (CT). Unfortunately, few reports have been published on this topic so far. In this case report, the hyperdense appearance on contrast-enhanced CT of an enteric-coated mesalamine tablet was initially misinterpreted as a jejunal gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). CASE SUMMARY: An asymptomatic 81-year-old male patient, who had undergone laparoscopic right nephrectomy four years earlier for stage 1 renal carcinoma, was diagnosed with a jejunal GIST at the 4-year follow-up thoraco-abdominal CT scan. He was referred to our hub hospital for gastroenterological evaluation, and subsequently underwent 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, and video capsule endoscopy. None of these examinations detected any lesion of the small intestine. After reviewing all the CT images in a multidisciplinary setting, the panel estimated that the hyperdense jejunal image was consistent with a tablet rather than a GIST. The tablet was an 800 mg delayed-release enteric-coated oral mesalamine tablet (Asacol®), which had been prescribed for non-specific colitis, while not informing the hospital physicians. CONCLUSION: Delayed-release oral mesalamine (Asacol®), like other enteric-coated medications, can appear as a hyperdense image on a CT scan, mimicking a small intestinal GIST. Therefore, a detailed knowledge of the patients' medications and a multidisciplinary review of the images are essential.

13.
Eur J Nutr ; 2022 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35907037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary pattern analysis has gained particular interest, because it reflects the complexity of dietary intake. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between a posteriori dietary patterns, derived using a data-driven approach, and the risk of differentiated thyroid cancer (TC) in Europe. METHODS: This investigation included 450,064 adults from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Dietary intake was assessed using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. A posteriori dietary patterns were computed using principal component analyses. Cox regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: After a mean follow-up time of 14 years, 712 first differentiated TCs were diagnosed. In the fully adjusted model, a dietary pattern characterized by alcohol consumption (basically beer and wine) was negatively associated with differentiated TC risk (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.75; 95% CI:0.60-0.94, P-trend = 0.005), while a dietary pattern rich in sweetened beverages was positively associated with differentiated TC risk (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 1.26; 95% CI:0.99-1.61; P-trend = 0.07). The remaining 8 dietary patterns were not related to differentiated TC risk. The intake of sweetened beverages was positively associated with differentiated TC risk (HR100mL/d = 1.05; 95% CI:1.00-1.11), especially with papillary TC risk (HR100mL/d = 1.07; 95% CI:1.01-1.13). Similar results were observed with sugary and artificially sweetened beverages. CONCLUSIONS: The investigation of dietary patterns detected that the consumption of sweetened beverages was associated with a higher risk of differentiated thyroid cancer. Our results are in line with the general dietary recommendations of reducing the consumption of sweetened beverages.

15.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 695, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of elevated pre-diagnostic C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations on mortality in individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. METHODS: We investigated the association between pre-diagnostic high-sensitivity CRP concentrations and CRP genetic variation associated with circulating CRP and CRC-specific and all-cause mortality based on data from 1,235 individuals with CRC within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 9.3 years, 455 CRC-specific deaths were recorded, out of 590 deaths from all causes. Pre-diagnostic CRP concentrations were not associated with CRC-specific (hazard ratio, HR highest versus lowest quintile 0.92, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.66, 1.28) or all-cause mortality (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.68, 1.21). Genetic predisposition to higher CRP (weighted score based on alleles of four CRP SNPs associated with higher circulating CRP) was not significantly associated with CRC-specific mortality (HR per CRP-score unit 0.95, 95% CI 0.86, 1.05) or all-cause mortality (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.90, 1.07). Among four investigated CRP genetic variants, only SNP rs1205 was significantly associated with CRC-specific (comparing the CT and CC genotypes with TT genotype, HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.35, 0.83 and HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.38, 0.88, respectively) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.40, 0.85 and 0.64, 95% CI 0.44, 0.92, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this prospective cohort study do not support a role of pre-diagnostic CRP concentrations on mortality in individuals with CRC. The observed associations with rs1205 deserve further scientific attention.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Neoplasias Colorretais , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Eur J Nutr ; 61(7): 3625-3635, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35635567

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chronic inflammation is thought to initiate or promote differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and previous studies have shown that diet can modulate this inflammatory process. We aimed to evaluate the association of several dietary scores reflecting the inflammatory potential of the diet with DTC risk. METHODS: Within the EPIC cohort, 450,063 participants were followed during a mean period of 14 years, and 712 newly incident DTC cases were identified. Associations between four dietary inflammatory scores [the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) and two energy-adjusted derivatives (the E-DIIr and the E-DIId), and the Inflammatory Score of the Diet (ISD)] and DTC risk were evaluated in the EPIC cohort using multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: Positive associations were observed between DTC risk and the DIIs (HR for 1 SD increase in DII: 1.11, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.23, similar results for its derivatives), but not with the ISD (HR for 1 SD increase: 1.04, 95% CI 0.93, 1.16). CONCLUSION: Diet-associated inflammation, as estimated by the DII and its derivatives, was weakly positively associated with DTC risk in a European adult population. These results suggesting that diet-associated inflammation acts in the etiology of DTC need to be validated in independent studies.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia
18.
Front Nutr ; 9: 772596, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433774

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Little is known about the effects of probiotics on inflammation in the context of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigated the association between probiotic intake and inflammation in patients with moderate-to-advanced CKD. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 888 patients with stage 3-5 CKD and data on serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and a concomitant food frequency questionnaire. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for various CRP thresholds (>3, >4, >5, >6, and >7 mg/L) associated with three intake categories (no yoghurt, ordinary yoghurt, and probiotics from yoghurts or dietary supplements) and two frequency categories (daily or less than daily). Results: The 888 study participants (median age: 70; men: 65%) had a median estimated glomerular filtration rate of 28.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 and a median [interquartile range] CRP level of 3.0 [1.6, 7.0] mg/L. Fifty-seven percent consumed ordinary yoghurt and 30% consumed probiotic yoghurt. The median intake frequency for yoghurt and probiotics was 7 per week. Relative to participants not consuming yoghurt, the ORs [95% CI] for CRP > 6 or >7 mg/L were significantly lower for participants consuming ordinary yoghurt (0.58 [0.37, 0.93] and 0.57 [0.35, 0.91], respectively) and for participants consuming probiotics (0.54 [0.33, 0.9] and 0.48 [0.28, 0.81], respectively), independently of age, sex, body mass index, CKD stage, cardiovascular disease, and fibre, protein and total energy intakes. The ORs were not significantly lower for CRP thresholds >3, >4, and >5 mg/L and were not significantly greater in daily consumers than in occasional consumers. Conclusion: We observed independent associations between the consumption of yoghurt or probiotics and lower levels of inflammation in patients with CKD. There was no evidence of a dose-effect relationship. Clinical Trial Registration: [https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03381950], identifier [NCT03381950].

19.
J Crohns Colitis ; 16(8): 1187-1196, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to investigate the association between protein intake and risk of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. METHODS: A total of 413 593 participants from eight European countries were included. Dietary data were collected at baseline from validated food frequency questionnaires. Dietary data were calibrated to correct errors in measures related to each country-specific questionnaire. Associations between proteins [total, animal, and vegetable] or food sources of animal proteins, and IBD risk were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 16 years, 177 patients with Crohn's disease [CD] and 418 with ulcerative colitis [UC], were identified. There was no association between total protein, animal protein, or vegetable protein intakes and CD or UC risks. Total meat and red meat intakes were associated with UC risk (hazard ratio [HR] for the 4th vs 1st quartile = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.99-1.98, p-trend = 0.01; and 1.61, 95% CI = 1.10-2.36, p-trend = 0.007, respectively]. There was no association between other food sources of animal protein [processed meat, fish, shellfish, eggs, poultry] and UC. We found no association between food sources of animal proteins and CD risk. CONCLUSIONS: Meat and red meat consumptions are associated with higher risks of UC. These results support dietary counselling of low meat intake in people at high-risk of IBD.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Doença de Crohn , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/etiologia , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Carne/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Verduras
20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(7): e2952-e2961, 2022 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accelerated reproductive aging, in women indicated by early natural menopause, is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in observational studies. Conversely, an adverse CHD risk profile has been suggested to accelerate menopause. OBJECTIVES: To study the direction and evidence for causality of the relationship between reproductive aging and (non-)fatal CHD and CHD risk factors in a bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) approach, using age at natural menopause (ANM) genetic variants as a measure for genetically determined reproductive aging in women. We also studied the association of these variants with CHD risk (factors) in men. DESIGN: Two-sample MR, using both cohort data as well as summary statistics, with 4 methods: simple and weighted median-based, standard inverse-variance weighted (IVW) regression, and MR-Egger regression. PARTICIPANTS: Data from EPIC-CVD and summary statistics from UK Biobank and publicly available genome-wide association studies were pooled for the different analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: CHD, CHD risk factors, and ANM. RESULTS: Across different methods of MR, no association was found between genetically determined reproductive aging and CHD risk in women (relative risk estimateIVW = 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97-1.01), or any of the CHD risk factors. Similarly, no associations were found in men. Neither did the reversed analyses show evidence for an association between CHD (risk factors) and reproductive aging. CONCLUSION: Genetically determined reproductive aging is not causally associated with CHD risk (factors) in women, nor were the genetic variants associated in men. We found no evidence for a reverse association in a combined sample of women and men.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Envelhecimento/genética , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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