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1.
Mol Brain ; 14(1): 151, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583741

RESUMO

The atypical chemokine receptor 3, ACKR3, is a G protein-coupled receptor, which does not couple to G proteins but recruits ßarrestins. At present, ACKR3 is considered a target for cancer and cardiovascular disorders, but less is known about the potential of ACKR3 as a target for brain disease. Further, mouse lines have been created to identify cells expressing the receptor, but there is no tool to visualize and study the receptor itself under physiological conditions. Here, we engineered a knock-in (KI) mouse expressing a functional ACKR3-Venus fusion protein to directly detect the receptor, particularly in the adult brain. In HEK-293 cells, native and fused receptors showed similar membrane expression, ligand induced trafficking and signaling profiles, indicating that the Venus fusion does not alter receptor signaling. We also found that ACKR3-Venus enables direct real-time monitoring of receptor trafficking using resonance energy transfer. In ACKR3-Venus knock-in mice, we found normal ACKR3 mRNA levels in the brain, suggesting intact gene transcription. We fully mapped receptor expression across 14 peripheral organs and 112 brain areas and found that ACKR3 is primarily localized to the vasculature in these tissues. In the periphery, receptor distribution aligns with previous reports. In the brain there is notable ACKR3 expression in endothelial vascular cells, hippocampal GABAergic interneurons and neuroblast neighboring cells. In conclusion, we have generated Ackr3-Venus knock-in mice with a traceable ACKR3 receptor, which will be a useful tool to the research community for interrogations about ACKR3 biology and related diseases.

2.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1062, 2021 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508168

RESUMO

Bivalent ligands are composed of two pharmacophores connected by a spacer of variable size. These ligands are able to simultaneously recognize two binding sites, for example in a G protein-coupled receptor heterodimer, resulting in enhanced binding affinity. Taking advantage of previously described heterobivalent dopamine-neurotensin receptor ligands, we demonstrate specific interactions between dopamine D3 (D3R) and neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1), two receptors with expression in overlapping brain areas that are associated with neuropsychiatric diseases and addiction. Bivalent ligand binding to D3R-NTSR1 dimers results in picomolar binding affinity and high selectivity compared to the binding to monomeric receptors. Specificity of the ligands for the D3R-NTSR1 receptor pair over D2R-NTSR1 dimers can be achieved by a careful choice of the linker length. Bivalent ligands enhance and stabilize the receptor-receptor interaction leading to NTSR1-controlled internalization of D3R into endosomes via recruitment of ß-arrestin, highlighting a potential mechanism for dimer-specific receptor trafficking and signalling.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4688, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344896

RESUMO

Internalization and intracellular trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play pivotal roles in cell responsiveness. Dysregulation in receptor trafficking can lead to aberrant signaling and cell behavior. Here, using an endosomal BRET-based assay in a high-throughput screen with the prototypical GPCR angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), we sought to identify receptor trafficking inhibitors from a library of ~115,000 small molecules. We identified a novel dual Ras and ARF6 inhibitor, which we named Rasarfin, that blocks agonist-mediated internalization of AT1R and other GPCRs. Rasarfin also potently inhibits agonist-induced ERK1/2 signaling by GPCRs, and MAPK and Akt signaling by EGFR, as well as prevents cancer cell proliferation. In silico modeling and in vitro studies reveal a unique binding modality of Rasarfin within the SOS-binding domain of Ras. Our findings unveil a class of dual small G protein inhibitors for receptor trafficking and signaling, useful for the inhibition of oncogenic cellular responses.


Assuntos
Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/antagonistas & inibidores , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Proteínas ras/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Técnicas de Transferência de Energia por Ressonância de Bioluminescência , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas ras/química , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
5.
Cell Rep ; 35(11): 109246, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133934

RESUMO

Succinate functions both as a classical TCA cycle metabolite and an extracellular metabolic stress signal sensed by the mainly Gi-coupled succinate receptor SUCNR1. In the present study, we characterize and compare effects and signaling pathways activated by succinate and both classes of non-metabolite SUCNR1 agonists. By use of specific receptor and pathway inhibitors, rescue in G-protein-depleted cells and monitoring of receptor G protein activation by BRET, we identify Gq rather than Gi signaling to be responsible for SUCNR1-mediated effects on basic transcriptional regulation. Importantly, in primary human M2 macrophages, in which SUCNR1 is highly expressed, we demonstrate that physiological concentrations of extracellular succinate act through SUCNR1-activated Gq signaling to efficiently regulate transcription of immune function genes in a manner that hyperpolarizes their M2 versus M1 phenotype. Thus, sensing of stress-induced extracellular succinate by SUCNR1 is an important transcriptional regulator in human M2 macrophages through Gq signaling.

6.
Curr Opin Struct Biol ; 69: 142-149, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048988

RESUMO

It should come as no surprise that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) continue to occupy the focus of drug discovery efforts. Their widespread expression and broad role in signal transduction underline their importance in human physiology. Despite more than 800 GPCRs sharing a common architecture, unique differences govern ligand specificity and pathway selectivity. From the relatively simplified view offered by classical radioligand binding assays and contractility responses in organ baths, the road from ligand binding to biological action has become more and more complex as we learn about the molecular mediators that underly GPCR activation and translate it to physiological outcomes. In particular, the development of biosensors has evolved over the years to dissect the capacity of a given receptor to activate individual pathways. Here, we discuss how recent biosensor development has reinforced the idea that biased signaling may become mainstream in drug discovery programs.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(20)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990469

RESUMO

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are gatekeepers of cellular homeostasis and the targets of a large proportion of drugs. In addition to their signaling activity at the plasma membrane, it has been proposed that their actions may result from translocation and activation of G proteins at endomembranes-namely endosomes. This could have a significant impact on our understanding of how signals from GPCR-targeting drugs are propagated within the cell. However, little is known about the mechanisms that drive G protein movement and activation in subcellular compartments. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based effector membrane translocation assays, we dissected the mechanisms underlying endosomal Gq trafficking and activity following activation of Gq-coupled receptors, including the angiotensin II type 1, bradykinin B2, oxytocin, thromboxane A2 alpha isoform, and muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptors. Our data reveal that GPCR-promoted activation of Gq at the plasma membrane induces its translocation to endosomes independently of ß-arrestin engagement and receptor endocytosis. In contrast, Gq activity at endosomes was found to rely on both receptor endocytosis-dependent and -independent mechanisms. In addition to shedding light on the molecular processes controlling subcellular Gq signaling, our study provides a set of tools that will be generally applicable to the study of G protein translocation and activation at endosomes and other subcellular organelles, as well as the contribution of signal propagation to drug action.

8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2274: 305-314, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050482

RESUMO

Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) is an energy transfer phenomenon from a luciferase donor to a fluorescence acceptor and serves as an indicator of protein-protein interaction or protein proximity. BRET imaging is a powerful tool in the investigation of signaling proteins because it enables spatial analysis of such protein interactions. Here, we describe a method exerting high-resolution BRET imaging by combining bright-light output luciferases, such as NanoLuc , photon-counting EM-CCD, and unique algorithms for image correction and denoising.


Assuntos
Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência/métodos , Luciferases/metabolismo , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Fótons , Câmaras gama , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Substâncias Luminescentes/química
9.
Oncogene ; 40(12): 2243-2257, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649538

RESUMO

Mdm2 antagonizes the tumor suppressor p53. Targeting the Mdm2-p53 interaction represents an attractive approach for the treatment of cancers with functional p53. Investigating mechanisms underlying Mdm2-p53 regulation is therefore important. The scaffold protein ß-arrestin2 (ß-arr2) regulates tumor suppressor p53 by counteracting Mdm2. ß-arr2 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling displaces Mdm2 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm resulting in enhanced p53 signaling. ß-arr2 is constitutively exported from the nucleus, via a nuclear export signal, but mechanisms regulating its nuclear entry are not completely elucidated. ß-arr2 can be SUMOylated, but no information is available on how SUMO may regulate ß-arr2 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. While we found ß-arr2 SUMOylation to be dispensable for nuclear import, we identified a non-covalent interaction between SUMO and ß-arr2, via a SUMO interaction motif (SIM), that is required for ß-arr2 cytonuclear trafficking. This SIM promotes association of ß-arr2 with the multimolecular RanBP2/RanGAP1-SUMO nucleocytoplasmic transport hub that resides on the cytoplasmic filaments of the nuclear pore complex. Depletion of RanBP2/RanGAP1-SUMO levels result in defective ß-arr2 nuclear entry. Mutation of the SIM inhibits ß-arr2 nuclear import, its ability to delocalize Mdm2 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and enhanced p53 signaling in lung and breast tumor cell lines. Thus, a ß-arr2 SIM nuclear entry checkpoint, coupled with active ß-arr2 nuclear export, regulates its cytonuclear trafficking function to control the Mdm2-p53 signaling axis.

10.
Cell Rep ; 34(12): 108862, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761344

RESUMO

The Melanocortin-4 Receptor (MC4R) plays a pivotal role in energy homeostasis. We used human MC4R mutations associated with an increased or decreased risk of obesity to dissect mechanisms that regulate MC4R function. Most obesity-associated mutations impair trafficking to the plasma membrane (PM), whereas obesity-protecting mutations either accelerate recycling to the PM or decrease internalization, resulting in enhanced signaling. MC4R mutations that do not affect canonical Gαs protein-mediated signaling, previously considered to be non-pathogenic, nonetheless disrupt agonist-induced internalization, ß-arrestin recruitment, and/or coupling to Gαs, establishing their causal role in severe obesity. Structural mapping reveals ligand-accessible sites by which MC4R couples to effectors and residues involved in the homodimerization of MC4R, which is disrupted by multiple obesity-associated mutations. Human genetic studies reveal that endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, and homodimerization regulate MC4R function to a level that is physiologically relevant, supporting the development of chaperones, agonists, and allosteric modulators of MC4R for weight loss therapy.

11.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(3): e007351, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New heart failure therapies that safely augment cardiac contractility and output are needed. Previous apelin peptide studies have highlighted the potential for APJ (apelin receptor) agonism to enhance cardiac function in heart failure. However, apelin's short half-life limits its therapeutic utility. Here, we describe the preclinical characterization of a novel, orally bioavailable APJ agonist, BMS-986224. METHODS: BMS-986224 pharmacology was compared with (Pyr1) apelin-13 using radio ligand binding and signaling pathway assays downstream of APJ (cAMP, phosphorylated ERK [extracellular signal-regulated kinase], bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based G-protein assays, ß-arrestin recruitment, and receptor internalization). Acute effects on cardiac function were studied in anesthetized instrumented rats. Chronic effects of BMS-986224 were assessed echocardiographically in the RHR (renal hypertensive rat) model of cardiac hypertrophy and decreased cardiac output. RESULTS: BMS-986224 was a potent (Kd=0.3 nmol/L) and selective APJ agonist, exhibiting similar receptor binding and signaling profile to (Pyr1) apelin-13. G-protein signaling assays in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and human cardiomyocytes confirmed this and demonstrated a lack of signaling bias relative to (Pyr1) apelin-13. In anesthetized instrumented rats, short-term BMS-986224 infusion increased cardiac output (10%-15%) without affecting heart rate, which was similar to (Pyr1) apelin-13 but differentiated from dobutamine. Subcutaneous and oral BMS-986224 administration in the RHR model increased stroke volume and cardiac output to levels seen in healthy animals but without preventing cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, effects differentiated from enalapril. CONCLUSIONS: We identify a novel, potent, and orally bioavailable nonpeptidic APJ agonist that closely recapitulates the signaling properties of (Pyr1) apelin-13. We show that oral APJ agonist administration induces a sustained increase in cardiac output in the cardiac disease setting and exhibits a differentiated profile from the renin-angiotensin system inhibitor enalapril, supporting further clinical evaluation of BMS-986224 in heart failure.


Assuntos
Receptores de Apelina/agonistas , Débito Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/farmacologia , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Técnicas de Transferência de Energia por Ressonância de Bioluminescência , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Cães , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação , Ensaio Radioligante , Ratos , Trítio , Pressão Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Arrestinas/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Arrestinas/metabolismo
12.
Mol Metab ; 49: 101207, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a complex disease associated with a high risk of comorbidities. Gastric bypass surgery, an invasive procedure with low patient eligibility, is currently the most effective intervention that achieves sustained weight loss. This beneficial effect is attributed to alterations in gut hormone signaling. An attractive alternative is to pharmacologically mimic the effects of bariatric surgery by targeting several gut hormonal axes. The G protein-coupled receptor 39 (GPR39) expressed in the gastrointestinal tract has been shown to mediate ghrelin signaling and control appetite, food intake, and energy homeostasis, but the broader effect on gut hormones is largely unknown. A potent and efficacious GPR39 agonist (Cpd1324) was recently discovered, but the in vivo function was not addressed. Herein we studied the efficacy of the GPR39 agonist, Cpd1324, on metabolism and gut hormone secretion. METHODS: Body weight, food intake, and energy expenditure in GPR39 agonist-treated mice and GPR39 KO mice were studied in calorimetric cages. Plasma ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY (PYY) levels were measured. Organoids generated from murine and human small intestine and mouse colon were used to study GLP-1 and PYY release. Upon GPR39 agonist administration, dynamic changes in intracellular GLP-1 content were studied via immunostaining and changes in ion transport across colonic mucosa were monitored in Ussing chambers. The G protein activation underlying GPR39-mediated selective release of gut hormones was studied using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer biosensors. RESULTS: The GPR39 KO mice displayed a significantly increased food intake without corresponding increases in respiratory exchange ratios or energy expenditure. Oral administration of a GPR39 agonist induced an acute decrease in food intake and subsequent weight loss in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice without affecting their energy expenditure. The tool compound, Cpd1324, increased GLP-1 secretion in the mice as well as in mouse and human intestinal organoids, but not in GPR39 KO mouse organoids. In contrast, the GPR39 agonist had no effect on PYY or GIP secretion. Transepithelial ion transport was acutely affected by GPR39 agonism in a GLP-1- and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-dependent manner. Analysis of Cpd1324 signaling properties showed activation of Gαq and Gαi/o signaling pathways in L cells, but not Gαs signaling. CONCLUSIONS: The GPR39 agonist described in this study can potentially be used by oral administration as a weight-lowering agent due to its stimulatory effect on GLP-1 secretion, which is most likely mediated through a unique activation of Gα subunits. Thus, GPR39 agonism may represent a novel approach to effectively treat obesity through selective modulation of gastrointestinal hormonal axes.

13.
J Cell Sci ; 134(7)2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712451

RESUMO

Ezrin, radixin and moesin compose the family of ERM proteins. They link actin filaments and microtubules to the plasma membrane to control signaling and cell morphogenesis. Importantly, their activity promotes invasive properties of metastatic cells from different cancer origins. Therefore, a precise understanding of how these proteins are regulated is important for the understanding of the mechanism controlling cell shape, as well as providing new opportunities for the development of innovative cancer therapies. Here, we developed and characterized novel bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based conformational biosensors, compatible with high-throughput screening, that monitor individual ezrin, radixin or moesin activation in living cells. We showed that these biosensors faithfully monitor ERM activation and can be used to quantify the impact of small molecules, mutation of regulatory amino acids or depletion of upstream regulators on their activity. The use of these biosensors allowed us to characterize the activation process of ERMs that involves a pool of closed-inactive ERMs stably associated with the plasma membrane. Upon stimulation, we discovered that this pool serves as a cortical reserve that is rapidly activated before the recruitment of cytoplasmic ERMs.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto , Transferência de Energia , Proteínas de Membrana , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos
14.
Development ; 148(4)2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531430

RESUMO

Hedgehog (Hh) ligands act as morphogens to direct patterning and proliferation during embryonic development. Protein kinase A (PKA) is a central negative regulator of Hh signalling, and in the absence of Hh ligands, PKA activity prevents inappropriate expression of Hh target genes. The orphan G-protein-coupled receptor Gpr161 contributes to the basal Hh repression machinery by activating PKA. Gpr161 acts as an A-kinase-anchoring protein, and is itself phosphorylated by PKA, but the functional significance of PKA phosphorylation of Gpr161 in the context of Hh signalling remains unknown. Here, we show that loss of Gpr161 in zebrafish leads to constitutive activation of medium and low, but not maximal, levels of Hh target gene expression. Furthermore, we find that PKA phosphorylation-deficient forms of Gpr161, which we show directly couple to Gαs, display an increased sensitivity to Shh, resulting in excess high-level Hh signalling. Our results suggest that PKA feedback-mediated phosphorylation of Gpr161 may provide a mechanism for fine-tuning Gpr161 ciliary localisation and PKA activity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cílios/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética
15.
J Med Chem ; 64(9): 5345-5364, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524256

RESUMO

Side-chain-constrained amino acids are useful tools to modulate the biological properties of peptides. In this study, we applied side-chain constraints to apelin-13 (Ape13) by substituting the Pro12 and Phe13 positions, affecting the binding affinity and signaling profile on the apelin receptor (APJ). The residues 1Nal, Trp, and Aia were found to be beneficial substitutions for Pro12, and the resulting analogues displayed high affinity for APJ (Ki 0.08-0.18 nM vs Ape13 Ki 0.7 nM). Besides, constrained (d-Tic) or α,α-disubstituted residues (Dbzg; d-α-Me-Tyr(OBn)) were favorable for the Phe13 position. Compounds 47 (Pro12-Phe13 replaced by Aia-Phe, Ki 0.08 nM) and 53 (Pro12-Phe13 replaced by 1Nal-Dbzg, Ki 0.08 nM) are the most potent Ape13 analogues activating the Gα12 pathways (53, EC50 Gα12 2.8 nM vs Ape13, EC50 43 nM) known to date, displaying high affinity, resistance to ACE2 cleavage as well as improved pharmacokinetics in vitro (t1/2 5.8-7.3 h in rat plasma) and in vivo.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Receptores de Apelina/química , Receptores de Apelina/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidades alfa G12-G13 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/química , Subunidades alfa G12-G13 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/química , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/farmacologia , Masculino , Ligação Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
JCI Insight ; 6(4)2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434184

RESUMO

MC4R mutations represent the largest monogenic cause of obesity, resulting mainly from receptor misfolding and intracellular retention by the cellular quality control system. The present study aimed at determining whether pharmacological chaperones (PCs) that restore folding and plasma membrane trafficking by stabilizing near native protein conformation may represent valid therapeutic avenues for the treatment of melanocortin type 4 receptor-linked (MC4R-linked) obesity. To test the therapeutic PC potential, we engineered humanized MC4R (hMC4R) mouse models expressing either the WT human MC4R or a prevalent obesity-causing mutant (R165W). Administration of a PC able to rescue cell surface expression and functional activity of R165W-hMC4R in cells restored the anorexigenic response of the R165W-hMC4R obese mice to melanocortin agonist, providing a proof of principle for the therapeutic potential of MC4R-targeting PCs in vivo. Interestingly, the expression of the WT-hMC4R in mice revealed lower sensitivity of the human receptor to α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) but not ß-MSH or melanotan II, resulting in a lower penetrance obese phenotype in the WT-hMC4R versus R165W-hMC4R mice. In conclusion, we created 2 new obesity models, a hypomorphic highlighting species differences and an amorphic providing a preclinical model to test the therapeutic potential of PCs to treat MC4R-linked obesity.

17.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 30: 115924, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333448

RESUMO

Histamine acts through four different receptors (H1R-H4R), the H3R and H4R being the most explored in the last years as drug targets. The H3R is a potential target to treat narcolepsy, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, schizophrenia and several other CNS-related conditions, while H4R blockade leads to anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Our group has been exploring the dihydrobenzofuranyl-piperazines (LINS01 series) as human H3R/H4R ligands as potential drug candidates. In the present study, a set of 12 compounds were synthesized from adequate (dihydro)benzofuran synthons through simple reactions with corresponding piperazines, giving moderate to high yields. Four compounds (1b, 1f, 1g and 1h) showed high hH3R affinity (pKi > 7), compound 1h being the most potent (pKi 8.4), and compound 1f showed the best efficiency (pKi 8.2, LE 0.53, LLE 5.85). BRET-based assays monitoring Gαi activity indicated that the compounds are potent antagonists. Only one compound (2c, pKi 7.1) presented high affinity for hH4R. In contrast to what was observed for hH3R, it showed partial agonist activity. Docking experiments indicated that bulky substituents occupy a hydrophobic pocket in hH3R, while the N-allyl group forms favorable interactions with hydrophobic residues in the TM2, 3 and 7, increasing the selectivity towards hH3R. Additionally, the importance of the indole NH in the interaction with Glu5.46 from hH4R was confirmed by the modeling results, explaining the affinity and agonistic activity of compound 2c. The data reported in this work represent important findings for the rational design of future compounds for hH3R and hH4R.


Assuntos
Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Receptores Histamínicos H3/metabolismo , Receptores Histamínicos H4/antagonistas & inibidores , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/síntese química , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/química , Humanos , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Piperazinas/síntese química , Piperazinas/química , Receptores Histamínicos H4/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
J Med Chem ; 64(1): 602-615, 2021 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350824

RESUMO

ELABELA (ELA) is the second endogenous ligand of the apelin receptor (APJ). Although apelin-13 and ELA both target APJ, there is limited information on structure-activity relationship (SAR) of ELA. In the present work, we identified the shortest bioactive C-terminal fragment ELA23-32, which possesses high affinity for APJ (Ki 4.6 nM) and produces cardiorenal effects in vivo similar to those of ELA. SAR studies on conserved residues (Leu25, His26, Val29, Pro30, Phe31, Pro32) show that ELA and apelin-13 may interact differently with APJ. His26 and Val29 emerge as important for ELA binding. Docking and binding experiments suggest that Phe31 of ELA may bind to a tight groove distinct from that of Phe13 of Ape13, while the Phe13 pocket may be occupied by Pro32 of ELA. Further characterization of signaling profiles on the Gαi1, Gα12, and ß-arrestin2 pathways reveals the importance of aromatic residue at the Phe31 or Pro32 position for receptor activation.


Assuntos
Receptores de Apelina/agonistas , Hormônios Peptídicos/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Receptores de Apelina/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Biologia Computacional , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/fisiologia , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/química , Ligantes , Masculino , Hormônios Peptídicos/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
Cell ; 183(7): 1813-1825.e18, 2020 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296703

RESUMO

Binding of arrestin to phosphorylated G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) controls many aspects of cell signaling. The number and arrangement of phosphates may vary substantially for a given GPCR, and different phosphorylation patterns trigger different arrestin-mediated effects. Here, we determine how GPCR phosphorylation influences arrestin behavior by using atomic-level simulations and site-directed spectroscopy to reveal the effects of phosphorylation patterns on arrestin binding and conformation. We find that patterns favoring binding differ from those favoring activation-associated conformational change. Both binding and conformation depend more on arrangement of phosphates than on their total number, with phosphorylation at different positions sometimes exerting opposite effects. Phosphorylation patterns selectively favor a wide variety of arrestin conformations, differently affecting arrestin sites implicated in scaffolding distinct signaling proteins. We also reveal molecular mechanisms of these phenomena. Our work reveals the structural basis for the long-standing "barcode" hypothesis and has important implications for design of functionally selective GPCR-targeted drugs.


Assuntos
Arrestina/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Arrestina/química , Simulação por Computador , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Fosfopeptídeos/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Análise Espectral
20.
Front Physiol ; 11: 564140, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162895

RESUMO

Background: Melatonin modulates circadian rhythms in physiology and sleep initiation. Genetic variants of the MTNR1B locus, encoding the melatonin MT2 receptor, have been associated with increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Carriers of the common intronic MTNR1B rs10830963 T2D risk variant have modified sleep and circadian traits such as changes of the melatonin profile. However, it is currently unknown whether rare variants in the MT2 coding region are also associated with altered sleep and circadian phenotypes, including meal timing. Materials and Methods: In this pilot study, 28 individuals [50% male; 46-82 years old; 50% with rare MT2 mutations (T2D MT2)] wore actigraphy devices and filled out daily food logs for 4 weeks. We computed circadian, sleep, and caloric intake phenotypes, including sleep duration, timing, and regularity [assessed by the Sleep Regularity Index (SRI)]; composite phase deviations (CPD) as well a sleep timing-based proxy for circadian misalignment; and caloric intake patterns throughout the day. Using regression analyses, we estimated age- and sex-adjusted mean differences (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) between the two patient groups. Secondary analyses also compare T2D MT2 to 15 healthy controls. Results: Patients with rare MT2 mutations had a later sleep onset (MD = 1.23, 95%CI = 0.42;2.04), and midsleep time (MD = 0.91, 95%CI = 0.12;1.70), slept more irregularly (MD in SRI = -8.98, 95%CI = -16.36;-1.60), had higher levels of behavioral circadian misalignment (MD in CPD = 1.21, 95%CI = 0.51;1.92), were more variable in regard to duration between first caloric intake and average sleep offset (MD = 1.08, 95%CI = 0.07;2.08), and had more caloric episodes in a 24 h day (MD = 1.08, 95%CI = 0.26;1.90), in comparison to T2D controls. Secondary analyses showed similar patterns between T2D MT2 and non-diabetic controls. Conclusion: This pilot study suggests that compared to diabetic controls, T2D MT2 patients display a number of adverse sleep, circadian, and caloric intake phenotypes, including more irregular behavioral timing. A prospective study is needed to determine the role of these behavioral phenotypes in T2D onset and severity, especially in view of rare MT2 mutations.

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