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Materials (Basel) ; 14(22)2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34832243


Ferroelectric materials have gained high interest for photovoltaic applications due to their open-circuit voltage not being limited to the band gap of the material. In the past, different lead-based ferroelectric perovskite thin films such as Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 and PbTiO3 were investigated with respect to their photovoltaic efficiency. Nevertheless, due to their high band gaps they only absorb photons in the UV spectral range. The well-known ferroelectric PbFe0.5Nb0.5O3 (PFN), which is in a structure similar to the other three, has not been considered as a possible candidate until now. We found that the band gap of PFN is around 2.75 eV and that the conductivity can be increased from 23 S/µm to 35 S/µm during illumination. The relatively low band gap value makes PFN a promising candidate as an absorber material.

Chem Mater ; 33(14): 5652-5667, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483480


Solid electrolytes are crucial for next-generation solid-state batteries, and Na3PS4 is one of the most promising Na+ conductors for such applications, despite outstanding questions regarding its structural polymorphs. In this contribution, we present a detailed investigation of the evolution in structure and dynamics of Na3PS4 over a wide temperature range 30 < T < 600 °C through combined experimental-computational analysis. Although Bragg diffraction experiments indicate a second-order phase transition from the tetragonal ground state (α, P4̅21 c) to the cubic polymorph (ß, I4̅3m) above ∼250 °C, pair distribution function analysis in real space and Raman spectroscopy indicate remnants of a tetragonal character in the range 250 < T < 500 °C, which we attribute to dynamic local tetragonal distortions. The first-order phase transition to the mesophasic high-temperature polymorph (γ, Fddd) is associated with a sharp volume increase and the onset of liquid-like dynamics for sodium-cations (translational) and thiophosphate-polyanions (rotational) evident by inelastic neutron and Raman spectroscopies, as well as pair-distribution function and molecular dynamics analyses. These results shed light on the rich polymorphism of Na3PS4 and are relevant for a range host of high-performance materials deriving from the Na3PS4 structural archetype.

J Am Chem Soc ; 142(43): 18422-18436, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054192


Fast-ion conductors are critical to the development of solid-state batteries. The effects of mechanochemical synthesis that lead to increased ionic conductivity in an archetypical sodium-ion conductor Na3PS4 are not fully understood. We present here a comprehensive analysis based on diffraction (Bragg and pair distribution function), spectroscopy (impedance, Raman, NMR and INS), and ab initio simulations aimed at elucidating the synthesis-property relationships in Na3PS4. We consolidate previously reported interpretations regarding the local structure of ball-milled samples, underlining the sodium disorder and showing that a local tetragonal framework more accurately describes the structure than the originally proposed cubic one. Through variable-pressure impedance spectroscopy measurements, we report for the first time the activation volume for Na+ migration in Na3PS4, which is ∼30% higher for the ball-milled samples. Moreover, we show that the effect of ball-milling on increasing the ionic conductivity of Na3PS4 to ∼10-4 S/cm can be reproduced by applying external pressure on a sample from conventional high-temperature ceramic synthesis. We conclude that the key effects of mechanochemical synthesis on the properties of solid electrolytes can be analyzed and understood in terms of pressure, strain, and activation volume.

ACS Omega ; 4(12): 14780-14789, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552317


We report a series of ferrocene-based derivatives and their corresponding oxidized forms in which the introduction of simple electron donating groups like methyl or tert-butyl units on cyclopentadienyl-rings afford great tunability of Fe+III/Fe+II redox potentials from +0.403 V down to -0.096 V versus saturated calomel electrode. The spin forbidden d-d transitions of ferrocene derivatives shift slightly toward the blue region with an increasing number of electron-donating groups on the cyclopentadienyl-rings with very little change in absorptivity values, whereas the ligand-to-metal transitions of the corresponding ferricinium salts move significantly to the near-IR region. The electron-donating groups also contribute in the strengthening of electron density of Fe+III d-orbitals, which therefore improves the chemical stability against the oxygen reaction. Further, density functional theory calculations show a reducing trend in outer shell reorganization energy with an increasing number of the electron donating units.

Sci Rep ; 5: 10928, 2015 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26042388


This work sheds light on the exceptional robustness of anatase TiO2 when it is downsized to an extreme value of 4 nm. Since at this size the surface contribution to the volume becomes predominant, it turns out that the material becomes significantly resistant against particles coarsening with temperature, entailing a significant delay in the anatase to rutile phase transition, prolonging up to 1000 °C in air. A noticeable alteration of the phase stability diagram with lithium insertion is also experienced. Lithium insertion in such nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 converts into a complete solid solution until almost Li1TiO2, a composition at which the tetragonal to orthorhombic transition takes place without the formation of the emblematic and unwished rock salt Li1TiO2 phase. Consequently, excellent reversibility in the electrochemical process is experienced in the whole portion of lithium content.