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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections (IFI) represent a global issue and affect various patient populations. In recent years, resistant fungal isolates showing increased MICs to azoles or echinocandins have been reported, and their potential clinical impact has been investigated. OBJECTIVES: To provide an update on the epidemiology of resistance among fungi (e.g., Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., and Cryptococcus spp.) and offer a critical appraisal of the relevant literature regarding the impact of MICs on clinical outcome in patients with IFI. SOURCES: PubMed search with relevant keywords along with personal collection of relevant publications. CONTENT: Although antifungal resistance has been associated with a poorer response to antifungal therapy in various studies, other factors such as comorbidities, septic shock and source of infection appear to be key determinants affecting the clinical outcome of patients with IFI. IMPLICATIONS: Future international collaborative studies are required to tease out the relative contribution of in vitro antifungal resistance on patient outcomes, thus enabling the optimisation of IFI management.

2.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 117, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Almost one third of the patients with candidemia develop septic shock. The understanding why some patients do and others do not develop septic shock is very limited. The objective of this study was to identify variables associated with septic shock development in a large population of patients with candidemia. METHODS: A post hoc analysis was performed on two prospective, multicenter cohort of patients with candidemia from 12 hospitals in Spain and Italy. All episodes occurring from September 2016 to February 2018 were analyzed to assess variables associated with septic shock development defined according to The Third International Consensus Definition for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). RESULTS: Of 317 candidemic patients, 99 (31.2%) presented septic shock attributable to candidemia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identifies the following factors associated with septic shock development: age > 50 years (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.03-6.41, p = 0.04), abdominal source of the infection (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.04-4.55, p = 0.04), and admission to a general ward at the time of candidemia onset (OR 0.21, 95% CI, 0.12-0.44, p = 0.001). Septic shock development was independently associated with a greater risk of 30-day mortality (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.08-4.24, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Age and abdominal source of the infection are the most important factors significantly associated with the development of septic shock in patients with candidemia. Our findings suggest that host factors and source of the infection may be more important for development of septic shock than intrinsic virulence factors of organisms.

3.
APMIS ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012332

RESUMO

We assessed the success rate of vancomycin catheter lock therapy (VLT) in combination with systemic antimicrobials in patients with staphylococcal catheter-related bloodstream infection (C-RBSI). Over a 6-year period, we retrospectively collected clinical and microbiological data from patients with long-term central venous catheters and staphylococcal C-RBSI who were treated with systemic antimicrobials and VLT. We then assessed the success rate of VLT based on two criteria: 1) catheter retention time > 3 months and 2) catheter in place until end of use. We found 217 staphylococcal C-RBSI episodes, 115 (53.0%) of which were managed with conservative therapy. Of these, 76 (66.1%) were treated with VLT (85.5% coagulase negative staphylococci and 14.5% Staphylococcus aureus). The success rate of VLT was 42.1% with criterion 1 and 71.1% with criterion 2. We did not find statistically significant differences between success and failure in the majority of the clinical data recorded. We only found differences for crude mortality in criterion 1 and for parenteral nutrition in criterion 2. The success of catheter retention using VLT was moderate, reaching slightly more than 70% when the catheter was kept in place until the end of use.

4.
Oncologist ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the incidence, etiology, and prognosis of non-ventilator-associated pneumonia in hospitalized patients with solid tumors are scarce. We aimed to study the characteristics of non-ventilator-associated pneumonia in hospitalized patients with solid tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective noninterventional cohort study of pneumonia in patients hospitalized in an oncology ward in a tertiary teaching hospital. Pneumonia was defined according to the American Thoracic Society criteria. Patients were followed for 1 month after diagnosis or until discharge. Survivors were compared with nonsurvivors. RESULTS: A total of 132 episodes of pneumonia were diagnosed over 1 year (9.8% of admissions to the oncology ward). They were health care-related (67.4%) or hospital-acquired pneumonia (31.8%). Lung cancer was the most common malignancy. An etiology was established in 48/132 episodes (36.4%). Knowing the etiology led to changes in antimicrobial therapy in 58.3%. Subsequent intensive care unit admission was required in 10.6% and was linked to inappropriate empirical therapy. Ten-day mortality was 24.2% and was significantly associated with hypoxia (odds ratio [OR], 2.1). Thirty-day mortality was 46.2%. The independent risk factors for 30-day mortality were hypoxia (OR, 3.3), hospital acquisition (OR, 3.1), and a performance status >1 (OR, 2.6). Only 40% of patients who died within 30 days were terminally ill. CONCLUSION: Pneumonia is a highly prevalent condition in hospitalized patients with solid tumors, even with nonterminal disease. Etiology is diverse, and poor outcome is linked to inappropriate empirical therapy. Efforts to get the empirical therapy right and reach an etiological diagnosis to subsequently de-escalate are warranted. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The present study shows that pneumonia is a prevalent infectious complication in patients admitted to oncology wards, with a very high mortality, even in non-terminally ill patients. Etiology is diverse, and etiological diagnosis is reached in fewer than 40% of cases in nonintubated patients. Intensive care unit admission, a marker of poor outcome, is associated with inappropriate empirical therapy. These results suggest that, to improve prognosis, a more precise and appropriate antimicrobial empirical therapy for pneumonia in patients with solid tumors is necessary, together with an effort to reach an etiological diagnosis to facilitate subsequent de-escalation.

5.
Infect Dis Ther ; 9(1): 151-163, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086777

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To assess the association between exposure to micafungin, other echinocandins, or azoles and the development of short-term liver injury (STLI) or long-term liver injury (LTLI) in patients with Child-Pugh B or C liver disease. METHODS: Multicenter case-control study of patients with Child-Pugh B or C liver disease who received antifungals (AF) for ≥ 72 h (May 2009-May 2015) in six Spanish and Italian hospitals. All micafungin patients were randomly matched with one patient who received another echinocandin and with one patient who received azole treatment. Primary outcome was development of STLI or LTLI (development of any type of liver tumor during the follow-up period). RESULTS: Of 2335 patients with chronic liver disease admitted to the six centers, 20 (0.85%) were found to have Child-Pugh B or C liver disease and received micafungin for ≥ 72 h. During AF treatment, the frequency of STLI was 10% in each group. Most cases of STLI were asymptomatic, and AFs had to be switched to another class of AF in only two patients (one micafungin and one azole). No patients developed acute liver insufficiency, were admitted to the ICU, or had to undergo transplantation. Follow-up data (median of 1.3 years) were available for 30 patients. LTLI was observed in only one patient, who had previously received treatment with azoles. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the administration of micafungin to patients with end-stage liver disease does not imply a higher risk of developing STLI or LTLI.

6.
Anaerobe ; : 102178, 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092415

RESUMO

Reported rates of C. difficile infection (CDI) have increased in many settings; however, these can be affected by factors including testing density (test-density) and diagnostic methods. We aimed to describe the impact of multiple factors on CDI rates. Hospitals (n = 182) across five countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and UK) provided data on; size and type of institution, CDI testing methodology, number of tests/month and patient-bed-days (pbds)/month over one year. Incidence rates were compared between countries, different sized institutions, types of institutions and testing method. After univariate analyses, the highest CDI rates were observed in Italy (average 11.8/10,000pbds/hospital/month), acute/primary hospitals (12.3/10,000pbds/hospital/month), small hospitals (16.7/10,000pbds/hospital/month), and hospitals using methods that do not detect toxin (NO-TOXIN) (e.g. GDH/NAAT or standalone NAAT) (10.7/10,000pbds/hospital/month). After adjusting for test-density, highest incidence rates were still in Italy, acute/primary hospitals and those using NO-TOXIN. The relative rate in long-term healthcare facilities (LTHCFs) increased, but size of institution no longer influenced the CDI rate. Test-density appears to have the largest effect on reported CDI rates. NO-TOXIN testing still influences CDI rates, even after adjusting for test-density, which is consistent with tests that 'overcall' true CDI. Low test-density can mask the true burden of CDI, e.g. in LTHCFs, highlighting the importance of good quality surveillance.

7.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081472

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We sought to study the prevalence of cardiac troponin T (TnT) elevation in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) and its association with in-hospital outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective single-center study. From 2008 to 2018, 528 patients were diagnosed with IE and 250 (47.3%) had at least a TnT determination during hospital admission, 103 with conventional TnT assay and 147 with high-sensitive assay. Elevated TnT levels were found in 210 patients (84.0%). Compared with patients with normal TnT levels, patients with TnT elevation presented higher in-hospital mortality (5 [12.5%] vs. 77 [36.7%], p < 0.001) and more frequent complications: heart failure (9 [22.5%] vs. 106 [50.5%], p < 0.001), cardiac abscesses (4 [10.0%] vs 58 [27.6%], p = 0.03), conduction disorders (0 vs. 26 [12,4%]; p = 0.04), and involvement of the central nervous system (1 [2.5%] vs. 38 [18.1%];p = 0.02). Patients with elevated TnT had more frequent indication for surgery (24 [60.0%] vs. 179 [85.2%], p < 0.001) and were operated on more frequently (16 [40.0%] vs 123 [58.6%], p = 0.03). TnT elevation was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (OR 3.31; 95% CI 1.02-10.72, p = 0.05). Adding TnT data to conventional clinical models improved the predictive capability of in-hospital mortality (R2: 0.407 vs. 0.388, χ2: 85.03 vs. 80.40, p < 0.001), resulting in a net reclassification improvement of 0.29 (95% CI: 0.13-0.46, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: TnT elevation is very common in patients with IE and is associated with increased in-hospital mortality and complications, thus routine monitoring should be recommended.

9.
Infect Dis Ther ; 9(1): 119-135, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020522

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the clinical impact of a comprehensive care bundle for the management of candidemia. METHODS: A quasi-experimental pre-post study was implemented. During the pre-intervention period (May 2014-September 2015), a non-mandatory antifungal stewardship program (ASP) was implemented, and patients with candidemia were visited by an infectious disease specialist who provided diagnostic and therapeutic advice according to standard of care as soon as possible. During the post-intervention period (October 2015-May 2017), patients were managed according to a candidemia care bundle with clear and structured recommendations written in their medical history. RESULTS: Overall, 109 patients were included, 56 in the pre-intervention and 53 in the post-intervention period. Overall, compliance with the Candida bundle significantly improved between the pre- [27/56 (48.2%)] and post-intervention [43/53 (81.1%); p = 0.01] period. Individual bundle components that significantly improved in the post-intervention period were early adequate antifungal therapy [47/56 (83.9%) vs. 51/53 (96.2%), p = 0.05], early adequate source control of the infection [37/56 (82.2%) vs. 41/53 (97.6%), p = 0.03] and appropriate duration of therapy [27/56 (48.2%) vs. 43/53 (81.1%), p = 0.01]. Adherence to follow-up blood cultures, ophthalmologic examination and echocardiography improved in the post-intervention period, but the difference was not statistically significant. Multivariate analysis revealed that being managed according to candidemia bundle had a favorable impact on 14-day mortality (HR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.45, p = 0.02) and 30-day mortality (HR 0.40, 95% CI 0.18-0.89, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: A simple bundle focused on increasing adherence to a few evidence-based interventions contributed to a significant reduction in 14- and 30-day mortality in patients with candidemia.

10.
Infect Dis Ther ; 9(1): 137-149, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026399

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to examine the relationship among adequate dose, serum concentration and clinical outcome in a non-selected group of hospitalized patients receiving antifungals. METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional study performed between March 2015 and June 2015. Dosage of antifungals was considered adequate according to the IDSA guidelines, whereas trough serum concentrations (determined with HPLC) were considered adequate as follows: fluconazole > 11 µg/ml, echinocandins > 1 µg/ml, voriconazole 1-5.5 µg/ml and posaconazole > 0.7 µg/ml. RESULTS: During the study period, 84 patients (65.4% male, 59.6 years) received antifungals for prophylaxis (40.4%), targeted (31.0%) and empirical therapy (28.6%). The most frequent drug was micafungin (28/84; 33.3%) followed by fluconazole (23/84; 27.4%), voriconazole (15/84; 17.9%), anidulafungin (8/84; 9.5%), posaconazole (7/84; 8.3%) and caspofungin (3/84; 3.6%). Considerable interindividual variability was observed for all antifungals with a large proportion of the patients (64.3%) not attaining adequate trough serum concentrations, despite receiving an adequate antifungal dose. Attaining the on-target serum antifungal level was significantly associated with a favorable clinical outcome (OR = 0.02; 95% CI 0.01-0.64; p = 0.03), whereas the administration of an adequate antifungal dosage was not. CONCLUSIONS: With the standard antifungal dosage, a considerable proportion of patients have low drug concentrations, which are associated with poor clinical outcome.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226251, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) require adequate maintenance based on heparin or saline locks in order to prevent complications. Heparin has proven effective in central venous catheters, although its use in PVCs remains controversial. Our hypothesis was that saline locks are as effective as heparin locks in preventing problems with PVCs. The objective of the present study was to compare phlebitis and catheter tip colonization rates between PVCs locked with saline and those locked with heparin in patients admitted to an internal medicine department (IMD). METHODS: We performed a 19-month prospective, controlled, open-label, randomized clinical study of patients with at least 1 PVC admitted to the IMD of our hospital. The patients were randomized to receive saline solution (PosiFlush®, group A) or heparin (Fibrilin®, group B) for daily maintenance of the PVC. Clinical and microbiological data were monitored to investigate the frequency of phlebitis, catheter tip colonization, and catheter-related bloodstream infection (C-RBSI), as well as crude mortality, days of hospital stay, and days of antimicrobial treatment. RESULTS: We assessed 339 PVCs (241 patients), of which 192 (56.6%) were locked with saline (group A) and 147 (43.4%) with heparin (group B). The main demographic characteristics of the patients were distributed equally between the 2 study groups. The median (IQR) catheter days was 5 (3-8) for both groups (p = 0.64). The frequency of phlebitis was 17.7% for group A and 13.3% for group B (p = 0.30). The frequency of colonization of PVC tips was 14.6% and 12.2% in groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.63). Only 2 episodes of C-RBSI were detected (1 patient in group A). Saline lock was not an independent factor for phlebitis or catheter colonization. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed no statistically significant differences in the frequency of phlebitis and catheter tip colonization between PVCs locked with saline and PVCs locked with heparin. We suggest that PVC can be maintained with saline solution, as it is safer and cheaper than heparin.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807286

RESUMO

Background: In patients with suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia, a rapid etiological diagnosis is crucial as incorrect or delayed treatment in the first few hours leads to a worse prognosis and a higher mortality rate. This study examines the efficacy of a rapid antibiogram on bronchial aspirates in patients with suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Methods: The direct gradient diffusion susceptibility testing method (GDM) on respiratory samples was compared with a standard broth microdilution method (BMD) after quantitative cultures in patients with suspicion of VAP. Samples were preselected by Gram staining (for good quality microbiological samples with a predominant single bacterial morphotype). The antibiotics tested were ceftazidime, ceftobiprole, ceftolozane-tazobactam, meropenem, doripenem, and tedizolid. Results: Over a 16-month study period, 445 bronchial aspirate samples were selected from 1376 samples received at our laboratory from 672 adult patients. By direct plating on Mueller-Hinton agar, we recovered 504 (95.5%) of the 528 microorganisms identified by the standard semiquantitative method. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by GDM was compared with the BMD method in 472 strains (216 Enterobacteriaceae, 138 P. aeruginosa and 118 S. aureus.) and 1652 individual microorganism-antimicrobial agent combinations. There was total agreement between both methods in 98% of combinations. The Kappa index between both techniques was excellent (over 80%). There was only one potential major error for P. aeruginosa susceptibility to ceftazidime. Conclusions: The six GDM strips directly placed on plated bronchial aspirates obtained from patients with a suspicion of VAP provided accurate and reliable susceptibility results within 24 h.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical relevance and the potential prognostic role of persistently negative (1,3)-ß-D-glucan (BDG) in adults with proven candidemia is unknown. METHODS: This retrospective study included all adults diagnosed with candidemia our tertiary university hospital from 2012-2017 who had at least 2 serum BDG determinations throughout the episode of fungemia (Fungitell Assay; positive cut-off ≥80pg/mL). Epidemiology and clinical outcomes were compared between patients with all negative versus any positive BDG tests. Poor clinical outcomes included complications due to candidemia or 30-day all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Overall, 26/148 (17.6%) candidemic adults had persistently negative BDG tests. These patients were less likely to present Candida growth in all 3 sets of blood cultures (15.4% vs 45.1%; P = .005) and had less severe clinical presentations (median Pitt score, 0 [interquartile range {IQR} 0-1] vs 1 [IQR 0-2] in patients with any positive BDG test; P = .039). Although adequate treatment was equally provided to both groups (96.2% in persistently negative group vs 93.4 in positive group; P = .599), the persistently negative group had a higher rate of microbiological clearance in the first follow-up blood cultures (92.3% vs 69.7% in positive group; P = .005), fewer complications due to candidemia (7.7% vs 33.6% in positive group; P = .008), a lower 30-day mortality rate (3.8% vs 23.8% in positive group; P = .004), and a shorter in-hospital stay (34 days [IQR 18-55] vs 51 days [IQR 35-91] in positive group; P = .003). In the multivariate analysis, persistently negative BDG tests were independently associated with better prognoses (odds ratio 0.12, 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.49; P = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Candidemic patients with persistently negative BDG tests present a better prognosis than the comparative group, probably due to a lower systemic fungal burden. In this context, the appropriate use of persistently negative BDG results could be an aid to individualize therapeutic management in the near future.

14.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668380

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nasal swab culture is used to identify Staphylococcus aureus colonization, as this is a major risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI) in patients who are going to undergo major heart surgery (MHS). We determined nasal carriage of S. aureus in patients undergoing MHS by comparing the yield of a conventional culture with that of a rapid molecular test (Xpert® SA Nasal Complete, Cepheid). METHODS: From July 2015 to April 2017, all patients who were to undergo MHS were invited to participate in the study. We obtained two nasal cultures from each patient just before entering the operating room, independently of a previous test for the determination of nasal colonization by this microorganism performed before surgery. One swab was used for conventional culture in the microbiology laboratory, and the other was used for the rapid molecular test. We defined nasal colonization as the presence of a positive culture for S. aureus using either of the two techniques. All patients were followed up until hospital discharge or death. RESULTS: Overall, 57 out of 200 patients (28.5%) were colonized by S. aureus at the time of surgery. Thirty-three patients had both conventional culture- and PCR-positive results. Twenty-four patients had a negative culture and a positive PCR test. Only twenty-one percent (12/57) of colonized patients had undergone an attempt to decolonise before the surgical intervention. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of patients undergoing MHS are colonized by S. aureus in the nostrils on entering the operating room. New strategies to prevent SSI by this microorganism are needed. Rapid molecular tests immediately before MHS, followed by immediate decolonisation, must be evaluated. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT02640001.

15.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 32(6): 626-637, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567570

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antimicrobial resistance among Gram-negative microorganisms has alarmingly increased in the past 10 years worldwide. Infections caused by these microorganisms are difficult to treat, especially in critically ill patients.The present review examines how to accurately predict which patients carry a greater risk of colonization or infection on which to base the timely choice of an effective empirical antibiotic treatment regimen and avoid antibiotic overuse. RECENT FINDINGS: There are many risk factors for acquiring one of many multidrug-resistant Gram-negative microorganisms (MDR-GN); however, scores anticipating colonization, infection among those colonized, or mortality among those infected have a variable accuracy. Accuracy of scores anticipating colonization is low. Scores predicting infections among colonized patients are, in general, better, and ICU patients infected with MDR-GN have a worse prognosis than those infected by non-resistant microorganisms. Scores are, in general, better at excluding patients. SUMMARY: Despite these limitations, scores continue to gain popularity including those by Giannella, Tumbarello, Johnson, or the scores INCREMENT carbapenem-producing Enterobacteriaceae score, Cano, Tartof, or CarbaSCORE.

17.
Cardiology ; 143(3-4): 85-91, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514195

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to determine the presentation and prognosis of influenza in an intensive cardiac care unit and to analyze the impact of an active surveillance program in the diagnosis. METHODS: We performed a prospective registry during the flu season in a coronary unit. In the first phase, no systematic screening was performed. Systematic influenza A and B detection was performed in a second phase for all patients admitted. RESULTS: From 227 patients, we identified 17 (7.5%) with influenza. Influenza patients were more likely to have a non-ischemic cause of admission (14 patients [82.4%] vs. 48 patients [40.3%], p = 0.002), fever (8 patients [47.1%] vs. 3 patients [2.6%], p < 0.001), and respiratory failure (7 patients [41.2%] vs. 8 patients [7%], p = 0.001). Influenza infection was an independent predictor of mortality (odds ratio 12.0, 95% confidence interval 1.9-13.6, p < 0.001). The incidence of influenza was 6.6% (6 patients) when no active screening was performed and 7.9% (11 patients) when systematic detection was performed (p = 0.005). The time to diagnosis was shorter in the systematic screening phase (0.92 ± 1.6 vs. 5.2 ± 3.8 days, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Influenza affects approximately 8% of patients admitted to an intensive cardiac care unit during the flu season, with a high mortality rate. An active surveillance program improves early detection.


Assuntos
Unidades de Cuidados Coronarianos/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia
18.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 38(9): 1737-1742, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209648

RESUMO

The conventional diagnostic techniques for catheter colonization (CC) take at least 48 h to yield results. Therefore, new diagnostic procedures that speed up the time necessary for results are needed. Our main objective was to assess the efficacy of the combination of sonication, turbidity monitoring, and MALDI-TOF to detect CC and catheter-related bloodstream infection (C-RBSI). For 1 year, we assessed central venous catheter (CVC) tips that arrived at the microbiology laboratory from adult patients admitted to our institution. CVC tips were cut, inoculated into 2.5 ml of BHI, and sonicated for 1 min. The suspension was then processed using Gram stain, quantitative culture (gold standard), and preincubation on the Alfred™ system. We analyzed the validity values of our new diagnostic approach for prediction of CC and C-RBSI and compared them with those of the gold standard. We collected a total of 167 catheters, 33 (19.8%) of which were colonized. We confirmed 21 episodes of C-RBSI. The distribution of microorganisms in colonized CVCs was as follows: Gram-positive, 68.4%; Gram-negative, 5.3%; and yeasts, 26.3%. The validity values for CC and C-RBSI using the new procedure were as follows: S, 39.4%/61.9%; Sp, 100%/100%; PPV, 100%/100%; and NPV, 87.0%/94.8%. The combination of sonication with a pre-incubation period based on turbidity monitoring using the Alfred™ system followed by MALDI-TOF proved to be a useful tool that was faster than conventional culture for ruling out C-RBSI. Future studies are needed to assess the clinical and economic impact of this diagnostic approach.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/diagnóstico , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Nefelometria e Turbidimetria/instrumentação , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/normas , Sonicação , Idoso , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Cateterismo Venoso Central , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefelometria e Turbidimetria/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Coloração e Rotulagem
19.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 21(5): e13128, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206924

RESUMO

We report the first case of disseminated infection by Gymnascella hyalinospora in a solid organ transplant recipient. This case highlights the role of low-virulence environmental molds as an emerging cause of breakthrough invasive fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts. Nosocomial strategies of infection control including antimicrobial stewardship and advances on fast diagnostic methods are strongly encouraged to improve patient prognosis.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/etiologia , Micoses/diagnóstico , Transplantados , Adulto , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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