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1.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947975

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess free fatty acids' (FAs) ex vivo anti-/proinflammatory capabilities and their influence on inflammatory gene expression and H2O2 production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Anthropometric and clinical measurements were performed in 26 participants with metabolic syndrome. Isolated PBMCs were incubated ex vivo for 2 h with several free fatty acids-palmitic, oleic, α-linolenic, γ-linolenic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic at 50 µM, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone or in combination. H2O2 production and IL6, NFκB, TLR2, TNFα, and COX-2 gene expressions were determined. Palmitic, γ-linolenic, and arachidonic acids showed minor effects on inflammatory gene expression, whereas oleic, α-linolenic, and docosahexaenoic acids reduced proinflammatory gene expression in LPS-stimulated PBMCs. Arachidonic and α-linolenic acids treatment enhanced LPS-stimulated H2O2 production by PBMCs, while palmitic, oleic, γ-linolenic, and docosahexaenoic acids did not exert significant effects. Oleic, α-linolenic, and docosahexaenoic acids induced anti-inflammatory responses in PBMCs. Arachidonic and α-linolenic acids enhanced the oxidative status of LPS-stimulated PBMCs. In conclusion, PBMC ex vivo assays are useful to assess the anti-/proinflammatory and redox-modulatory effects of fatty acids or other food bioactive compounds.

2.
Front Genet ; 10: 1074, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737052

RESUMO

X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) is known to explain up to 10% of the intellectual disability in males. A large number of families in which intellectual disability is the only clinically consistent manifestation have been described. While linkage analysis and candidate gene testing were the initial approaches to find genes and variants, next generation sequencing (NGS) has accelerated the discovery of more and more XLID genes. Using NGS, we resolved the genetic cause of MRX82 (OMIM number 300518), a large Spanish Basque family with five affected males with intellectual disability and a wide phenotypic variability among them despite having the same pathogenic variant. Although the previous linkage study had mapped the locus to an interval of 7.6Mb in Xq24-Xq25 of the X chromosome, this region contained too many candidate genes to be analysed using conventional approaches. NGS revealed a novel nonsense variant: c.118C > T; p.Gln40* in UPF3B, a gene previously implicated in XLID that encodes a protein involved in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Further molecular studies showed that the mRNA transcript was not completely degraded by NMD. However, UPF3B protein was not detected by conventional Western Blot analysis at least downstream of the 40 residue demonstrating that the phenotype could be due to the loss of functional protein. This is the first report of a premature termination codon before the three functional domains of the UPF3B protein and these results directly implicate the absence of these domains with XLID, autism and some dysmorphic features.

3.
JAMA ; 322(15): 1486-1499, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613346

RESUMO

Importance: High-quality dietary patterns may help prevent chronic disease, but limited data exist from randomized trials about the effects of nutritional and behavioral interventions on dietary changes. Objective: To assess the effect of a nutritional and physical activity education program on dietary quality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Preliminary exploratory interim analysis of an ongoing randomized trial. In 23 research centers in Spain, 6874 men and women aged 55 to 75 years with metabolic syndrome and no cardiovascular disease were enrolled in the trial between September 2013 and December 2016, with final data collection in March 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomized to an intervention group that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet, promoted physical activity, and provided behavioral support (n = 3406) or to a control group that encouraged an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet (n = 3468). All participants received allotments of extra-virgin olive oil (1 L/mo) and nuts (125 g/mo) for free. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 12-month change in adherence based on the energy-reduced Mediterranean diet (er-MedDiet) score (range, 0-17; higher scores indicate greater adherence; minimal clinically important difference, 1 point). Results: Among 6874 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 65.0 [4.9] years; 3406 [52%] men), 6583 (96%) completed the 12-month follow-up and were included in the main analysis. The mean (SD) er-MedDiet score was 8.5 (2.6) at baseline and 13.2 (2.7) at 12 months in the intervention group (increase, 4.7 [95% CI, 4.6-4.8]) and 8.6 (2.7) at baseline and 11.1 (2.8) at 12 months in the control group (increase, 2.5 [95% CI, 2.3-2.6]) (between-group difference, 2.2 [95% CI, 2.1-2.4]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary analysis of an ongoing trial, an intervention that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet and physical activity, compared with advice to follow an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet, resulted in a significantly greater increase in diet adherence after 12 months. Further evaluation of long-term cardiovascular effects is needed. Trial Registration: isrctn.com Identifier: ISRCTN89898870.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Cooperação do Paciente , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
4.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight/obesity and related manifestations such as metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing worldwide. High energy density diets, usually with low nutrient density, are among the main causes. Some high-quality dietary patterns like the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) have been linked to the prevention and better control of MetS. However, it is needed to show that nutritional interventions promoting the MedDiet are able to improve nutrient intake. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of improving MedDiet adherence on nutrient density after 1 year of follow-up at the PREDIMED-Plus trial. METHODS: We assessed 5777 men (55-75 years) and women (60-75 years) with overweight or obesity and MetS at baseline from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Dietary changes and MedDiet adherence were evaluated at baseline and after 1 year. The primary outcome was the change in nutrient density (measured as nutrient intake per 1000 kcal). Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were fitted to analyse longitudinal changes in adherence to the MedDiet and concurrent changes in nutrient density. RESULTS: During 1-year follow-up, participants showed improvements in nutrient density for all micronutrients assessed. The density of carbohydrates (- 9.0%), saturated fatty acids (- 10.4%) and total energy intake (- 6.3%) decreased. These changes were more pronounced in the subset of participants with higher improvements in MedDiet adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The PREDIMED-Plus dietary intervention, based on MedDiet recommendations for older adults, maybe a feasible strategy to improve nutrient density in Spanish population at high risk of cardiovascular disease with overweight or obesity.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 945, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood overweight and obesity is a serious public health issue with an increase being observed in preschool-aged children. Treating childhood obesity is difficult and few countries use standardized treatments. Therefore, there is a need to find effective approaches that are feasible for both health care providers and families. Thus, the overall aim of this study is to assess the acceptance and effectiveness of a parent support program (the More and Less, ML) for the management of overweight and obesity followed by a mobile health (mHealth) program (the MINISTOP application) in a socially diverse population of families. METHODS/DESIGN: A two-arm, parallel design randomized controlled trial in 300 2-to 6-year-old children with overweight and obesity from Romania, Spain and Sweden (n = 100 from each). Following baseline assessments children are randomized into the intervention or control group in a 1:1 ratio. The intervention, the ML program, consists of 10-weekly group sessions which focus on evidence-based parenting practices, followed by the previously validated MINISTOP application for 6-months to support healthy eating and physical activity behaviors. The primary outcome is change in body mass index (BMI) z-score after 9-months and secondary outcomes include: waist circumference, eating behavior (Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire), parenting behavior (Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire), physical activity (ActiGraph wGT3x-BT), dietary patterns (based on metabolic markers from urine and 24 h dietary recalls), epigenetic and gut hormones (fasting blood samples), and the overall acceptance of the overweight and obesity management in young children (semi-structured interviews). Outcomes are measured at baseline and after: 10-weeks (only BMI z-score, waist circumference), 9-months (all outcomes), 15- and 21-months (all outcomes except physical activity, dietary patterns, epigenetics and gut hormones) post-baseline. DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate a parent support program for weight management in young children in three European countries. To boost the effect of the ML program the families will be supported by an app for 6-months. If the program is found to be effective, it has the potential to be implemented into routine care to reduce overweight and obesity in young children and the app could prove to be a viable option for sustained effects of the care provided. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03800823; 11 Jan 2019.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Telemedicina
6.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261967

RESUMO

Background: The effect of dietary fat intake on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and in turn on cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear in individuals at high CVD risk. Objective: To assess the association between fat intake and MetS components in an adult Mediterranean population at high CVD risk. Design: Baseline assessment of nutritional adequacy in participants (n = 6560, men and women, 55-75 years old, with overweight/obesity and MetS) in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED)-Plus randomized trial. Methods: Assessment of fat intake (total fat, monounsatured fatty acids: MUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids: PUFA, saturated fatty acids: SFA, trans-fatty acids: trans-FA, linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, and ω-3 FA) using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and diet quality using 17-item Mediterranean dietary questionnaire and fat quality index (FQI). Results: Participants in the highest quintile of total dietary fat intake showed lower intake of energy, carbohydrates, protein and fiber, but higher intake of PUFA, MUFA, SFA, TFA, LA, ALA and ω-3 FA. Differences in MetS components were found according to fat intake. Odds (5th vs. 1st quintile): hyperglycemia: 1.3-1.6 times higher for total fat, MUFA, SFA and ω-3 FA intake; low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c): 1.2 higher for LA; hypertriglyceridemia: 0.7 lower for SFA and ω-3 FA intake. Conclusions: Dietary fats played different role on MetS components of high CVD risk patients. Dietary fat intake was associated with higher risk of hyperglycemia.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Mediterrânea , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/dietoterapia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Hiperglicemia/dietoterapia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075869

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the scientific evidence on the relationship between body image and body weight control in overweight ≥55-year-old adults. Methods: The literature search was conducted on MEDLINE database via PubMed, using terms related to body image, weight control and body composition. Inclusion criteria were scientific papers, written in English or Spanish, made on older adults. Exclusion criteria were eating and psychological disorders, low sample size, cancer, severe diseases, physiological disorders other than metabolic syndrome, and bariatric surgery. Results: Fifty-seven studies were included. Only thirteen were conducted exclusively among ≥55-year-old adults or performed analysis adjusted by age. Overweight perception was related to spontaneous weight management, which usually concerned dieting and exercising. More men than women showed over-perception of body image. Ethnics showed different satisfaction level with body weight. As age increases, conformism with body shape, as well as expectations concerning body weight decrease. Misperception and dissatisfaction with body weight are risk factors for participating in an unhealthy lifestyle and make it harder to follow a healthier lifestyle. Body image disturbance also made it more likely to underreport calorie intake. Conclusions: Aging is associated with a decrease in weight concerns and lower overweight perception, especially in women. However, when designing a program to improve body image in overweight ≥55-year-old adults, three items ought to be considered: physical activity, dietary and behavioral treatments.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few studies have compared micronutrient intake and fulfilment of average requirements (EAR) in non-diabetic, pre-diabetic and diabetic adults at high cardiovascular risk. We assessed these variables in a large sample of participants in the PREDIMED-PLUS randomized trial of primary cardiovascular prevention with diet and physical activity. DESIGN: Baseline assessment of nutritional adequacy in n = 5792 men and women, aged 55-75 years, with overweight/obesity and some metabolic syndrome features. METHODS: Participants were categorised as non-diabetic (n = 2390), pre-diabetic (n = 1322) or diabetic (n = 2080) by standard criteria. Food and nutrient intake were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Micronutrients examined were vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, A, C, D, E and folic acid; Ca, K, P, Mg, Fe, Se, Cr, Zn, and iodine. The proportion of micronutrient inadequacy was evaluated using the EAR or adequate intake (AI) cut-offs. Diet quality was also determined using a 17-item energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) questionnaire. RESULTS: Compared to non-diabetic participants, those with pre-diabetes had lower intakes of total carbohydrates (CHO) and higher intakes of total fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA) and were more likely to be below EAR for folic, while diabetic participants had lower intakes of total CHO and higher intakes of protein, total fat, monounsaturated fatty acids, SFA and cholesterol and were less likely to be below EAR for vitamins B2, and B6, Ca, Zn and iodine. Diabetic participants disclosed higher adherence to the MedDiet than the other two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Older Mediterranean individuals with metabolic syndrome and diabetes had better nutrient adequacy and adherence to the MedDiet than those with pre-diabetes or no diabetes.

9.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nut consumption has been associated with improved nutrient adequacy and diet quality in healthy adult populations but this association has never been explored in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVE: to assess the associations between consumption of nuts and nutrient adequacy and diet quality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. DESIGN: baseline assessment of nutritional adequacy in participants (n = 6060, men and women, with ages 55⁻75 years old, with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome) in the PREDIMED-PLUS primary cardiovascular prevention randomized trial. METHODS: nut intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Participants who reported consuming zero quantity of nuts were classified as 'non-nut consumers'. 'Nut consumers' were participants who reported consuming any quantity of nuts. Nineteen micronutrients were examined (vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, A, C, D, E and folic acid; Ca, K, P, Mg, Fe, Se, Cr, Zn, and iodine). The proportion of micronutrient inadequacy was estimated using the estimated average requirements (EAR) or adequate intake (AI) cut-points. Diet quality was also assessed using a 17-item Mediterranean dietary questionnaire (Mediterranean diet score, MDS), a carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and a fat quality index (FQI). RESULTS: eighty-two percent of participants were nut consumers (median of nut consumption 12.6 g/day; interquartile range: 6.0⁻25.2). Nut consumers were less likely to be below the EAR for vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, C, D, E, folic acid, and Ca, Mg, Se and Zn than non-nut consumers. Nut consumers were also more likely to be above the AI for K and Cr than non-nut consumers. Nut consumers had lower prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes, but also higher CQI, higher FQI, and better scores of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Mediterranean diet score, MDS). CONCLUSIONS: nut consumers had better nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and adherence to the MedDiet than those non-nut consumers.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Nozes , Obesidade/complicações , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Dieta/métodos , Dieta Mediterrânea , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Fatores de Risco
10.
Nutrients ; 10(12)2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563042

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can exert opposed effects depending on the dosage: low levels can be involved in signalling and adaptive processes, while higher levels can exert deleterious effects in cells and tissues. Our aim was to emulate a chronic ex vivo oxidative stress situation through a 2 h exposure of immune cells to sustained H2O2 produced by glucose oxidase (GOX), at high or low production rate, in order to determine dissimilar responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and neutrophils on ROS and cytokine production, and mitochondrial dynamics-related proteins, pro/anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant gene expression. Immune cells were obtained from subjects with metabolic syndrome. H2O2 at low concentrations can trigger a transient anti-inflammatory adiponectin secretion and reduced gene expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in PBMCs but may act as a stimulator of proinflammatory genes (IL6, IL8) and mitochondrial dynamics-related proteins (Mtf2, NRF2, Tfam). H2O2 at a high concentration enhances the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (TLR2 and IL1ß) and diminishes the expression of mitochondrial dynamics-related proteins (Mtf1, Tfam) and antioxidant enzymes (Cu/Zn SOD) in PBMCs. The GOX treatments produce dissimilar changes in immune cells: Neutrophils were more resistant to H2O2 effects and exhibited a more constant response in terms of gene expression than PBMCs. We observe emerging roles of H2O2 in mitochondrial dynamics and redox and inflammation processes in immune cells.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Inflamação/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome Metabólica/imunologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Idoso , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxirredução
11.
Nutrients ; 10(11)2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388779

RESUMO

In this study, we assessed physical condition and its association with body composition, nutrient intake, sociodemographic characteristics, and lifestyle habits in older Spanish adults. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated 380 individuals (54% women; men aged 55⁻80 years and women aged 60⁻80 years) with no previously documented cardiovascular disease. A general questionnaire was used, and body weight, height, fat, appendicular skeletal muscle mass, and waist circumference were assessed. Physical condition measurements included handgrip strength (HGS) and agility/dynamic balance by eight-foot time up-and-go (8-f TUG) test. The lowest maximum HGS score (kg) was found in older participants, inactive men, and men with abdominal obesity. The highest maximum 8-f TUG score (s) was found in older and inactive, low education, low income, and abdominal obesity and overfat participants; 24.5% of participants had low maximum HGS and 36.8% had a high 8-f TUG score. Sex- and/or age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for low maximum HGS in women, older participants, overweight and overfat participants were 4.6, 2.9, 0.6 and 0.6 respectively. Sex and/or age adjusted OR for high maximum 8-f TUG in women, overweight, overfat, and abdominally obese participants were 2.4, 1.6, 1.7, and 3.4, respectively; in participants with higher education, those who earned €900 or more per month, and slightly active and active participants had OR values of 0.4, 0.4, and 0.3, respectively. Sarcopenia incidence was 0.3%; however, 4.5% of men and 19.1% of women registered low physical condition (high and low scores in 8-f TUG and HGS tests, respectively). Overall, 36.8%, 24.5%, and 0.3% of participants had high maximum 8-f TUG score, low maximum HGS, and sarcopenia, respectively. Prevalence of these low values varies according to sociodemographic and body composition variables.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos , Estilo de Vida , Aptidão Física , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Nutrients ; 10(11)2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453505

RESUMO

A chronic inflammatory state is a major characteristic of the aging process, and physical activity is proposed as a key component for healthy aging. Our aim was to evaluate the body composition, hypertension, lipid profile, and inflammatory status of older adults, and these factors' association with physical activity. A total of 116 elderly volunteers were categorized into terciles of quantitative metabolic equivalents of task (MET). Subjects in the first and third terciles were defined as sedentary and active subjects, respectively. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, hemograms, and inflammatory markers were measured in plasma or peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs). The active groups exercised more than their sedentary counterparts. The practice of physical activity was accompanied by lower weight, fat mass, body mass index, and diastolic blood pressure when compared to a more sedentary life-style. Physical activity also lowered the haematocrit and total leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts. The practice of exercise induced a decrease in the IL-6 circulating levels and the TLR2 protein levels in PBMCs, while the expression of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 was activated in active subjects. The regular practice of physical activity exerts beneficial effects on body composition and the anti-inflammatory status of old people.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Exercício , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria , Antígenos CD/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Composição Corporal , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Selectina L/sangue , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sedentário , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue
13.
Nutrients ; 10(10)2018 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347790

RESUMO

Regular physical activity prescription is a key point for healthy aging and chronic disease management and prevention. Our aim was to evaluate the antioxidant defense system and the mitochondrial status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the level of oxidative damage in plasma in active, intermediate and inactive elderly. In total, 127 healthy men and women >55 years old participated in the study and were classified according on their level of declared physical activity. A more active lifestyle was accompanied by lower weight, fat mass and body mass index when compared to a more sedentary life-style. Active participants exhibited lower circulating PBMCs than inactive peers. Participants who reported higher levels of exercise had increased antioxidant protein levels when compared to more sedentary partakers. Carbonylated protein levels exhibited similar behavior, accompanied by a significant raise in expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV in PBMCs. No significant changes were found in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and in the expression of structural (MitND5) and mitochondrial dynamic-related (PGC1α and Mitofusins1/2.) proteins. Active lifestyle and daily activities exert beneficial effects on body composition and it enhances the antioxidant defenses and oxidative metabolism capabilities in PBMCs from healthy elderly.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Composição Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Nutrients ; 10(9)2018 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142929

RESUMO

The paper seeks to describe beverage consumption and examine the association between beverage consumption and total water intake and total energy intake of the adult population in the Balearic Islands. Beverage consumption, total water intake, and total energy intake were obtained by using two 24-h diet recalls from a cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the Balearic Islands (n = 1386). The contribution of beverages to total water intake and total energy intake were also assessed. Beverages accounted for 65⁻71% of total water intake and 29⁻35% of it provided by drinking water. Food moisture contributed 31⁻37% of total water intake. The mean daily total water intake from all sources was around 2.2 L for men and 1.9 L for women and slightly lower than the proposed adequate intake (AI) recommendations of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The mean total energy intake was 2222 kcal/day and beverages contributed 10.3% of total energy intake for men and 9.5% for women. Energy intake from beverages varied with age. In both sexes, milk was the main beverage contributed to total energy intake. The energy contribution of caloric soft drinks was 1.8% for men and 1.2% for women and energy intake from these beverages was significantly higher among younger adults. Water was the main beverage in the diet, followed by milk and hot beverages. Beverages were mainly consumed in the main meal times (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) in both sexes. The main findings of this study indicate that consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (caloric soft drinks and commercial fruit juice) is higher among young adults, consumption of alcoholic beverages is higher among males aged 26 and older, and TWI (total water intake) is lower than the EFSA recommendations. These findings may be used to develop effective, healthy eating and drinking policies and campaigns.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Água , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Animais , Antropometria , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Feminino , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite , Avaliação Nutricional , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nutrients ; 10(1)2018 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29320413

RESUMO

The aim was to assess inflammatory markers among adults and adolescents in relation to the adherence to the Mediterranean diet. A random sample (219 males and 379 females) of the Balearic Islands population (12-65 years) was anthropometrically measured and provided a blood sample to determine biomarkers of inflammation. Dietary habits were assessed and the adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern calculated. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with age in both sexes. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet in adolescent males was 51.3% and 45.7% in adults, whereas in females 53.1% and 44.3%, respectively. In males, higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with higher levels of adiponectin and lower levels of leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in adults, but not in young subjects. In females, higher adherence was associated with lower levels of leptin in the young group, PAI-1 in adults and hs-CRP in both groups. With increasing age in both sexes, metabolic syndrome increases, but the adherence to the Mediterranean diet decreases. Low adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) is directly associated with a worse profile of plasmatic inflammation markers.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Oncology ; 91(3): 171-6, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27398995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Endometrial cancer is the second most frequent neoplasm in women with Lynch syndrome (LS). We sought to assess whether analyzing women with endometrial cancer would identify families with LS not identified with current clinical criteria. METHODS: We included women diagnosed with endometrial cancer younger than 50 years and also older if they had a family cancer history associated with LS. In blood samples obtained, we analyzed mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes, as well as protein expression by immunohistochemistry and microsatellite instability (MSI) in tumour tissue. RESULTS: A total of 103 patients were enrolled. We detected 14 pathogenic mutations and 4 genetic variants of unknown clinical significance in MMR genes. We found MSI in 41.66% of the women with a pathogenic mutation. In this group, 76.92% showed loss of at least one MMR protein. Women with mutations were younger at diagnosis, but all of them had a family history compatible with LS. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the MMR genes, in particular MSH6, seems to be appropriate in women with endometrial cancer and a family history of tumours associated with LS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/análise , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/química , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/análise , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/análise , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Mutação , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 24(1): 308-16, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25336561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and nongenetic modifying factors. In this study, we evaluated the putative role of variants in many candidate modifier genes. METHODS: Genotyping data from 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers, for known variants (n = 3,248) located within or around 445 candidate genes, were available through the iCOGS custom-designed array. Breast and ovarian cancer association analysis was performed within a retrospective cohort approach. RESULTS: The observed P values of association ranged between 0.005 and 1.000. None of the variants was significantly associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, after multiple testing adjustments. CONCLUSION: There is little evidence that any of the evaluated candidate variants act as modifiers of breast and/or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. IMPACT: Genome-wide association studies have been more successful at identifying genetic modifiers of BRCA1/2 penetrance than candidate gene studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1/fisiologia , Genes BRCA2/fisiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS Genet ; 10(4): e1004256, 2014 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24698998

RESUMO

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway could be associated with cancer risk in carriers of mutations in the high-penetrance susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of the components of the BER pathway, PARP1 (poly ADP ribose polymerase), and both BRCA1 and BRCA2. In the present study, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of 18 genes involved in BER using a tagging SNP approach in a large series of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. 144 SNPs were analyzed in a two stage study involving 23,463 carriers from the CIMBA consortium (the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2). Eleven SNPs showed evidence of association with breast and/or ovarian cancer at p<0.05 in the combined analysis. Four of the five genes for which strongest evidence of association was observed were DNA glycosylases. The strongest evidence was for rs1466785 in the NEIL2 (endonuclease VIII-like 2) gene (HR: 1.09, 95% CI (1.03-1.16), p = 2.7 × 10(-3)) for association with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers, and rs2304277 in the OGG1 (8-guanine DNA glycosylase) gene, with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR: 1.12 95%CI: 1.03-1.21, p = 4.8 × 10(-3)). DNA glycosylases involved in the first steps of the BER pathway may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and should be more comprehensively studied.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
19.
PLoS One ; 8(7): e67538, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23935836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PALB2 gene, also known as FANCN, forms a bond and co-localizes with BRCA2 in DNA repair. Germline mutations in PALB2 have been identified in approximately 1% of familial breast cancer and 3-4% of familial pancreatic cancer. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of PALB2 mutations in a population of BRCA1/BRCA2 negative breast cancer patients selected from either a personal or family history of pancreatic cancer. METHODS: 132 non-BRCA1/BRCA2 breast/ovarian cancer families with at least one pancreatic cancer case were included in the study. PALB2 mutational analysis was performed by direct sequencing of all coding exons and intron/exon boundaries, as well as multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. RESULTS: Two PALB2 truncating mutations, the c.1653T>A (p.Tyr551Stop) previously reported, and c.3362del (p.Gly1121ValfsX3) which is a novel frameshift mutation, were identified. Moreover, several PALB2 variants were detected; some of them were predicted as pathological by bioinformatic analysis. Considering truncating mutations, the prevalence rate of our population of BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer patients with pancreatic cancer is 1.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence rate of PALB2 mutations in non-BRCA1/BRCA2 breast/ovarian cancer families, selected from either a personal or family pancreatic cancer history, is similar to that previously described for unselected breast/ovarian cancer families. Future research directed towards identifying other gene(s) involved in the development of breast/pancreatic cancer families is required.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/congênito , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Biologia Computacional , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Família , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Linhagem , Espanha
20.
Carcinogenesis ; 34(11): 2505-11, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23929434

RESUMO

BRCA2-c.2808_2811del (3036delACAA) is one of the most reported germ line mutations in non-Ashkenazi breast cancer patients. We investigated its genetic origin in 51 Spanish carrier families that were genotyped with 11 13q polymorphic markers. Three independent associated haplotypes were clearly distinguished accounting for 23 [west Castilla y León (WCL)], 20 [east Castilla y León (ECL)] and 6 (South of Spain) families. Mutation age was estimated with the Disequilibrium Mapping using Likelihood Estimation software in a range of 45-68 and 45-71 generations for WCL and ECL haplotypes, respectively. The most prevalent variants, c.2808_2811del and c.2803G > A, were located in a double-hairpin loop structure (c.2794-c.2825) predicted by Quikfold that was proposed as a mutational hotspot. To check this hypothesis, random mutagenesis was performed over a 923 bp fragment of BRCA2, and 86 DNA variants were characterized. Interestingly, three mutations reported in the mutation databases (c.2680G > A, c.2944del and c.2957dup) were replicated and 20 affected the same position with different nucleotide changes. Moreover, five variants were placed in the same hairpin loop of c.2808_2811del, and one affected the same position (c.2808A > G). In conclusion, our results support that at least three different mutational events occurred to generate c.2808_2811del. Other highly prevalent DNA variants, such as BRCA1-c.68_69delAG, BRCA2-c.5946delT and c.8537delAG, are concentrated in hairpin loops, suggesting that these structures may represent mutational hotspots.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pareamento de Bases , Sequência de Bases , Família , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutagênese , Polimorfismo Genético , Prognóstico , Espanha
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