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2.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 85(9): 931-933, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274268
4.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 19(1): 90, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemostasis is the dynamic equilibrium between coagulation and fibrinolysis. During pregnancy, the balance shifts toward a hypercoagulative state; however placental abruption and abnormal placentations may lead to rapidly evolving coagulopathy characterized by the increased activation of procoagulant pathways. These processes can result in hypofibrinogenemia, with fibrinogen levels dropping to 2 g/L or less and an associated increased risk of post-partum hemorrhage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concordance between two methods of functional fibrinogen measurement: the Thromboelastography (TEG) method (also known as FLEV) vs. the Clauss method. Three patient groups were considered: healthy volunteers; non-pathological pregnant patients; and pregnant patients who went on to develop postpartum hemorrhage. METHODS: A prospective observational study. Inclusion criteria were: healthy volunteer women of childbearing age, non-pathological pregnant women at term, and pregnant hemorrhagic patients subjected to elective or urgent caesarean section (CS), with blood loss exceeding 1000 mL. Exclusion criteria were age < 18 years, a history of coagulopathy, and treatment with contraceptives, anticoagulants, or antiplatelet agents. RESULTS: Bland-Altman plots showed a significant overestimation with the FLEV method in all three patient groups: bias was - 133.36 mg/dL for healthy volunteers (95% IC: - 257.84; - 8.88. Critical difference: 124.48); - 56.30 mg/dL for healthy pregnant patients (95% IC: - 225.53; 112.93. Critical difference: 169.23); and - 159.05 mg/dL for hemorrhagic pregnant patients (95% IC: - 333.24; 15.148. Critical difference: 174.19). Regression analyses detected a linear correlation between FLEV and Clauss for healthy volunteers, healthy pregnant patients, and hemorrhagic pregnant patients (R2 0.27, p value = 0.002; R2 0.31, p value = 0.001; R2 0.35, p value = 0.001, respectively). ANOVA revealed a statistically significant difference in fibrinogen concentration between all three patients groups when assayed using the Clauss method (p value < 0.001 for all the comparisons), but no statistically significant difference between the two patients groups of pregnant women when using the FLEV method. CONCLUSIONS: The FLEV method does not provide a valid alternative to the Clauss method due to the problem of fibrinogen overestimation, and for this reason it should not be recommended for the evaluation of patients with an increased risk of hypofibrinogenemia.

7.
J Crit Care ; 52: 22-32, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951925

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The effects on the respiratory or hemodynamic function of drainage of pleural effusion on critically ill patients are not completely understood. First outcome was to evaluate the PiO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio before and after pleural drainage. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: evaluation of A-a gradient, End-Expiratory lung volume (EELV), heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (mAP), left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), ejection fraction (EF), and E/A waves ratio (E/A). A tertiary outcome: evaluation of pneumothorax and hemothorax complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Searches were performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE LIBRARY, SCOPUS and WEB OF SCIENCE databases from inception to June 2018 (PROSPERO CRD42018105794). RESULTS: We included 31 studies (2265 patients). Pleural drainage improved the P/F ratio (SMD: -0.668; CI: -0.947-0.389; p < .001), EELV (SMD: -0.615; CI: -1.102-0.219; p = .013), but not A-a gradient (SMD: 0.218; CI: -0.273-0.710; p = .384). HR, mAP, LVEDV, SV, CO, E/A and EF were not affected. The risks of pneumothorax (proportion: 0.008; CI: 0.002-0.014; p = .138) and hemothorax (proportion: 0.006; CI: 0.001-0.011; p = .962) were negligible. CONCLUSIONS: Pleural effusion drainage improves oxygenation of critically ill patients. It is a safe procedure. Further studies are needed to assess the hemodynamic effects of pleural drainage.

8.
N. Engl. j. med. ; 380(13): 1214-1225, Mar. 2019. gráfico, tabela
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1024163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volatile (inhaled) anesthetic agents have cardioprotective effects, which might improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, multicenter, single-blind, controlled trial at 36 centers in 13 countries. Patients scheduled to undergo elective CABG were randomly assigned to an intraoperative anesthetic regimen that included a volatile anesthetic (desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane) or to total intravenous anesthesia. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 5400 patients were randomly assigned: 2709 to the volatile anesthetics group and 2691 to the total intravenous anesthesia group. On-pump CABG was performed in 64% of patients, with a mean duration of cardiopulmonary bypass of 79 minutes. The two groups were similar with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline, the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the number of grafts. At the time of the second interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board advised that the trial should be stopped for futility. No significant difference between the groups with respect to deaths from any cause was seen at 1 year (2.8% in the volatile anesthetics group and 3.0% in the total intravenous anesthesia group; relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.29; P = 0.71), with data available for 5353 patients (99.1%), or at 30 days (1.4% and 1.3%, respectively; relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.76), with data available for 5398 patients (99.9%). There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the secondary outcomes or in the incidence of prespecified adverse events, including myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing elective CABG, anesthesia with a volatile agent did not result in significantly fewer deaths at 1 year than total intravenous anesthesia. (Funded by the Italian Ministry of Health; MYRIAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02105610.). (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Anestesia Geral , Anestesia Intravenosa
9.
N Engl J Med ; 380(13): 1214-1225, 2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volatile (inhaled) anesthetic agents have cardioprotective effects, which might improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, multicenter, single-blind, controlled trial at 36 centers in 13 countries. Patients scheduled to undergo elective CABG were randomly assigned to an intraoperative anesthetic regimen that included a volatile anesthetic (desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane) or to total intravenous anesthesia. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 5400 patients were randomly assigned: 2709 to the volatile anesthetics group and 2691 to the total intravenous anesthesia group. On-pump CABG was performed in 64% of patients, with a mean duration of cardiopulmonary bypass of 79 minutes. The two groups were similar with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline, the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the number of grafts. At the time of the second interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board advised that the trial should be stopped for futility. No significant difference between the groups with respect to deaths from any cause was seen at 1 year (2.8% in the volatile anesthetics group and 3.0% in the total intravenous anesthesia group; relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.29; P = 0.71), with data available for 5353 patients (99.1%), or at 30 days (1.4% and 1.3%, respectively; relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.76), with data available for 5398 patients (99.9%). There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the secondary outcomes or in the incidence of prespecified adverse events, including myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing elective CABG, anesthesia with a volatile agent did not result in significantly fewer deaths at 1 year than total intravenous anesthesia. (Funded by the Italian Ministry of Health; MYRIAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02105610.).


Assuntos
Anestesia Intravenosa , Anestésicos Gerais/farmacologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Anestesia Geral , Anestésicos Intravenosos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Método Simples-Cego , Volume Sistólico
11.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(9): 2525-2536, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686657

RESUMO

Of the various muscles that make up the respiratory system, the diaphragm is the prima donna. In the past, only specialist research centers were able to estimate and challenge the effort of this muscle; this was achieved by measuring transdiaphragmatic pressure-an invasive technique involving a double-balloon probe inserted through the esophagus-or by measuring twitch pressure (ie, the pressure generated at the outside tip of the endotracheal tube). However, the prevalence of diaphragm dysfunction in critically ill patients requiring intubation can exceed 60% (at the time of hospital admission) and may rise to as high as 80% in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation and experiencing difficult weaning. Although still in its infancy, modern ultrasound (US) provides a fascinating way to study the diaphragm, permitting the assessment of its excursion, thickness, and thickening. Furthermore, US enables the course of diaphragmatic function to be followed on a day-to-day basis, from intensive care admission to discharge, and it can help us understand the different causes of underlying disease: trauma, infection (eg, sepsis-induced diaphragm dysfunction), cancer, weaning problems (eg, ventilation-induced diaphragm dysfunction), etc. Today, the assessment of diaphragm dysfunction with US provides an important first step toward improving the detection of diaphragm dysfunction and as a protective and supportive strategy for its management. The purposes of this review are as follows: (1) to explore which US method is best for evaluating diaphragm function in the intensive care unit and how and when it should be used, and (2) to discuss which diseases may involve the diaphragm, and what therapies should be used.

12.
J Clin Anesth ; 52: 85-90, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227319

RESUMO

We conducted a systematic review of the literature to better understand whether preoxygenation in non-critically ill patients (i.e. elective surgery patients) should be recommended, as it lengthens safe apnea time (the time required to reach oxygen saturation < 90% in an apneic patient). Furthermore, we looked for the most efficient technique amongst those currently employed in clinical practice. We searched Scopus, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, PubMed and MeSH using various combinations of the words "preoxygenation", "general anesthesia", "induction", "operating room" and "oxygen". RCTs conducted on adult (>18 years) and non-emergent patients between 2008 and 2017 were deemed eligible. A total of 11 papers were included. Our review suggests that preoxygenation is a safe and efficient technique that allows for longer safe apneic periods in obese (BMI > 30) non-critically ill patients. Non-obese (<30 BMI) patients do not seem to benefit as much from this procedure. However, there is insufficient evidence in the literature to provide a clear recommendation. For all patients, the procedure was safe and well tolerated with no harm reported. The best technique for preoxygenation appears to be pressure support ventilation plus positive end-expiratory pressure. In conclusion, preoxygenation should be employed during the induction of general anesthesia in obese patients as it allows for a longer safe apnea time and causes no harm. Although data regarding efficacy is limited for the non-obese population, the procedure was still harmless and should continue to be performed pending more robust RCTs. We believe there is sufficient evidence to support a RCT that could offer better evidence for this subset of patients undergoing non-emergent procedures.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Humanos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos
13.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 54(4): 370-374, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An "epidemic use" of legal opioids in the USA and other countries has been reported in the last 15 years. We have analysed the database of the Italian Ministry of Health regarding the prescription of opioids for pain management to verify the trend of opioids uses in Italy. METHODS: The amount of opioids prescribed for every single Italian patient in 2013 was anonymously recorded and transformed in daily MED (morphine equivalent dose). We considered every monthly percentage increase of MED during the entire period of chronic therapy for each patient. RESULTS: Classes of dosage increase for all patients in chronic therapy, distinguished between cancer and non-cancer ones, were created. We deduce that decreases or increases of small proportions prevailed in the observation period. CONCLUSIONS: The opioids "plague" that is striking the USA is not registered in Italy during the observation period. The reasons might be due to the innovative and effective law 38/2010 and a health care system able to guarantee appropriate prescriptions for major analgesics.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Legislação de Medicamentos , Dor/complicações , Padrões de Prática Médica , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Crit Ultrasound J ; 10(1): 18, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30066098

RESUMO

Thoracic ultrasound is a powerful diagnostic imaging technique for pleural space disorders. In addition to visualising pleural effusion, thoracic ultrasound also helps clinicians to identify the best puncture site and to guide the drainage insertion procedure. Thoracic ultrasound is essential during these invasive manoeuvres to increase safety and decrease potential life-threatening complications. This paper provides a technical description of pigtail-type drainage insertion using thoracic ultrasound, paying particular attention to indications, contraindications, ultrasound guidance, preparation/equipment, procedure and complications.

15.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29991222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While interscalenic nerve block (INB) is still considered the 'gold standard' for shoulder arthroscopy, its postoperative analgesic effectiveness has recently been called into question. Meanwhile, in light of its high-quality postoperative pain relief, a renewed interest has emerged in suprascapular nerve block (SNB). The first aim of our study was to compare the postoperative analgesia effects of these two types of block at 2, 4 and 6 hours after surgery. We also assessed shoulder functional recovery over a six-month follow-up period. METHODS: All patients requiring arthroscopic shoulder surgery for rotator cuff repair during the study period were enrolled. INB or SNB was performed under ultrasound guidance. The patients underwent general anaesthesia. Numerical rate scores (NRS) at rest and in motion at 2, 4 and 6 postoperative hours were recorded. RESULTS: Over two years, 280 patients were screened. Of these, 136 were excluded. Pain scores after surgery were lower at 2 hours in INB at rest (0.70±1.50 versus 2.1±2.2; p<0.0067) and after movement (1.0 ± 2.2 versus 2.5 ± 2.3; p=0.01). A significant difference in terms of arm extrarotation degrees at week 6 and month 2 (p <0.01) in SNB was found. CONCLUSIONS: INB showed better analgesic efficacy in the immediate postoperative period. Both types of block showed similar results in terms of functional recovery over the six-month follow-up. SNB without motor block seems matched better with ambulatory surgery and with an early rehabilitation program.

19.
Echocardiography ; 35(8): 1204-1215, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858886

RESUMO

The first perioperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) guidelines published 21 years ago were mainly addressed to cardiac anesthesiologists. TEE has since expanded its role outside this setting and currently represents an invaluable tool to assess chamber sizes, ventricular hypertrophy, and systolic, diastolic, and valvular function in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Right-sided microemboli, right ventricular dysfunction, and patent foramen ovale (PFO) are the most common intra-operative findings described during OLT. However, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and left ventricular ballooning syndrome are more difficult to recognize and less frequent. Transesophageal ultrasonography (TEU) during OLT is also underused. Its applications are as follows: (1) assistance in the difficult placement of pulmonary arterial catheters; (2) help with catheterization of great vessels for external veno-venous bypass placement; (3) intra-operative evaluation of surgical liver anastomosis patency, if feasible, through the liver window; and (4) intra-operative investigation of "acute hypoxemia" due to pulmonary and cardiac issues using trans-esophageal lung ultrasound (TELU). The aims of this review are as follows: (1) to summarize the uses of TEE and TEU throughout all phases of OLT, and (2) to describe other new feasible applications.

20.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(4): 1955-1970, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29709436

RESUMO

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used with increasing frequency to treat severe cardiac or respiratory failure as it can provide respiratory only or combined circulatory and respiratory support. Despite efforts aimed at increasing its diffusion however, ECMO is currently reserved, usually as last resort, in very severe cases, which are managed almost exclusively in the intensive care unit (ICU). Recent improvements in both technology and patients' management is leading to constant improvement in patients' outcome, especially in centers with a high caseload volume and after ensuring careful patients' selection. Moreover, since short ECMO runs are associated with limited complications, there are now several potential situations outside the ICU and outside the cardiac surgery setting where ECMO is being (or could be) successfully employed to provide cardio-respiratory support, including: high-risk structural heart interventions, ventricular tachycardia ablation, cesarean section, trauma, and, most interestingly, non-cardiac elective procedures in patients at high risk for perioperative cardiac or respiratory complications. Given the increased availability and the good outcomes of ECMO, when carefully employed, we are thus moving towards a future in which no patient should be denied diagnostic or therapeutic procedure exclusively due to high cardiorespiratory risk.

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