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1.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659325

RESUMO

Aortic calcification is an important independent predictor of future cardiovascular events. We performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis to determine SNPs associated with the extent of abdominal aortic calcification (n = 9,417) or descending thoracic aortic calcification (n = 8,422). Two genetic loci, HDAC9 and RAP1GAP, were associated with abdominal aortic calcification at a genome-wide level (P < 5.0 × 10-8). No SNPs were associated with thoracic aortic calcification at the genome-wide threshold. Increased expression of HDAC9 in human aortic smooth muscle cells promoted calcification and reduced contractility, while inhibition of HDAC9 in human aortic smooth muscle cells inhibited calcification and enhanced cell contractility. In matrix Gla protein-deficient mice, a model of human vascular calcification, mice lacking HDAC9 had a 40% reduction in aortic calcification and improved survival. This translational genomic study identifies the first genetic risk locus associated with calcification of the abdominal aorta and describes a previously unknown role for HDAC9 in the development of vascular calcification.

2.
J Lipid Res ; 60(8): 1425-1431, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133557

RESUMO

apoM is a minor HDL apolipoprotein and carrier for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). HDL apoM and S1P concentrations are inversely associated with atherosclerosis progression in rodents. We evaluated associations between plasma concentrations of S1P, plasma concentrations of apoM, and HDL apoM levels with prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis and mortality in the African American-Diabetes Heart Study participants (N = 545). Associations between plasma S1P, plasma apoM, and HDL apoM with subclinical atherosclerosis and mortality were assessed using multivariate parametric, nonparametric, and Cox proportional hazards models. At baseline, participants' median (25th percentile, 75th percentile) age was 55 (49, 62) years old and their coronary artery calcium (CAC) mass score was 26.5 (0.0, 346.5). Plasma S1P, plasma apoM, and HDL apoM were not associated with CAC. After 64 (57.6, 70.3) months of follow-up, 81 deaths were recorded. Higher concentrations of plasma S1P [odds ratio (OR) = 0.14, P = 0.01] and plasma apoM (OR = 0.10, P = 0.02), but not HDL apoM (P = 0.89), were associated with lower mortality after adjusting for age, sex, statin use, CAC, kidney function, and albuminuria. We conclude that plasma S1P and apoM concentrations are inversely and independently associated with mortality, but not CAC, in African Americans with type 2 diabetes after accounting for conventional risk factors.

3.
Hum Genomics ; 13(1): 21, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is a significant public health concern disproportionately affecting African Americans (AAs). Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the leading cause of ESKD in the USA, and efforts to uncover genetic susceptibility to diabetic kidney disease (DKD) have had limited success. A prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) in AAs with T2D-ESKD was expanded with additional AA cases and controls and genotypes imputed to the higher density 1000 Genomes reference panel. The discovery analysis included 3432 T2D-ESKD cases and 6977 non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls (N = 10,409), followed by a discrimination analysis in 2756 T2D non-nephropathy controls to exclude T2D-associated variants. RESULTS: Six independent variants located in or near RND3/RBM43, SLITRK3, ENPP7, GNG7, and APOL1 achieved genome-wide significant association (P < 5 × 10-8) with T2D-ESKD. Following extension analyses in 1910 non-diabetic ESKD cases and 908 non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls, a meta-analysis of 5342 AA all-cause ESKD cases and 6977 AA non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls revealed an additional novel all-cause ESKD locus at EFNB2 (rs77113398; P = 9.84 × 10-9; OR = 1.94). Exclusion of APOL1 renal-risk genotype carriers identified two additional genome-wide significant T2D-ESKD-associated loci at GRAMD3 and MGAT4C. A second variant at GNG7 (rs373971520; P = 2.17 × 10-8, OR = 1.46) remained associated with all-cause ESKD in the APOL1-negative analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide further evidence for genetic factors associated with advanced kidney disease in AAs with T2D.

4.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 452-469, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778226

RESUMO

Body-fat distribution is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health consequences. We analyzed the association of body-fat distribution, assessed by waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, with 228,985 predicted coding and splice site variants available on exome arrays in up to 344,369 individuals from five major ancestries (discovery) and 132,177 European-ancestry individuals (validation). We identified 15 common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) and nine low-frequency or rare (MAF <5%) coding novel variants. Pathway/gene set enrichment analyses identified lipid particle, adiponectin, abnormal white adipose tissue physiology and bone development and morphology as important contributors to fat distribution, while cross-trait associations highlight cardiometabolic traits. In functional follow-up analyses, specifically in Drosophila RNAi-knockdowns, we observed a significant increase in the total body triglyceride levels for two genes (DNAH10 and PLXND1). We implicate novel genes in fat distribution, stressing the importance of interrogating low-frequency and protein-coding variants.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Homeostase/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Proteínas/genética , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Drosophila/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 112-138, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595373

RESUMO

Mitochondria (MT), the major site of cellular energy production, are under dual genetic control by 37 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes and numerous nuclear genes (MT-nDNA). In the CHARGEmtDNA+ Consortium, we studied genetic associations of mtDNA and MT-nDNA associations with body mass index (BMI), waist-hip-ratio (WHR), glucose, insulin, HOMA-B, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c. This 45-cohort collaboration comprised 70,775 (insulin) to 170,202 (BMI) pan-ancestry individuals. Validation and imputation of mtDNA variants was followed by single-variant and gene-based association testing. We report two significant common variants, one in MT-ATP6 associated (p ≤ 5E-04) with WHR and one in the D-loop with glucose. Five rare variants in MT-ATP6, MT-ND5, and MT-ND6 associated with BMI, WHR, or insulin. Gene-based meta-analysis identified MT-ND3 associated with BMI (p ≤ 1E-03). We considered 2,282 MT-nDNA candidate gene associations compiled from online summary results for our traits (20 unique studies with 31 dataset consortia's genome-wide associations [GWASs]). Of these, 109 genes associated (p ≤ 1E-06) with at least 1 of our 7 traits. We assessed regulatory features of variants in the 109 genes, cis- and trans-gene expression regulation, and performed enrichment and protein-protein interactions analyses. Of the identified mtDNA and MT-nDNA genes, 79 associated with adipose measures, 49 with glucose/insulin, 13 with risk for type 2 diabetes, and 18 with cardiovascular disease, indicating for pleiotropic effects with health implications. Additionally, 21 genes related to cholesterol, suggesting additional important roles for the genes identified. Our results suggest that mtDNA and MT-nDNA genes and variants reported make important contributions to glucose and insulin metabolism, adipocyte regulation, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

6.
Ophthalmology ; 2018 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352225

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To find genetic contributions to glaucoma in African Americans. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand eight hundred seventy-five primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients and 1709 controls, self-identified as being of African descent (AD), from the African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES) III and Wake Forest School of Medicine. METHODS: MegaChip genotypes were imputed to Thousand Genomes data. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with POAG and advanced POAG was tested by linear mixed model correcting for relatedness and population stratification. Genetic risk scores were tested by receiver operator characteristic curves (ROC-AUCs). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary open-angle glaucoma defined by visual field loss without other nonocular conditions (n = 1875). Advanced POAG was defined by age-based mean deviation of visual field (n = 946). RESULTS: Eighteen million two hundred eighty-one thousand nine hundred twenty SNPs met imputation quality of r2 > 0.7 and minor allele frequency > 0.005. Association of a novel locus, EN04, was observed for advanced POAG (rs185815146 ß, 0.36; standard error, 0.065; P < 3×10-8). For POAG, an AD signal was observed at the 9p21 European descent (ED) POAG signal (rs79721419; P < 6.5×10-5) independent of the previously observed 9p21 ED signal (rs2383204; P < 2.3×10-5) by conditional analyses. An association with POAG in FNDC3B (rs111698934; P < 3.9×10-5) was observed, not in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the previously reported ED SNP. Additional previously identified loci associated with POAG in persons of AD were: 8q22, AFAP1, and TMC01. An AUC of 0.62 was observed with an unweighted genetic risk score comprising 11 SNPs in candidate genes. Two additional risk scores were studied by using a penalized matrix decomposition with cross-validation; risk scores of 50 and 400 SNPs were identified with ROC of AUC = 0.74 and AUC = 0.94, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A novel association with advanced POAG in the EN04 locus was identified putatively in persons of AD. In addition to this finding, this genome-wide association study in POAG patients of AD contributes to POAG genetics by identification of novel signals in prior loci (9p21), as well as advancing the fine mapping of regions because of shorter average LD (FNDC3B). Although not useful without confirmation and clinical trials, the use of genetic risk scores demonstrated that considerable AD-specific genetic information remains in these data.

7.
Nat Genet ; 50(11): 1505-1513, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297969

RESUMO

We expanded GWAS discovery for type 2 diabetes (T2D) by combining data from 898,130 European-descent individuals (9% cases), after imputation to high-density reference panels. With these data, we (i) extend the inventory of T2D-risk variants (243 loci, 135 newly implicated in T2D predisposition, comprising 403 distinct association signals); (ii) enrich discovery of lower-frequency risk alleles (80 index variants with minor allele frequency <5%, 14 with estimated allelic odds ratio >2); (iii) substantially improve fine-mapping of causal variants (at 51 signals, one variant accounted for >80% posterior probability of association (PPA)); (iv) extend fine-mapping through integration of tissue-specific epigenomic information (islet regulatory annotations extend the number of variants with PPA >80% to 73); (v) highlight validated therapeutic targets (18 genes with associations attributable to coding variants); and (vi) demonstrate enhanced potential for clinical translation (genome-wide chip heritability explains 18% of T2D risk; individuals in the extremes of a T2D polygenic risk score differ more than ninefold in prevalence).

8.
J Diabetes Complications ; 32(10): 916-921, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relationships between cognitive function and brain structure remain poorly defined in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Cognitive testing and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging in African Americans from the Diabetes Heart Study Memory IN Diabetes (n = 480) and Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes MIND (n = 104) studies were examined for associations. Cerebral gray matter volume (GMV), white matter volume (WMV) and white matter lesion volume (WMLV) and cognitive performance (Mini-mental State Exam [MMSE and 3MSE], Digit Symbol Coding (DSC), Stroop test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test) were recorded. Multivariable models adjusted for age, sex, BMI, scanner, intracranial volume, education, diabetes duration, HbA1c, LDL-cholesterol, smoking, hypertension and cardiovascular disease assessed associations between cognitive tests and brain volumes by study and meta-analysis. RESULTS: Mean(SD) participant age was 60.1(7.9) years, diabetes duration 12.1(7.7) years, and HbA1c 8.3(1.7)%. In the fully-adjusted meta-analysis, lower GMV associated with poorer global performance on MMSE/3MSE (ß̂ = 7.1 × 10-3, SE 2.4 × 10-3, p = 3.6 × 10-3), higher WMLV associated with poorer performance on DSC (ß̂ = -3 × 10-2, SE 6.4 × 10-3, p = 5.2 × 10-5) and higher WMV associated with poorer MMSE/3MSE performance (ß̂ = -7.1 × 10-3, SE = 2.4 × 10-3, p = 3.6 × 10-3). CONCLUSIONS: In African Americans with diabetes, smaller GMV and increased WMLV associated with poorer performance on tests of global cognitive and executive function. These data suggest that WML burden and gray matter atrophy associate with cognitive performance independent of diabetes-related factors in this population.

9.
Kidney Int Rep ; 3(4): 867-878, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29989002

RESUMO

Introduction: Compared with European Americans, African Americans (AAs) are at higher risk for developing end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >70 genetic variants associated with kidney function and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with and without diabetes. However, these variants explain a small proportion of disease liability. This study examined the contribution of coding genetic variants for risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D)-attributed ESKD and advanced CKD in AAs. Methods: Exome sequencing was performed in 456 AA T2D-ESKD cases, and 936 AA nondiabetic, non-nephropathy control individuals at the discovery stage. A mixed logistic regression model was used for association analysis. Nominal associations (P < 0.05) were replicated in an additional 2020 T2D-ESKD cases and 1121 nondiabetic, non-nephropathy control individuals. A meta-analysis combining 4533 discovery and replication samples was performed. Putative T2D-ESKD associations were tested in additional 1910 nondiabetic ESKD and 219 T2D-ESKD cases, as well as 912 AA nondiabetic non-nephropathy control individuals. Results: A total of 11 suggestive T2D-ESKD associations (P < 1 x 10-4) from 8 loci (PLEKHN1, NADK, RAD51AP2, RREB1, PEX6, GRM8, PRX, APOL1) were apparent in the meta-analysis. Exclusion of APOL1 renal-risk genotype carriers identified 3 additional suggestive loci (OTUD7B, IFITM3, DLGAP5). Rs41302867 in RREB1 displayed consistent association with T2D-ESKD and nondiabetic ESKD (odds ratio: 0.47; P = 1.2 x 10-6 in 4605 all-cause ESKD and 2969 nondiabetic non-nephropathy control individuals). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that coding genetic variants are implicated in predisposition to T2D-ESKD in AAs.

10.
Kidney Int ; 94(3): 599-607, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29885931

RESUMO

African Americans carrying two apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) renal risk variants have a high risk for nephropathy. However, only a minority develops end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hence, modifying factors likely contribute to initiation of kidney disease such as endogenous (HIV infection) or exogenous (interferon treatment) environmental modifiers. In this report, genome-wide association studies and a meta-analysis were performed to identify novel loci for nondiabetic ESRD in African Americans and to detect genetic modifiers in APOL1-associated nephropathy. Two African American cohorts were analyzed, 1749 nondiabetic ESRD cases and 1136 controls from Wake Forest and 901 lupus nephritis (LN)-ESRD cases and 520 controls with systemic lupus erythematosus but lacking nephropathy from the LN-ESRD Consortium. Association analyses adjusting for APOL1 G1/G2 renal-risk variants were completed and stratified by APOL1 risk genotype status. Individual genome-wide association studies and meta-analysis results of all 2650 ESRD cases and 1656 controls did not detect significant genome-wide associations with ESRD beyond APOL1. Similarly, no single nucleotide polymorphism showed significant genome-wide evidence of an interaction with APOL1 risk variants. Thus, although variants with small individual effects cannot be ruled out and are likely to exist, our results suggest that APOL1-environment interactions may be of greater clinical importance in triggering nephropathy in African Americans than APOL1 interactions with other single nucleotide polymorphisms.

11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(9)2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29716888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, outcomes in individual patients vary. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a bone marrow-derived signaling molecule associated with adverse cardiovascular and renal outcomes in many populations. We characterized the determinants of suPAR in African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus and assessed whether levels were useful for predicting mortality beyond clinical characteristics, coronary artery calcium (CAC), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured plasma suPAR levels in 500 African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus enrolled in the African American-Diabetes Heart Study. We used Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for clinical characteristics, CAC, and hs-CRP to examine the association between suPAR and all-cause mortality. Last, we report the change in C-statistics comparing the additive values of suPAR, hs-CRP, and CAC to clinical models for prediction of mortality. The suPAR levels were independently associated with female sex, smoking, insulin use, decreased kidney function, albuminuria, and CAC. After a median 6.8-year follow-up, a total of 68 deaths (13.6%) were recorded. In a model incorporating suPAR, CAC, and hs-CRP, only suPAR was significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio 2.66, 95% confidence interval 1.63-4.34). Addition of suPAR to a baseline clinical model significantly improved the C-statistic for all-cause death (Δ0.05, 95% confidence interval 0.01-0.10), whereas addition of CAC or hs-CRP did not. CONCLUSIONS: In African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus, suPAR was strongly associated with mortality and improved risk discrimination metrics beyond traditional risk factors, CAC and hs-CRP. Studies addressing the clinical usefulness of measuring suPAR concentrations are warranted.

12.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 17(1): 67, 2018 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC) is strongly predictive of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality, both in general populations and individuals with type 2 diabetes at high risk for CVD. CAC is typically reported as an Agatston score, which is weighted for increased plaque density. However, the role of CAC density in CVD risk prediction, independently and with CAC volume, remains unclear. METHODS: We examined the role of CAC density in individuals with type 2 diabetes from the family-based Diabetes Heart Study and the African American-Diabetes Heart Study. CAC density was calculated as mass divided by volume, and associations with incident all-cause and CVD mortality [median follow-up 10.2 years European Americans (n = 902, n = 286 deceased), 5.2 years African Americans (n = 552, n = 93 deceased)] were examined using Cox proportional hazards models, independently and in models adjusted for CAC volume. RESULTS: In European Americans, CAC density, like Agatston score and volume, was consistently associated with increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality (p ≤ 0.002) in models adjusted for age, sex, statin use, total cholesterol, HDL, systolic blood pressure, high blood pressure medication use, and current smoking. However, these associations were no longer significant when models were additionally adjusted for CAC volume. CAC density was not significantly associated with mortality, either alone or adjusted for CAC volume, in African Americans. CONCLUSIONS: CAC density is not associated with mortality independent from CAC volume in European Americans and African Americans with type 2 diabetes.

13.
Genet Epidemiol ; 42(6): 559-570, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691896

RESUMO

Although type 2 diabetes (T2D) results from metabolic defects in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, most of the genetic risk loci identified to date relates to insulin secretion. We reported that T2D loci influencing insulin sensitivity may be identified through interactions with insulin secretion loci, thereby leading to T2D. Here, we hypothesize that joint testing of variant main effects and interaction effects with an insulin secretion locus increases power to identify genetic interactions leading to T2D. We tested this hypothesis with an intronic MTNR1B SNP, rs10830963, which is associated with acute insulin response to glucose, a dynamic measure of insulin secretion. rs10830963 was tested for interaction and joint (main + interaction) effects with genome-wide data in African Americans (2,452 cases and 3,772 controls) from five cohorts. Genome-wide genotype data (Affymetrix Human Genome 6.0 array) was imputed to a 1000 Genomes Project reference panel. T2D risk was modeled using logistic regression with rs10830963 dosage, age, sex, and principal component as predictors. Joint effects were captured using the Kraft two degrees of freedom test. Genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8 ) interaction with MTNR1B and joint effects were detected for CMIP intronic SNP rs17197883 (Pinteraction  = 1.43 × 10-8 ; Pjoint  = 4.70 × 10-8 ). CMIP variants have been nominally associated with T2D, fasting glucose, and adiponectin in individuals of East Asian ancestry, with high-density lipoprotein, and with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index in Europeans. These data support the hypothesis that additional genetic factors contributing to T2D risk, including insulin sensitivity loci, can be identified through interactions with insulin secretion loci.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Afro-Americanos/genética , Epistasia Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Insulina/metabolismo , Receptor MT2 de Melatonina/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5603, 2018 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618726

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous variants associated with lipid levels; yet, the majority are located in non-coding regions with unclear mechanisms. In the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS), heritability estimates suggest a strong genetic basis: low-density lipoprotein (LDL, h2 = 0.50), high-density lipoprotein (HDL, h2 = 0.57), total cholesterol (TC, h2 = 0.53), and triglyceride (TG, h2 = 0.42) levels. Exome sequencing of 1,205 Mexican Americans (90 pedigrees) from the IRASFS identified 548,889 variants and association and linkage analyses with lipid levels were performed. One genome-wide significant signal was detected in APOA5 with TG (rs651821, PTG = 3.67 × 10-10, LODTG = 2.36, MAF = 14.2%). In addition, two correlated SNPs (r2 = 1.0) rs189547099 (PTG = 6.31 × 10-08, LODTG = 3.13, MAF = 0.50%) and chr4:157997598 (PTG = 6.31 × 10-08, LODTG = 3.13, MAF = 0.50%) reached exome-wide significance (P < 9.11 × 10-08). rs189547099 is an intronic SNP in FNIP2 and SNP chr4:157997598 is intronic in GLRB. Linkage analysis revealed 46 SNPs with a LOD > 3 with the strongest signal at rs1141070 (LODLDL = 4.30, PLDL = 0.33, MAF = 21.6%) in DFFB. A total of 53 nominally associated variants (P < 5.00 × 10-05, MAF ≥ 1.0%) were selected for replication in six Mexican-American cohorts (N = 3,280). The strongest signal observed was a synonymous variant (rs1160983, PLDL = 4.44 × 10-17, MAF = 2.7%) in TOMM40. Beyond primary findings, previously reported lipid loci were fine-mapped using exome sequencing in IRASFS. These results support that exome sequencing complements and extends insights into the genetics of lipid levels.

15.
J Diabetes Complications ; 32(6): 558-564, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627372

RESUMO

AIM: Recent studies revealed a correlation between skeletal muscle mass index and density with longevity; these studies largely evaluated appendicular skeletal muscles in older Caucasians. This retrospective cohort study assessed the association between axial skeletal muscles size and density with survival in African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Psoas and paraspinous muscle mass index (cross sectional area/height2) and radiographic density (in Hounsfield Units) were measured using computed tomography in African American-Diabetes Heart Study participants, 314 women and 256 men, with median (25th, 75th quartile) age 55.0(48.0, 62.0) and 57.0(50.0, 64.0) years, respectively. Covariates in fully-adjusted model included age, sex, BMI, smoking, hormone replacement therapy (women), cardiovascular disease, hypertension, coronary artery calcified plaque mass, carotid artery calcified plaque mass, and African ancestry proportion. RESULTS: After median of 7.1(5.9, 8.2) years follow-up, 30(9.6%) of women and 49(19.1%) of men were deceased. In fully-adjusted models, psoas muscle mass index and paraspinous muscle mass index were inversely associated with mortality in men (psoas muscle mass index, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.61, P = 0.004; paraspinous muscle mass index, HR = 0.64, P = 0.004), but not in women. Psoas and paraspinous muscle densities did not associate with all-cause mortality. A penalized Cox regression that involved all covariates and predictors associated with mortality showed that only paraspinous muscle mass index remained a significant predictor of mortality (HR = 0.65, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Independent from established risk factors for mortality, higher psoas and paraspinous muscle index associate with reduced all-cause mortality in middle-aged African American men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(5): 1877-1888, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29546329

RESUMO

Context: Metabolomics provides a biochemical fingerprint that, when coupled with clinical phenotypes, can provide insight into physiological processes. Objective: Survey metabolites associated with dynamic and basal measures of glucose homeostasis. Design: Analysis of 733 plasma metabolites from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study. Setting: Community based. Participants: One thousand one hundred eleven Mexican Americans. Main Outcome: Dynamic measures were obtained from the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test and included insulin sensitivity and acute insulin response to glucose. Basal measures included homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and ß-cell function. Results: Insulin sensitivity was associated with 99 metabolites (P < 6.82 × 10-5) explaining 28% of the variance (R2adj) beyond 28% by body mass index. Beyond branched chain amino acids (BCAAs; P = 1.85 × 10-18 to 1.70 × 10-5, R2adj = 8.1%) and phospholipids (P = 3.51 × 10-17 to 3.00 × 10-5, R2adj = 14%), novel signatures of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs; P = 4.49 × 10-23 to 4.14 × 10-7, R2adj = 11%) were observed. Conditional analysis suggested that BCAA and LCFA signatures were independent. LCFAs were not associated with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (P > 0.024). Acute insulin response to glucose was associated with six metabolites; glucose had the strongest association (P = 5.68 × 10-16). Homeostatic model assessment of ß-cell function had significant signatures from the urea cycle (P = 9.64 × 10-14 to 7.27 × 10-6, R2adj = 11%). Novel associations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (P = 2.58 × 10-13 to 6.70 × 10-5, R2adj = 10%) and LCFAs (P = 9.06 × 10-15 to 3.93 × 10-7, R2adj = 10%) were observed with glucose effectiveness. Assessment of the hyperbolic relationship between insulin sensitivity and secretion through the disposition index revealed a distinctive signature of polyunsaturated fatty acids (P = 1.55 × 10-12 to 5.81 × 10-6; R2adj = 3.8%) beyond that of its component measures. Conclusions: Metabolomics reveals distinct signatures that differentiate dynamic and basal measures of glucose homeostasis and further identifies new metabolite classes associated with dynamic measures, providing expanded insight into the metabolic basis of insulin resistance.

17.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 26(3): 559-569, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29377571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tissue-specific gene expression is associated with individual metabolic measures. However, these measures may not reflect the true but latent underlying biological phenotype. This study reports gene expression associations with multidimensional glucometabolic characterizations of obesity, glucose homeostasis, and lipid traits. METHODS: Factor analysis was computed by using orthogonal rotation to construct composite phenotypes (CPs) from 23 traits in 256 African Americans without diabetes. Genome-wide transcript expression data from adipose and muscle were tested for association with CPs, and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) were identified by associations between cis-acting single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene expression. RESULTS: The factor analysis identified six CPs. CPs 1 through 6 individually explained 34%, 12%, 9%, 8%, 6%, and 5% of the variation in 23 glucometabolic traits studied. There were 3,994 and 929 CP-associated transcripts identified in adipose and muscle tissue, respectively; CP2 had the largest number of associated transcripts. Pathway analysis identified multiple canonical pathways from the CP-associated transcripts. In adipose and muscle, significant cis-eQTLs were identified for 558 and 164 CP-associated transcripts (q-value < 0.01), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Adipose and muscle transcripts comprehensively define pathways involved in regulating glucometabolic disorders. Cis-eQTLs for CP-associated genes may act as primary causal determinants of glucometabolic phenotypes by regulating transcription of key genes.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Músculos/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 73(3): 407-414, 2018 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29309525

RESUMO

Background: African Americans typically perform worse than European Americans on cognitive testing. Contributions of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and educational quality to cognitive performance and brain volumes were compared in European Americans and African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Association between magnetic resonance imaging-determined cerebral volumes of white matter (WMV), gray matter (GMV), white matter lesions (WMLV), hippocampal GMV, and modified mini-mental state exam (3MSE), digit symbol coding (DSC), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Stroop, and verbal fluency performance were assessed in Diabetes Heart Study Memory in Diabetes (MIND) participants. Marginal models incorporating generalized estimating equations were employed with serial adjustment for risk factors. Results: The sample included 520 African Americans and 684 European Americans; 56 per cent female with mean ± SD age 62.8 ± 10.3 years and diabetes duration 14.3 ± 7.8 years. Adjusting for age, sex, diabetes duration, BMI, HbA1c, total intracranial volume, scanner, statins, CVD, smoking, and hypertension, WMV (p = .001) was lower and WMLV higher in African Americans than European Americans (p = .001), with similar GMV (p = .30). Adjusting for age, sex, education, HbA1c, diabetes duration, hypertension, BMI, statins, CVD, smoking, and depression, poorer performance on 3MSE, RAVLT, and DSC were seen in African Americans (p = 6 × 10-23-7 × 10-62). Racial differences in cognitive performance were attenuated after additional adjustment for WMLV and nearly fully resolved after adjustment for wide-range achievement test (WRAT) performance (p = .0009-.65). Conclusions: African Americans with type 2 diabetes had higher WMLV and poorer cognitive performance than European Americans. Differences in cognitive performance were attenuated after considering WMLV and apparent poorer educational quality based on WRAT.

19.
Ophthalmology ; 2018 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361356

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the study protocol and baseline characteristics of the African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES) III. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: Three thousand two hundred sixty-six glaucoma patients and control participants without glaucoma of African or European descent were recruited from 5 study centers in different regions of the United States. METHODS: Individuals of African descent (AD) and European descent (ED) with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and control participants completed a detailed demographic and medical history interview. Standardized height, weight, and blood pressure measurements were obtained. Saliva and blood samples to provide serum, plasma, DNA, and RNA were collected for standardized processing. Visual fields, stereoscopic disc photographs, and details of the ophthalmic examination were obtained and transferred to the University of California, San Diego, Data Coordinating Center for standardized processing and quality review. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participant gender, age, race, body mass index, blood pressure, history of smoking and alcohol use in POAG patients and control participants were described. Ophthalmic measures included intraocular pressure, visual field mean deviation, central corneal thickness, glaucoma medication use, or past glaucoma surgery. Ocular conditions, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and past cataract surgery, were recorded. RESULTS: The 3266 ADAGES III study participants in this report include 2146 AD POAG patients, 695 ED POAG patients, 198 AD control participants, and 227 ED control participants. The AD POAG patients and control participants were significantly younger (both, 67.4 years) than ED POAG patients and control participants (73.4 and 70.2 years, respectively). After adjusting for age, AD POAG patients had different phenotypic characteristics compared with ED POAG patients, including higher intraocular pressure, worse visual acuity and visual field mean deviation, and thinner corneas (all P < 0.001). Family history of glaucoma did not differ between AD and ED POAG patients. CONCLUSIONS: With its large sample size, extensive specimen collection, and deep phenotyping of AD and ED glaucoma patients and control participants from different regions in the United States, the ADAGES III genomics study will address gaps in our knowledge of the genetics of POAG in this high-risk population.

20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(4): 1380-1392, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29325163

RESUMO

Context: Vitamin D inadequacy is common in the adult population of the United States. Although the genetic determinants underlying vitamin D inadequacy have been studied in people of European ancestry, less is known about populations with Hispanic or African ancestry. Objective: The Trans-Ethnic Evaluation of Vitamin D (TRANSCEN-D) genomewide association study (GWAS) consortium was assembled to replicate genetic associations with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations from the Study of Underlying Genetic Determinants of Vitamin D and Highly Related Traits (SUNLIGHT) meta-analyses of European ancestry and to identify genetic variants related to vitamin D concentrations in African and Hispanic ancestries. Design: Ancestry-specific (Hispanic and African) and transethnic (Hispanic, African, and European) meta-analyses were performed with Meta-Analysis Helper software (METAL). Patients or Other Participants: In total, 8541 African American and 3485 Hispanic American (from North America) participants from 12 cohorts and 16,124 European participants from SUNLIGHT were included in the study. Main Outcome Measures: Blood concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured for all participants. Results: Ancestry-specific analyses in African and Hispanic Americans replicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GC (2 and 4 SNPs, respectively). An SNP (rs79666294) near the KIF4B gene was identified in the African American cohort. Transethnic evaluation replicated GC and DHCR7 region SNPs. Additionally, the transethnic analyses revealed SNPs rs719700 and rs1410656 near the ANO6/ARID2 and HTR2A genes, respectively. Conclusions: Ancestry-specific and transethnic GWASs of 25(OH)D confirmed findings in GC and DHCR7 for African and Hispanic American samples and revealed findings near KIF4B, ANO6/ARID2, and HTR2A. The biological mechanisms that link these regions with 25(OH)D metabolism warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etnologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/genética , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética , Adulto Jovem
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