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1.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 13-27, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657050

RESUMO

Primary care guidelines provide a reference point to guide clinicians based on a systematic review of the literature, contextualised by expert clinical opinion. These guidelines develop a modification of the GRADE framework for assessment of research evidence (vetGRADE) and applied this to a range of clinical scenarios regarding use of analgesic agents. Key guidelines produced by the panel included recommendations that horses undergoing routine castration should receive intratesticular local anaesthesia irrespective of methods adopted and that horses should receive NSAIDs prior to surgery (overall certainty levels high). Butorphanol and buprenorphine should not be considered appropriate as sole analgesic for such procedures (high certainty). The panel recommend the continuation of analgesia for 3 days following castration (moderate certainty) and conclude that phenylbutazone provided superior analgesia to meloxicam and firocoxib for hoof pain/laminitis (moderate certainty), but that enhanced efficacy has not been demonstrated for joint pain. In horses with colic, flunixin and firocoxib are considered to provide more effective analgesia than meloxicam or phenylbutazone (moderate certainty). Given the risk of adverse events of all classes of analgesic, these agents should be used only under the control of a veterinary surgeon who has fully evaluated a horse and developed a therapeutic, analgesic plan that includes ongoing monitoring for such adverse events such as the development of right dorsal colitis with all classes of NSAID and spontaneous locomotor activity and potentially ileus with opiates. Finally, the panel call for the development of a single properly validated composite pain score for horses to allow accurate comparisons between medications in a robust manner.


Assuntos
Analgesia/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/veterinária , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sociedades Científicas/normas , Medicina Veterinária/normas , Animais , Cavalos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Reino Unido
2.
Equine Vet J ; 51(5): 575-580, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated a poor response to healing of gastric glandular lesions with oral omeprazole and other medications. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of two novel treatments (misoprostol [M] and combined omeprazole-sucralfate [OS]) in horses for gastric glandular disease. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, clinical study. METHODS: Sixty-three sports horses with grade >1/4 glandular disease were identified by gastroscopy. Horses received either 5 µg/kg of misoprostol per os BID 1 h prior to feeding or a combination of 4 mg/kg enteric coated omeprazole per os SID and 12 mg/kg sucralfate per os BID where drugs were given 1 h prior to feeding and sucralfate given 60 min after omeprazole; allocation was dependent upon centre. Gastroscopy was repeated at 28-35 days. Evaluators of the gastroscopy images were blinded to the treatments the horses received and images were reviewed independently. RESULTS: The most common presenting sign in both treatment groups was poor performance (Overall - 65.1%; M - 60.5% and OS - 75%). Overall healing (P<0.001; OR = 11 [2.8-45]) and improvement (P = 0.006; OR = 11 [1.9-59]) of lesions were associated with resolution of clinical signs. Misoprostol was shown to be superior to combined omeprazole-sucralfate both for healing (M - 72% [95% CI 43-67] and OS - 20% [95% CI 7-41]; P<0.001) and improvement (M - 98% [95% CI 90-100] and OS - 65% [95% CI 43-83]; P<0.001). MAIN LIMITATIONS: Relatively small, clinical study, reliance on client questionnaire data, clients not blinded to the treatments the horse received, diet could have affected drug pharmacodynamics although mimics clinical practice and no validated scoring system available for glandular lesions. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that gastric glandular disease does indeed result in clinical signs. In this population of horses, misoprostol was superior to omeprazole and sucralfate and warrants further evaluation in a large scale, multi-centre trial.


Assuntos
Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Omeprazol/uso terapêutico , Gastropatias/veterinária , Sucralfato/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antiulcerosos/administração & dosagem , Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Cavalos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Omeprazol/administração & dosagem , Gastropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Gastropatias/patologia , Sucralfato/administração & dosagem
3.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 52 Suppl 2: 202-207, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27807899

RESUMO

The reproductive potential of male animals is commonly evaluated using a breeding soundness examination incorporating B-mode ultrasound examination of the testes and recently Doppler ultrasound examination of the testicular arteries. These techniques may detect testicular normality or pathology, and while some measured parameters are associated with semen quality at the time of ultrasound examination, few studies have investigated the relationship with future semen quality. We hypothesized that B-mode and Doppler ultrasound measurements would correlate with future semen quality. Within two studies, we investigated the relationship between ultrasound measured testicular volume, testicular echogenicity, testicular homogeneity, subjective assessment of the testicular parenchyma, testicular artery resistance index, and pulsatility index with subsequent semen quality. Fifty-five normal fertile dogs of which 29 had stable semen quality and 26 had a subsequent decline in semen quality were examined during a 6-month period commencing 62 days after the ultrasound examination. Statistical analysis showed that no ultrasound parameters were predictive of future total sperm output or percentage live normal sperm. However, mean testicular echogenicity was positively related to future sperm motility (t = 2.202, p = .039). We conclude that quantitative ultrasound assessment of the appearance of the testicular parenchyma has potential for the evaluation of future semen quality in dogs.


Assuntos
Cães , Reprodução/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Testículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Masculino , Fluxo Pulsátil , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sêmen/fisiologia , Análise do Sêmen/métodos , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Motilidade Espermática , Testículo/irrigação sanguínea , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Resistência Vascular
5.
Equine Vet J ; 47 Suppl 48: 9, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26374956

RESUMO

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Equine gastric glandular disease (EGGD) is a common condition, for which the underlying pathophysiology is undetermined. Endoscopic mucosal biopsies have been proposed as a method for adapting therapy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate diagnostic information obtained from endoscopic mucosal biopsies. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, experimental study. METHODS: Twenty-one horses undergoing elective humane slaughter were subjected to gross examination of the glandular mucosa. Glandular pathology was graded using EGUS Council guidelines from digital camera images. Mucosal biopsies were obtained using a 'single-bite' (1.8 mm; A and 2.4 mm; B) or 'double bite' technique (2.4 mm; C) using endoscopic biopsy instruments. Tissue was formalin fixed, processed and stained using standard protocols. Inflammatory infiltrates visualised histologically were graded (mild, moderate or severe) and compared with ulcer grade. Full thickness biopsies were also obtained adjacent to the biopsy site and of other visual lesions and inflammatory cell counts were compared with mucosal biopsies using ICC. RESULTS: Full thickness samples were artefact free and allowed visualisation of all layers. Mucosal biopsy samples contained mucosa in all samples, submucosa in 55% (C), 61% (A) and 66% (B) of samples and glands in 50% (B), 66% (A) and 100% (C). Samples from A were too small for histological assessment (33%) and tissue damage was commonly seen in A and B (n = 8 and n = 10) when compared with C (n = 3). Horses with normal glandular appearance (grade 0; n = 7) mostly demonstrated mild gastritis (n = 5). Severe gastritis was identified in mild EGGD (grade 1/2), whilst mild and moderate gastritis was identified in all EGGD grades. There was no histological evidence of ulceration or erosion. There was poor agreement between cell numbers and sampling techniques (ICC<0.29). CONCLUSIONS: These data show lack of ulcerative pathology and instead inflammation in EGGD. Lesion appearance is a poor indicator of underlying severity. Mucosal biopsies offer limited value in predicting underlying disease. Ethical animal research: This study was approved by the University of Nottingham Ethics and Welfare Committee. The study was performed on material collected at an abattoir. SOURCE OF FUNDING: None. Competing interests: None declared.

8.
Vet Rec ; 164(1): 6-10, 2009 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19122214

RESUMO

The effect of left-sided valvular regurgitation (LSVR) on the mortality of middle-aged and older horses was investigated in a prospective cohort study involving 19 yards and 1153 horses. The horses were examined to determine whether they had a cardiac murmur and its type, and their age, sex, breed type and occupation were recorded. They were followed up at intervals of two years by postal questionnaire, and after four years information on 773 horses was available. There was no significant difference in the mortality of the horses with and without LSVR, but small horses had a significantly higher risk of having LSVR than small ponies (odds ratio [OR] 2.33), and older horses were slightly more likely to have LSVR than young horses (OR 1.07). Twenty-nine per cent of the deaths reported by the owners were due to orthopaedic problems, 23.3 per cent to gastrointestinal problems, and only 7.9 per cent to cardiovascular problems. Orthopaedic problems were the main cause of death in the horses, and gastrointestinal problems were the main cause of death in the ponies.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/veterinária , Sopros Cardíacos/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/mortalidade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/veterinária , Distribuição por Idade , Animais , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Sopros Cardíacos/diagnóstico , Sopros Cardíacos/epidemiologia , Ventrículos do Coração , Cavalos , Masculino , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/mortalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
9.
J Vet Cardiol ; 9(2): 91-8, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18037362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to report normal ultrasonographic appearance and intra-cardiac dimensions in two dairy breeds and to calculate cardiac output (CO) using echocardiography. BACKGROUND: Intra-cardiac dimensions, time indices and CO estimation have not previously been reported in adult cattle. ANIMALS, MATERIALS AND METHODS: Echocardiograms were obtained from healthy adult dairy cows (10 Jersey (J) and 12 Holstein Friesians (HF)) in the body weight range of 400 to 700 kg. Standard echocardiographic images were obtained from the left and right hemithoraces. Velocity time integrals were obtained in order to calculate CO using pulsed wave Doppler of aortic flow in the J cows. Measurements obtained included pulmonary artery and aortic diameters, left and right ventricular diameters (and calculated fractional shortening and left ventricular ejection fraction), left atrial size and time indices assessing valve function. RESULTS: HF cows had significantly (p<0.05) larger pulmonary artery and aortic diameters, larger left atrial diameters and left ventricular internal diameters during diastole, but these were not different when corrected for body weight. Left and right ventricular dimensions, adjusted for body weight, were significantly larger (p=0.02 and p=0.035 respectively) in J cows when compared to HF cows. No differences were noted in the time indices between the two groups. No significant differences were noted in intra-operator variability and the only significant difference in inter-operator variability was in measurement of the pulmonary artery (p=0.03; ICC=0.63). CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to obtain repeatable, reliable echocardiograms in order that meaningful intra-cardiac dimensions can be obtained in adult dairy cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ecocardiografia/veterinária , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Coração/fisiologia , Animais , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/veterinária , Cruzamento , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ecocardiografia/normas , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/anatomia & histologia , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Valvas Cardíacas/fisiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/anatomia & histologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Pulmonar/anatomia & histologia , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Valores de Referência
10.
Equine Vet J ; 37(3): 222-6, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15892230

RESUMO

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) is a novel noninvasive method by which myocardial velocity can be assessed directly and it allows regional, rather than global, cardiac function to be evaluated. HYPOTHESIS: That regional differences in myocardial velocities exist within the equine ventricle. OBJECTIVES: To develop a repeatable examination technique for DTI in horses, describe DTI findings in various regions of the normal equine ventricle, compare colour (CDTI) and spectral (SDTI) techniques of DTI, and document regional differences in myocardial velocity. METHODS: Five regions of the ventricles (right ventricular wall, interventricular septum and left, right and caudal regions of the left ventricle) were evaluated using SDTI and CDTI in 20 clinically normal Thoroughbreds age 2 years. Individual repeatability of the method was determined by examination of one 6-year-old Thoroughbred on 6 occasions. RESULTS: Three major movements were observed in the ventricular walls in systole, early diastole and late diastole. The interventricular septum had a complex pattern of movement. The left region of the left ventricle and interventricular septum had the most rapid movement. The individual repeatability of CDTI was poor, while in systole and early diastole, but not late diastole, SDTI produced repeatable estimates of maximal myocardial velocity. The different velocity estimates obtained with SDTI and CDTI are not interchangeable. Regional differences in the peak mean and maximal myocardial velocities were found in systole and early diastole (P<0.05), but were not identified in late diastole. CONCLUSIONS: The SDTI modality appears to produce the most repeatable data. There are regional differences in myocardial velocity within the equine ventricles for systole and early diastole. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: DTI shows potential as a tool for studying regional myocardial movement both in clinical cases suspected of having myocardial dysfunction and in a research setting. In particular, SDTI offers potential as a direct and noninvasive means to study early diastolic function of the equine ventricles.


Assuntos
Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/veterinária , Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores/veterinária , Cavalos/fisiologia , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Função Ventricular , Animais , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores/métodos , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Função Ventricular/fisiologia
11.
Equine Vet J ; 37(1): 60-4, 2005 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15651736

RESUMO

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Currently available sedatives depress cardiopulmonary function considerably; therefore, it is important to search for new, less depressive sedatives. The study was performed to assess duration and intensity of cardiopulmonary side effects of a new sedative, dexmedetomidine (DEX), in horses. OBJECTIVES: To study pharmacokinetics and cardiopulmonary effects of i.v. DEX. METHODS: Pharmacokinetics of 3.5 microg/kg bwt i.v. DEX were studied in a group of 8 mature (mean age 4.4 years) and 6 old ponies (mean age 20 years). Cardiopulmonary data were recorded in mature ponies before and 5, 10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 mins after administration of DEX 3.5 microg/kg bwt i.v. Data were analysed using ANOVA for repeated measures, and where appropriate Dunnett's t test was used to detect differences from resting values (P < 0.05). RESULTS: Within 2 h after DEX administration, plasma levels were beyond limits of quantification (0.05 ng/ml). Mean values for kinetic parameters for mature and old ponies were: Cmax (ng/ml) 4.6 and 3.8, t 1/2 (min) 19.8 and 28.9 and AUC (ng.min/ml) 34.5 and 44.3, respectively. Heart rate, central venous pressure, pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure did not change significantly compared to presedation values throughout the 60 min observation period. Compared to presedation values, stroke volume and mixed venous PO2 were reduced for the first 5 mins, paralleled by an increase in systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance. Cardiac index was reduced for the first 10 mins, arterial blood pressures at 20, 30 and 45 mins and respiratory rate throughout the 60 min observation period, but no change in arterial PO2 or PCO2 occurred. CONCLUSIONS: DEX administration i.v. causes similar cardiopulmonary changes to those caused by other alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists, but of very short duration. DEX is redistributed particularly rapidly. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: DEX might be safer for sedation of horses because of its very short-lasting cardiopulmonary side effects. For long duration sedation, its kinetics favour its use as a continuous infusion.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dexmedetomidina/farmacocinética , Cavalos/fisiologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacocinética , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Infusões Intravenosas/veterinária , Pressão Parcial
12.
Vet Rec ; 153(15): 457-62, 2003 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14584575

RESUMO

The diagnostic and prognostic value of nuclear scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labelled hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime-labelled leucocytes was assessed in 17 horses with weight loss due to gastrointestinal malabsorption by comparing the results with the results obtained from 13 normal control horses. Intestinal uptake of activity was detected in 12 of the 17 cases but none of the control horses. The technique was therefore specific for intestinal pathology, but failed to detect some horses that might have had intestinal pathology. No indications of the horses' specific pathology were obtained, and their prognosis or response to treatment could not be predicted.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndromes de Malabsorção/veterinária , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Tecnécio Tc 99m Exametazima , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Cavalos , Leucócitos/fisiologia , Síndromes de Malabsorção/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Cintilografia/normas , Cintilografia/veterinária
13.
Equine Vet J ; 35(3): 308-13, 2003 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12755436

RESUMO

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: To search for long-term total i.v. anaesthesia techniques as a potential alternative to inhalation anaesthesia. OBJECTIVES: To determine cardiopulmonary effects and anaesthesia quality of medetomidine-ketamine anaesthesia induction followed by 4 h of medetomidine-propofol anaesthesia in 6 ponies. METHODS: Sedation consisted of 7 microg/kg bwt medetomidine i.v. followed after 10 min by 2 mg/kg bwt i.v. ketamine. Anaesthesia was maintained for 4 h with 3.5 microg/kg bwt/h medetomidine and propofol at minimum infusion dose rates determined by application of supramaximal electrical pain stimuli. Ventilation was spontaneous (F(I)O2 > 0.9). Cardiopulmonary measurements were always taken before electrical stimulation, 15 mins after anaesthesia induction and at 25 min intervals. RESULTS: Anaesthesia induction was excellent and movements after pain stimuli were subsequently gentle. Mean propofol infusion rates were 0.89-0.1 mg/kg bwt/min. No changes in cardiopulmonary variables occured over time. Range of mean values recorded was: respiratory rate 13.0-15.8 breaths/min; PaO2 29.1-37.9 kPa; PaCO2 6.2-6.9 kPa; heart rate 31.2-40.8 beats/min; mean arterial pressure 90.0-120.8 mmHg; cardiac index 44.1-59.8 ml/kg bwt/min; mean pulmonary arterial pressure 11.8-16.4 mmHg. Recovery to standing was an average of 31.1 mins and ponies stood within one or 2 attempts. CONCLUSIONS: In this paper, ketamine anaesthesia induction avoided the problems encountered previously with propofol. Cardiovascular function was remarkably stable. Hypoxaemia did not occur but, despite F(I)O2 of > 0.9, minimal PaO2 in one pony after 4 h anaesthesia was 8.5 kPa. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: The described regime might offer a good, practicable alternative to inhalation anaesthesia and has potential for reducing the fatality rate in horses.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Dissociativos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Cavalos/fisiologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Dissociativos/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Intravenosos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Infusões Intravenosas/veterinária , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Medetomidina/efeitos adversos , Propofol/efeitos adversos , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Res Vet Sci ; 72(2): 123-9, 2002 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12027592

RESUMO

The cardiovascular effects of romifidine, an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist, were investigated in six horses using two doses (80 and 120 microg kg(-1)) in a cross-over study design. Cardiac index and mixed venous oxygenation were significantly decreased at 15 and 30 minutes after both doses of romifidine. Systemic vascular resistance was significantly increased with romifidine (120 microg kg(-1)). Arterial blood pressure increased initially and then gradually decreased; the doses of decrease was significant at 90 and 120 minutes with romifidine 80 and 120 microg kg(-1). There were minimal differences between the two doses of romifidine, and both should be used with care especially in horses with cardiovascular compromise, or when used in combination with other cardiovascular depressant drugs.


Assuntos
Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavalos/fisiologia , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/efeitos adversos , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Equine Vet J ; 33(1): 49-58, 2001 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11191610

RESUMO

Scintigraphy, with 99mTechnetium methylenediphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) and 99mTc-labelled leucocytes, was compared to radiography in the diagnosis of dental disease in the horse in a prospective case-controlled study, comprising 30 horses with clinical signs of dental disease and 30 control horses. In each case, right and left lateral, ventral and dorsal soft tissue and bone phase scintigraphic images were obtained after i.v. injection of 1 GBq/100 kg bwt 99mTc-MDP, using a gamma camera. The same views were acquired in 10 horses with clinical signs of dental disease and 12 control horses after injection of 99mTc-labelled leucocytes. Standard radiographic projections of the paranasal sinuses and of the apices of the maxillary and mandibular teeth were obtained. The scintigraphs and radiographs were assessed subjectively by 2 board-certified surgeons and one board-certified radiologist, with extensive experience of equine radiology, from who the clinical history was withheld. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa, as a measure of agreement, were calculated for the different methods. Bone phase images were also scored subjectively on a scale from 0 to 3 on the basis of isotope uptake over the teeth. Regions of interest were defined over the teeth, and normal teeth compared to diseased counterparts. Total scintigraphic counts were related to the age of the animal and to the disease process. Differences in density ratios between left and right teeth were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney Test. Dental disease was confirmed in 22 horses at surgery or postmortem examination. Horses with dental disease showed a significant increase in scintigraphic activity over the affected tooth compared to the contralateral tooth, with a typical pattern for different diseases. The sensitivity of scintigraphy with 99mTc-MDP proved to be excellent (95.5%), whereas the specificity was moderate (86.4%). In contrast, radiography had excellent specificity (95.0%) and a low sensitivity (51.5%). The greatest sensitivity and specificity were achieved by evaluating radiographs and scintigrams together. The objective scintigraphic density ratios were found to be significantly different between diseased and control horses. The results of this study suggest that, if a density ratio of 1.5 or greater between a suspected diseased tooth and its contralateral number is regarded as abnormal, only 1% false positive diagnoses and 20% false negative diagnoses will occur. In contrast, scintigraphy with 99mTc-labelled leucocytes was not very successful, due to the lack of anatomical detail provided by this technique, which made identification of the diseased tooth impossible. Accurate radiographic interpretation of dental disease presents difficulties, both in terms of missed diagnoses and mistaken diagnoses. Scintigraphy complements radiographic examination of dental structures by providing information important for accurate diagnosis and is, therefore, conceived to be essential for selection of the appropriate treatment for dental disease.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Boca/veterinária , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Difosfonatos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Cavalos , Leucócitos/química , Masculino , Seio Maxilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Boca/diagnóstico por imagem , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Compostos de Organotecnécio/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia , Cintilografia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Articulação Temporomandibular/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Vet Rec ; 147(19): 535-9, 2000 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11095392

RESUMO

The cardiopulmonary effects of romifidine at 80 microg/kg (R80) or 120 pg/kg (R120), and detomidine at 20 pg/kg (D20) when used as premedicants for ketamine/halothane anaesthesia were investigated in six ponies. Using a blinded crossover design, acepromazine (0-04 mg/kg) was administered followed by the alpha-2 agonist. Anaesthesia was induced with ketamine at 2.2 mg/kg and maintained with halothane (expired concentration 1.0 per cent) in oxygen for three hours. During anaesthesia, arterial blood pressure, cardiac index, PaO2 and PmvO2 decreased, and systemic vascular resistance and PaCO2 increased. The cardiac indices for R80, R120 and D20 were, respectively, 39, 39 and 32 ml/kg/minute at 30 minutes and 29, 29 and 26 ml/kg/minute at 180 minutes. The alpha-2 agonists had similar cardiovascular effects, but PaO2 was significantly lower with R120. The quality of anaesthesia was similar in all three groups.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anestesia por Inalação , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Halotano , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Ketamina , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Cavalos , Medicação Pré-Anestésica/veterinária , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Vet Rec ; 146(9): 246-50, 2000 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10737294

RESUMO

The parasympathetic terminal cardiac ganglia were examined in three normal horses and in five horses with grass sickness. Histopathological changes, consistent with those observed in other ganglia of horses with grass sickness, were identified in the terminal cardiac ganglia of the affected horses. A functional analysis of cardiac autonomic control by time domain analysis (TDA) of heart rate variability was applied to eight horses with grass sickness, and double-paired to 16 normal horses on the basis of their age, sex and breed, and the time of day at which the electrocardiographs were obtained. There were statistically significant differences between the normal and the affected horses in terms of the triangular index (P=0.01), a geometric method of TDA, the sNN100 index (P=0.009), a statistical method of TDA, and the R to R interval (P<0.0005). These results indicate that there is a pathological and functional parasympathetic decentralisation to the heart in equine grass sickness.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/veterinária , Coração/inervação , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Animais , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/patologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Cavalos , Masculino , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático/patologia , Poaceae
19.
Vet Rec ; 144(14): 377-9, 1999 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10327538

RESUMO

Diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disease in the horse presents a challenge to the equine veterinarian. This case report illustrates a combined imaging approach using radiography, scintigraphy and ultrasonography in a horse with severe arthropathy of the left temporomandibular joint. Radiographs were inconclusive. Scintigraphy with Tc99m methylenediphosphonate localised, but failed to characterise the disease process; ultrasonography was the only imaging method which both localised and characterised the lesion. Ultrasonography proved to be a relatively cheap, technically easy to perform and non-invasive method for the assessment of the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Radiografia/veterinária , Cintilografia/veterinária , Medronato de Tecnécio Tc 99m , Articulação Temporomandibular/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/diagnóstico , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
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