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J Surg Oncol ; 120(3): 348-358, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197851


BACKGROUND: We describe a multidisciplinary approach for comprehensive care of amputees with concurrent targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) at the time of amputation. METHODS: Our TMR cohort was compared to a cross-sectional sample of unselected oncologic amputees not treated at our institution (N = 58). Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (NRS, PROMIS) were used to assess postamputation pain. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients underwent amputation with concurrent TMR during the study; 27 patients completed pain surveys; 15 had greater than 1 year follow-up (mean follow-up 14.7 months). Neuroma symptoms occurred significantly less frequently and with less intensity among the TMR cohort. Mean differences for PROMIS pain intensity, behavior, and interference for phantom limb pain (PLP) were 5.855 (95%CI 1.159-10.55; P = .015), 5.896 (95%CI 0.492-11.30; P = .033), and 7.435 (95%CI 1.797-13.07; P = .011) respectively, with lower scores for TMR cohort. For residual limb pain, PROMIS pain intensity, behavior, and interference mean differences were 5.477 (95%CI 0.528-10.42; P = .031), 6.195 (95%CI 0.705-11.69; P = .028), and 6.816 (95%CI 1.438-12.2; P = .014), respectively. Fifty-six percent took opioids before amputation compared to 22% at 1 year postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Multidisciplinary care of amputees including concurrent amputation and TMR, multimodal postoperative pain management, amputee-centered rehabilitation, and peer support demonstrates reduced incidence and severity of neuroma and PLP.

Cotos de Amputação/inervação , Amputação/métodos , Amputação/reabilitação , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Transferência de Nervo/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/reabilitação , Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/reabilitação , Osteossarcoma/reabilitação , Osteossarcoma/cirurgia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Membro Fantasma/prevenção & controle , Sarcoma/reabilitação , Sarcoma/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
J Am Coll Surg ; 228(3): 217-226, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634038


BACKGROUND: A majority of the nearly 2 million Americans living with limb loss suffer from chronic pain in the form of neuroma-related residual limb and phantom limb pain (PLP). Targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) surgically transfers amputated nerves to nearby motor nerves for prevention of neuroma. The objective of this study was to determine whether TMR at the time of major limb amputation decreases the incidence and severity of PLP and residual limb pain. STUDY DESIGN: A multi-institutional cohort study was conducted between 2012 and 2018. Fifty-one patients undergoing major limb amputation with immediate TMR were compared with 438 unselected major limb amputees. Primary outcomes included an 11-point Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) pain intensity, behavior, and interference. RESULTS: Patients who underwent TMR had less PLP and residual limb pain compared with untreated amputee controls, across all subgroups and by all measures. Median "worst pain in the past 24 hours" for the TMR cohort was 1 out of 10 compared to 5 (PLP) and 4 (residual) out of 10 in the control population (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001, respectively). Median PROMIS t-scores were lower in TMR patients for both PLP (pain intensity [36.3 vs 48.3], pain behavior [50.1 vs 56.6], and pain interference [40.7 vs 55.8]) and residual limb pain (pain intensity [30.7 vs 46.8], pain behavior [36.7 vs 57.3], and pain interference [40.7 vs 57.3]). Targeted muscle reinnervation was associated with 3.03 (PLP) and 3.92 (residual) times higher odds of decreasing pain severity compared with general amputee participants. CONCLUSIONS: Preemptive surgical intervention of amputated nerves with TMR at the time of limb loss should be strongly considered to reduce pathologic phantom limb pain and symptomatic neuroma-related residual limb pain.

Amputação/efeitos adversos , Extremidades/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Membro Fantasma/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Membro Fantasma/diagnóstico , Membro Fantasma/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 143(1): 309-312, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589808


Approximately 25 percent of major limb amputees will develop chronic localized symptomatic neuromas and phantom limb pain in the residual limb. A method to treat and possibly prevent these pain symptoms is targeted reinnervation. Previous studies prove that targeted reinnervation successfully treats and, in some cases, resolves peripheral neuropathy and phantom limb pain in patients who have undergone previous amputation (i.e., secondary targeted reinnervation). This article seeks to share the authors' clinical indications and surgical technique for targeted muscle reinnervation in below-knee amputation, a surgical description currently absent from our literature. Targeted reinnervation for the below-knee amputee has been performed on 22 patients at the authors' institution. Each patient has been followed on an outpatient basis for 1 year to evaluate symptoms of neuroma or phantom limb pain, patient satisfaction, and functionality. All subjects have denied neuroma pain following amputation. The majority of subjects reported phantom pain at 1 month. However, at 3 months, all patients reported resolution of this pain. Dumanian et al. first noted the improvement of symptomatic neuroma and phantom limb pain in patients undergoing targeted reinnervation to provide intuitive control of upper limb prostheses. These findings have been substantiated by multiple previous studies at various amputation levels. This study extends the success of targeted muscle reinnervation to below-knee amputations and provides a description for this technique.

Cotos de Amputação/inervação , Amputação/métodos , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Transferência de Nervo/métodos , Neuroma/cirurgia , Membro Fantasma/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Amputação/efeitos adversos , Cotos de Amputação/cirurgia , Amputados/reabilitação , Membros Artificiais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/cirurgia , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Neuroma/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tíbia/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) ; 6(8): 261-267, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28831329


Scope and Significance: There are ∼185,000 amputations each year and nearly 2 million amputees currently living in the United States. Approximately 25% of these amputees will experience chronic pain issues secondary to localized neuroma pain and/or phantom limb pain. Problem: The significant discomfort caused by neuroma and phantom limb pain interferes with prosthesis wear, subjecting amputees to the additional physical and psychological morbidity associated with chronic immobility. Although numerous neuroma treatments are described, none of these methods are consistently effective in eliminating symptoms. Translational Relevance: Targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) is a surgical technique involving the transfer of residual peripheral nerves to redundant target muscle motor nerves, restoring physiological continuity and encouraging organized nerve regeneration to decrease and potentially prevent the chaotic and misdirected nerve growth, which can contribute to pain experienced within the residual limb. Clinical Relevance: TMR represents one of the more promising treatments for neuroma pain. Prior research into "secondary" TMR performed in a delayed manner after amputation has shown great improvement in treating amputee pain issues because of peripheral nerve dysfunction. "Primary" TMR performed at the time of amputation suggests that it may prevent neuroma formation while avoiding the risks associated with a delayed procedure. In addition, TMR permits the target muscles to act as bioamplifiers to direct bioprosthetic control and function. Summary: TMR has the potential to treat pain from neuromas while enabling amputee patients to return to their activities of daily living and improve prosthetic use and tolerance. Recent research in the areas of secondary (i.e., delayed) and primary TMR aims to optimize efficacy and efficiency and demonstrates great potential for establishing a new standard of care for amputees.