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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is a common cause of severe pediatric acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Two vaccines are licensed in the United States and have demonstrated high effectiveness against moderate to severe disease. However, fewer data are available on rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE) against milder disease. METHODS: We leveraged active surveillance data from Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW) to calculate rotavirus VE against medically attended rotavirus illness among age-eligible children. We utilized a test-negative case-control design and applied 4 distinct case definitions based on reverse-transcription-quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test results. VE was calculated as 100*(1 - Odds Ratio), and models were adjusted for age group. RESULTS: The VE analysis population comprised 842 children, 799 (95%) of which had mild disease requiring at most a clinic visit, and 698 (83%) of whom were fully vaccinated against rotavirus. Age-adjusted VE was 70% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 37 - 86%) against disease defined solely by qRT-PCR results, 72% (95% CI: 31 - 89%) against disease as defined by qRT-PCR with a quantification cycle (Cq) value <27, 73% (95% CI: 32 - 90%) against disease that was qRT-PCR positive but EIA negative, and 62% (95% CI: -20 - 88%) against disease defined solely by EIA. Results were similar when restricting to disease resulting in at most an ambulatory clinic or emergency department visit. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in protecting U.S. children from mild to moderate as well as severe disease. Our findings are also useful to show the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination against qRT-PCR-defined illness.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis(AGE) is a common reason for children to seek medical care. However, the viral etiology of AGE illness is not well described in the post-rotavirus vaccine era, particularly in the outpatient(OP) setting. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2015, children 15 days through 17 years old presenting to Vanderbilt Children's Hospital, Nashville, TN with AGE were enrolled prospectively from the inpatient, emergency department, and OP settings and stool specimens were collected. Healthy controls(HCs) were enrolled and frequency-matched for period, age group, race, and ethnicity. Stool specimens were tested by reverse-transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus RNA and by Rotaclone enzyme immunoassay for rotavirus antigen, followed by PCR verification of antigen detection. RESULTS: A total of 3705 AGE cases and 1563 HC were enrolled, among whom 2885 cases(78%) and 1110 HCs(71%) provided stool specimens that were tested. All four viruses were more frequently detected in AGE cases vs. HC: norovirus, 22% vs. 8%; rotavirus, 10% vs. 1%; sapovirus, 10% vs. 5%; and astrovirus, 5% vs. 2%(p<0.001 for each virus, respectively). AGE rates in the OP setting due to norovirus were highest compared to the other three viruses. Children under five years old had higher OP AGE rates compared to older children for all viruses. CONCLUSIONS: Norovirus remains the most common virus detected in all settings, occurring nearly twice as frequently as the next most common pathogens, sapovirus and rotavirus. Combined, these four viruses were associated with almost half of all AGE visits and therefore are an important reason for children to seek medical care.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2006, the New Vaccine Surveillance Network has conducted active, population-based surveillance for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits in three US counties. Trends in the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus hospitalizations and ED visits were examined from 2006-2016. METHODS: Children <3 years of age hospitalized or visiting the ED with AGE, were enrolled from January 2006-June 2016. Bulk stool specimens were collected and tested for rotavirus. Rotavirus-associated hospitalization and ED visit rates were calculated annually with 2006-2007 defined as pre-vaccine and 2008-2016 as post-vaccine periods. Rotavirus genotype trends were compared over time. RESULTS: Over 11 seasons, 6954 children with AGE were enrolled and submitted a stool specimen (2187 hospitalized and 4767 in the ED). Comparing pre- and post-vaccine periods, the proportion of children with rotavirus dramatically declined for hospitalization (49% vs 10%) and ED visits (49% vs 8%). In the post-vaccine era, a biennial pattern of rotavirus rates was observed, with a trend toward an older median age. G1P[8] (63%) was the predominant genotype in the pre-vaccine period with a significantly lower proportion (7%) in the post-vaccine period (p<.001). G2P[4] remained stable (8% to 14%) in both periods, while G3P[8] and G12P[8] increased in proportion from pre-to post-vaccine periods (1% to 25% and 17% to 40%) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus has been altered by rotavirus vaccination with a biennial disease pattern, sustained low rates of rotavirus in children <3 years of age and a shift in the residual genotypes from G1P[8] to other genotypes.

4.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(1): 442-449, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469933

RESUMO

Group A rotavirus (RVA) associated diarrhoea in piglets represents one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in pig farms worldwide. A diarrhoea outbreak occurred among nomadic piglets in north-western district of Bangladesh in February 2014. Outbreak investigation was performed to identify the cause, epidemiologic and clinical features of the outbreak. Rectal swabs and clinical information were collected from diarrhoeic piglets (n = 36). Rectal swabs were tested for RVA RNA by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) using NSP3-specific primers. The G (VP7) and P (VP4) genes were typed by conventional RT-PCR and sanger sequencing and full genome sequences were determined using next-generation sequencing. We found the attack rate was 61% (50/82) among piglets in the nomadic pig herd, and the case fatality rate was 20% (10/50) among piglets with diarrhoea. All study piglets cases had watery diarrhoea, lack of appetite or reluctance to move. A novel RVA strain with a new P[49] genotype combined with G4 was identified among all piglets with diarrhoea. The genome constellation of the novel RVA strains was determined to be G4-P[49]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T7-E1-H1. Genetic analysis shows that the novel G4P[49] strain is similar to Indian and Chinese porcine or porcine-like G4 human strains and is genetically distant from Bangladeshi human G4 strains. Identification of this novel RVA strain warrants further exploration for disease severity and zoonotic potential.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) patients causes significant morbidity and mortality. Data regarding the longitudinal assessment of infectious pathogens during symptomatic AGE and asymptomatic periods, particularly in children, are limited. We investigated the prevalence of AGE-associated infectious pathogens in children undergoing allogeneic HCT. METHODS: From March 2015 through May 2016, 31 pediatric patients at 4 US children's hospitals were enrolled and had stool collected weekly from pre-HCT through 100 days post-HCT for infectious AGE pathogens by molecular testing. Demographics, clinical symptoms, antimicrobials, vaccination history, and outcomes were manually abstracted from the medical record into a standardized case report form. RESULTS: We identified a pathogen in 18% (38/206) of samples, with many detections occurring during asymptomatic periods. Clostridioides difficile was the most commonly detected pathogen in 39% (15/38) of positive specimens, although only 20% (3/15) of C. difficile-positive specimens were obtained from children with diarrhea. Detection of sapovirus, in 21% (8/38) of pathogen-positive specimens, was commonly associated with AGE, with 87.5% of specimens obtained during symptomatic periods. Norovirus was not detected, and rotavirus was detected infrequently. Prolonged shedding of infectious pathogens was rare. CONCLUSIONS: This multicenter, prospective, longitudinal study suggests that the epidemiology of AGE pathogens identified from allogeneic HCT patients may be changing. Previously reported viruses, such as rotavirus and norovirus, may be less common due to widespread vaccination and institution of infection control precautions, and emerging viruses such as sapoviruses may be increasingly recognized due to the use of molecular diagnostics.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1912242, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560386

RESUMO

Importance: Rotavirus vaccines have been recommended for universal US infant immunization for more than 10 years, and understanding their effectiveness is key to the continued success of the US rotavirus vaccine immunization program. Objective: To assess the association of RotaTeq (RV5) and Rotarix (RV1) with inpatient and emergency department (ED) visits for rotavirus infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control vaccine effectiveness study was performed at inpatient and ED clinical settings in 7 US pediatric medical institutions from November 1, 2009, through June 30, 2016. Children younger than 5 years seeking medical care for acute gastroenteritis were enrolled. Clinical and epidemiologic data, vaccination verification, and results of stool sample tests for laboratory-confirmed rotavirus were collected. Data were analyzed from November 1, 2009, through June 30, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rotavirus vaccine effectiveness for preventing rotavirus-associated inpatient and ED visits over time for each licensed vaccine, stratified by clinical severity and age. Results: Among the 10 813 children included (5927 boys [54.8%] and 4886 girls [45.2%]; median [range] age, 21 [8-59] months), RV5 and RV1 analyses found that compared with controls, rotavirus-positive cases were more often white (RV5, 535 [62.2%] vs 3310 [57.7%]; RV1, 163 [43.1%] vs 864 [35.1%]), privately insured (RV5, 620 [72.1%] vs 4388 [76.5%]; RV1, 305 [80.7%] vs 2140 [87.0%]), and older (median [range] age for RV5, 26 [8-59] months vs 21 [8-59] months; median [range] age for RV1, 22 [8-59] months vs 19 [8-59] months) but did not differ by sex. Among 1193 rotavirus-positive cases and 9620 rotavirus-negative controls, at least 1 dose of any rotavirus vaccine was 82% (95% CI, 77%-86%) protective against rotavirus-associated inpatient visits and 75% (95% CI, 71%-79%) protective against rotavirus-associated ED visits. No statistically significant difference during this 7-year period was observed for either rotavirus vaccine. Vaccine effectiveness against inpatient and ED visits was 81% (95% CI, 78%-84%) for RV5 (3 doses) and 78% (95% CI, 72%-82%) for RV1 (2 doses) among the study population. A mixed course of both vaccines provided 86% (95% CI, 74%-93%) protection. Rotavirus patients who were not vaccinated had severe infections 4 times more often than those who were vaccinated (74 of 426 [17.4%] vs 28 of 605 [4.6%]; P < .001), and any dose of rotavirus vaccine was 65% (95% CI, 56%-73%) effective against mild infections, 81% (95% CI, 76%-84%) against moderate infections, and 91% (95% CI, 85%-95%) against severe infections. Conclusions and Relevance: Evidence from this large postlicensure study of rotavirus vaccine performance in the United States from 2010 to 2016 suggests that RV5 and RV1 rotavirus vaccines continue to perform well, particularly in preventing inpatient visits and severe infections and among younger children.

7.
J Med Virol ; 91(11): 2025-2028, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286526

RESUMO

Group A Rotaviruses (RVAs) are the most important etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children less than 5 years of age. Mortality resulting from RVA gastroenteritis is higher in developing countries than in developed ones, causing a huge public health burden in global regions like Africa and South-East Asia. This study reports RVA genotypes detected in Ashaiman, Greater Accra Region, Ghana, in the postvaccine introduction era for the period 2014-2016. Stool samples were collected from children less than 5 years of age who visited Ashaiman Polyclinic with AGE from November 2014 to May 2015 and from December 2015 to June 2016. The samples were tested by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and one-step multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed on the EIA positive samples for gel-based binomial genotyping. Of the 369 stool samples collected from children with AGE, 145 (39%) tested positive by EIA. Five VP7 (G1, G3, G9, G10, and G12) and three VP4 (P[4], P[6] and P[8]) genotypes were detected. Eight G/P combinations were identified of which, G3P[6], G12P[8], G1P[8], and G9P[4] were the most prevalent and responsible for 93 (68%) of the AGE cases, and seven mixed-types were detected which represented 8% of the RVA cases. High prevalence, diversity, and mixed-types of RVAs were detected from Ashaiman with the emergence of unusual genotypes.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of rotavirus vaccine in the United States has reduced rotavirus disease burden, but outbreaks still occur. Complete-series rotavirus vaccination coverage is <75% in the United States, and it might be lower among vulnerable populations. We describe here the clinical characteristics and vaccination status of children during a rotavirus outbreak in a pediatric subacute care facility in 2017. METHODS: Clinical history, signs and symptoms, and vaccination history were abstracted for the 26 patients residing in the facility during the time of the outbreak. A case-patient was defined as one who experienced 3 or more loose stools in a period of 24 hours with onset between April 17 and May 17, 2017. Stool samples from 14 resident patients were tested for rotavirus with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The median patient age at the facility was 2.9 years. Of the 26 resident patients, 22 (85%) met the case definition. One child died. Stool samples from 11 case-patients were positive according to reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for rotavirus. Fifteen case-patients were unvaccinated against rotavirus; 3 were partially vaccinated, and 2 were fully vaccinated. Vaccination status could not be completely determined in 2 cases. CONCLUSIONS: An outbreak of rotavirus affected nearly all resident patients of a subacute care facility and caused 1 death. Because of recommendations against giving rotavirus vaccine in an intensive care setting, infants who require a prolonged intensive care stay might age out of rotavirus vaccine eligibility (the first dose must be given before 15 weeks of age according to Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations). The result is a vulnerable population of unvaccinated infants who might later congregate in another care setting.

9.
Virology ; 534: 114-131, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228725

RESUMO

Inter-genogroup reassortant group A rotavirus (RVA) strains possessing a G3 VP7 gene of putative equine origin (EQL-G3) have been detected in humans since 2013. Here we report detection of EQL-G3P[8] RVA strains from the Dominican Republic collected in 2014-16. Whole-gene analysis of RVA in stool specimens revealed 16 EQL-G3P[8] strains, 3 of which appear to have acquired an N1 NSP1 gene from locally-circulating G9P[8] strains and a novel G2P[8] reassortant possessing 7 EQL-G3-associated genes and 3 genes from a locally-circulating G2P[4] strain. Phylogenetic/genetic analyses of VP7 gene sequences revealed nine G3 lineages (I-IX) with newly-assigned lineage IX encompassing all reported human EQL-G3 strains along with the ancestral equine strain. VP1 and NSP2 gene phylogenies suggest that EQL-G3P[8] strains were introduced into the Dominican Republic from Thailand. The emergence of EQL-G3P[8] strains in the Dominican Republic and their reassortment with locally-circulating RVA could have implications for current vaccination strategies.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , República Dominicana , Genoma Viral , Cavalos , Humanos , Filogenia , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Tailândia , Proteínas Virais/genética
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753568

RESUMO

Background: Rotavirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children and is highly transmissible. In this study, we assessed the presence of AGE in household contacts (HHCs) of pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed rotavirus. Methods: Between December 2011 and June 2016, children aged 14 days to 11 years with AGE were enrolled at 1 of 7 hospitals or emergency departments as part of the New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Parental interviews, medical and vaccination records, and stool specimens were collected at enrollment. Stool was tested for rotavirus by an enzyme immunoassay and confirmed by real-time or conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay or repeated enzyme immunoassay. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted to assess AGE in HHCs the week after the enrolled child's illness. A mixed-effects multivariate model was used to calculate odds ratios. Results: Overall, 829 rotavirus-positive subjects and 8858 rotavirus-negative subjects were enrolled. Households of rotavirus-positive subjects were more likely to report AGE illness in ≥1 HHC than were rotavirus-negative households (35% vs 20%, respectively; P < .0001). A total of 466 (16%) HHCs of rotavirus-positive subjects reported AGE illness. Of the 466 ill HHCs, 107 (23%) sought healthcare; 6 (6%) of these encounters resulted in hospitalization. HHCs who were <5 years old (odds ratio, 2.2 [P = .004]) were more likely to report AGE illness than those in other age groups. In addition, 144 households reported out-of-pocket expenses (median, $20; range, $2-$640) necessary to care for an ill HHC. Conclusions: Rotavirus-associated AGE in children can lead to significant disease burden in HHCs, especially in children aged <5 years. Prevention of pediatric rotavirus illness, notably through vaccination, can prevent additional illnesses in HHCs.

11.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 8(5): 414-421, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rotavirus disease burden has declined substantially since rotavirus vaccine was introduced in the United States in 2006. The aim of this study was to determine the viral etiology of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in US children aged <2 years. METHODS: The New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) of geographically diverse US sites conducts active pediatric population-based surveillance in hospitals and emergency departments. Stool samples were collected from children aged <2 years with symptoms of AGE (n = 330) and age-matched healthy controls (HCs) (n = 272) between January and December 2012. Samples were tested by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays {adenovirus (type 40 and 41), norovirus, parechovirus A, enterovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus} and an enzyme immunoassay (rotavirus). All samples that tested positive were genotyped. RESULTS: Detection rates of pathogens in children with AGE versus those of HCs were, respectively, 23.0% versus 6.6% for norovirus (P < .01), 23.0% versus 16.0% for adenovirus (P = .08), 11.0% versus 16.0% for parechovirus A (P = .09), 11.0% versus 9.0% for enterovirus (P = .34), 7.0% versus 3.0% for sapovirus (P = .07), 3.0% versus 0.3% for astrovirus (P = .01), and 3.0% versus 0.4% for rotavirus (P = .01). A high prevalence of adenovirus was detected at 1 surveillance site (49.0% for children with AGE and 43.0% for HCs). Norovirus GII.4 New Orleans was the most frequently detected (33.0%) norovirus genotype. Codetection of >1 virus was more common in children with AGE (16.0%) than in HCs (10.0%) (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Norovirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, and rotavirus were detected significantly more in children with AGE than in HCs, and norovirus was the leading AGE-causing pathogen in US children aged <2 years during the year 2012.

12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(16): 470-472, 2018 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29698381

RESUMO

Before the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in 2006, rotavirus was the most common cause of severe diarrhea among U.S. children (1). Currently, two rotavirus vaccines are licensed for use in the United States, both of which have demonstrated good field effectiveness (78%-89%) against moderate to severe rotavirus illness (2), and the use of these vaccines has substantially reduced the prevalence of rotavirus in the United States (3). However, the most recent national vaccine coverage estimates indicate lower full rotavirus vaccine-series completion (73%) compared with receipt of at least 3 doses of vaccines containing diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis antigens (95%), given on a similar schedule to rotavirus vaccines (4). In the postvaccine era in the United States, rotavirus activity persists in a biennial pattern (3). This report describes three rotavirus outbreaks that occurred in California in 2017. One death was reported; however, the majority of cases were associated with mild to moderate illness, and illness occurred across the age spectrum as well as among vaccinated children. Rotavirus vaccines are designed to mimic the protective effects of natural infection and are most effective against severe rotavirus illness (2). Even in populations with high vaccination coverage, some rotavirus infections and mild to moderate illnesses will occur. Rotavirus vaccination should continue to be emphasized as the best means of reducing disease prevalence in the United States.


Assuntos
Moradias Assistidas , Creches , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações de Saúde , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Med Virol ; 90(7): 1272-1276, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29573357

RESUMO

The G12 rotavirus genotype has emerged globally since their first detection in 1987 from the Philippines; however it remains a rare cause of gastroenteritis in Pakistan. Rotavirus surveillance conducted during 2015-2016, assessed 3446 children <5 years hospitalized for gastroenteritis and found 802 (23.2%) positive on ELISA. Genotyping of a subset of positive samples (n = 319) revealed G12P[6] (11.28%) as the third most common G/P combination following G3P[8] (28.5%) and G1P[8] (12.5%); G2P[4] (10.65%) and G3P[6] (8.15%) were other frequently detected strains. Phylogenetic analysis of G12 strains from Pakistan revealed high genetic similarity to G12 strains from Italy, Thailand, Korea, and Great Britain as well as local strains within G12 lineage III. In conclusion, G12P[6] was a major contributor of RVA gastroenteritis in Pakistani children. Robust surveillance after the introduction of rotavirus vaccines will help determine the evolution of G12 and other circulating genotypes in the country.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Genótipo , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação
14.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 5, 2018 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a major cause of death among children under 5 years globally. A rotavirus gastroenteritis surveillance program started in October 2011 in the Central African Republic (CAR) with the Surveillance Epidémiologique en Afrique Centrale (SURVAC) project. We present here genotyping results showing the emergence of G9 and G12 genotypes in Central African Republic. RESULTS: Among 222 children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis who had a stool sample collected at the sentinel site, Complexe Pédiatrique de Bangui (CPB), Bangui, Central African Republic, 100 (45%) were positive for rotavirus between January 2014 and February 2016. During this period the most common rotavirus strains were G1P[8] (37%), G12P[6] (27%) and G9P[8] (18%).


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , República Centro-Africana/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(1): 9-16, Jan. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-894881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Although first detected in animals, the rare rotavirus strain G10P[14] has been sporadically detected in humans in Slovenia, Thailand, United Kingdom and Australia among other countries. Earlier studies suggest that the strains found in humans resulted from interspecies transmission and reassortment between human and bovine rotavirus strains. OBJECTIVES In this study, a G10P[14] rotavirus genotype detected in a human stool sample in Honduras during the 2010-2011 rotavirus season, from an unvaccinated 30-month old boy who reported at the hospital with severe diarrhea and vomiting, was characterised to determine the possible evolutionary origin of the rare strain. METHODS For the sample detected as G10P[14], 10% suspension was prepared and used for RNA extraction and sequence independent amplification. The amplicons were sequenced by next-generation sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq 150 paired end method. The sequence reads were analysed using CLC Genomics Workbench 6.0 and phylogenetic trees were constructed using PhyML version 3.0. FINDINGS The next generation sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the 11-segmented genome of the G10P[14] strain allowed classification as G10-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3. Six of the genes (VP1, VP2, VP3, VP6, NSP2 and NSP4) were DS-1-like. NSP1 and NSP5 were AU-1-like and NSP3 was T6, which suggests that multiple reassortment events occurred in the evolution of the strain. The phylogenetic analyses and genetic distance calculations showed that the VP7, VP4, VP6, VP1, VP3, NSP1, NSP3 and NSP4 genes clustered predominantly with bovine strains. NSP2 and VP2 genes were most closely related to simian and human strains, respectively, and NSP5 was most closely related to a rhesus strain. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The genetic characterisation of the G10P[14] strain from Honduras suggests that its genome resulted from multiple reassortment events which were possibly mediated through interspecies transmissions.


Assuntos
Animais , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Honduras
16.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(1): 9-16, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29211103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although first detected in animals, the rare rotavirus strain G10P[14] has been sporadically detected in humans in Slovenia, Thailand, United Kingdom and Australia among other countries. Earlier studies suggest that the strains found in humans resulted from interspecies transmission and reassortment between human and bovine rotavirus strains. OBJECTIVES: In this study, a G10P[14] rotavirus genotype detected in a human stool sample in Honduras during the 2010-2011 rotavirus season, from an unvaccinated 30-month old boy who reported at the hospital with severe diarrhea and vomiting, was characterised to determine the possible evolutionary origin of the rare strain. METHODS: For the sample detected as G10P[14], 10% suspension was prepared and used for RNA extraction and sequence independent amplification. The amplicons were sequenced by next-generation sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq 150 paired end method. The sequence reads were analysed using CLC Genomics Workbench 6.0 and phylogenetic trees were constructed using PhyML version 3.0. FINDINGS: The next generation sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the 11-segmented genome of the G10P[14] strain allowed classification as G10-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3. Six of the genes (VP1, VP2, VP3, VP6, NSP2 and NSP4) were DS-1-like. NSP1 and NSP5 were AU-1-like and NSP3 was T6, which suggests that multiple reassortment events occurred in the evolution of the strain. The phylogenetic analyses and genetic distance calculations showed that the VP7, VP4, VP6, VP1, VP3, NSP1, NSP3 and NSP4 genes clustered predominantly with bovine strains. NSP2 and VP2 genes were most closely related to simian and human strains, respectively, and NSP5 was most closely related to a rhesus strain. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: The genetic characterisation of the G10P[14] strain from Honduras suggests that its genome resulted from multiple reassortment events which were possibly mediated through interspecies transmissions.


Assuntos
Vírus Reordenados/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/genética , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/virologia , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Honduras , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Viral/genética , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico
17.
Pediatrics ; 141(1)2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infants born prematurely or with underlying conditions are at increased risk of severe rotavirus disease and associated complications. Given the theoretical risk of nosocomial transmission of vaccine-type rotavirus, rotavirus vaccination is recommended for infants at or after discharge from neonatal care settings. Because the first dose should be administered by 104 days of age, some infants may be age-ineligible for vaccination if delayed until discharge. METHODS: This prospective cohort included infants admitted to an urban academic medical center between birth and 104 days who received care in intensive care settings. Pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RV5) was used, per routine clinical care. Stool specimens were collected weekly (February 2013-April 2014) and analyzed for rotavirus strains using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Demographic and vaccine data were collected. RV5 safety was not assessed. RESULTS: Of 385 study infants, 127 were age-eligible for routine vaccinations during hospitalization. At discharge, 32.7% were up-to-date for rotavirus vaccination, compared with 82.7% for other vaccinations. Of rotavirus-unvaccinated infants, 42.6% were discharged at age >104 days and thus vaccination-ineligible. Of 1192 stool specimens collected, rotavirus was detected in 13 (1.1%): 1 wild-type strain from an unvaccinated infant; 12 vaccine-type strains from 9 RV5-vaccinated infants. No vaccine-type rotavirus cases were observed among unvaccinated infants (incidence rate: 0.0 [95% confidence interval: 0.0-1.5] cases per 1000 patient days at risk). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that delaying rotavirus vaccination until discharge from the hospital could lead to missed vaccination opportunities and may be unnecessary in institutions using RV5 with comparable infection control standards.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Rotavirus/imunologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Estudos de Coortes , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , Vacinação/normas , Vacinação/tendências
18.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 37(3): e58-e62, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated reduced rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE) in resource-limited settings. Enteropathogen coinfections in rotavirus cases have been hypothesized to contribute to the lower VE in such settings. We sought to determine if coinfections affect rotavirus VE in Botswana. METHODS: Between June 2013 and April 2015, children <60 months old, presenting with severe gastroenteritis at 4 hospitals as part of a national rotavirus surveillance were enrolled. Rotavirus enzyme immunoassay (EIA)-positive samples were tested with an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) panel that detected 9 pathogens and a commercial 15 multiplex PCR gastrointestinal pathogen panel. Coinfection was defined as detection of rotavirus plus 1 of the 5 pathogens with the highest attributable fractions for diarrhea. Vaccine status was compared between rotavirus case patients and non-rotavirus "test-negative" controls. VE was also calculated restricting cases to those with rotavirus as the only pathogen detected. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty-two children tested rotavirus EIA positive, and 368 children were negative. Of the 182 rotavirus EIA-positive samples tested with the gastrointestinal pathogen panel assay, coinfections were detected in 60 (33%). The overall adjusted 2-dose VE was 59% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 27-77) in the rotavirus coinfection group and 51% (95% CI: -14 to 79) in the rotavirus monoinfection subgroup. Using in-house multiplex PCR panel, of 213 rotavirus EIA-positive subjects, coinfections were detected in 98 samples (46%). The overall adjusted VEs for 2 doses were 48% (95% CI: -2 to 74) and 62% (95% CI: 25-80) in rotavirus monoinfection subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: We could not find evidence of an effect of enteric coinfections on the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Gastroenterite/imunologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/imunologia , Botsuana , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinação
19.
Infect Genet Evol ; 57: 166-170, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29187315

RESUMO

Group A rotaviruses are the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in the young of mammals and birds. This report describes characterization of an unusual G20P[28] rotavirus strain detected in a 24month old child from Suriname. Genomic sequence analyses revealed that the genotype constellation of the Suriname strain RVA/Human-wt/SUR/2014735512/2013/G20P[28] was G20-P[28]-I13-R13-C13-M12-A23-N13-T15-E20-H15. Genes VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5 were recently assigned novel genotypes by the Rotavirus Classification Working Group (RCWG). Three of the 11 gene segments (VP7, VP4, VP6) were similar to cognate gene sequences of bat-like human rotavirus strain Ecu534 from Ecuador and the VP7, NSP3 and NSP5 gene segments of strain RVA/Human-wt/SUR/2014735512/2013/G20P[28] were found to be closely related to gene sequences of bat rotavirus strain 3081/BRA detected in Brazil. Although distantly related, the VP1 gene of the study strain and bat strain BatLi09 detected in Cameroon in 2014 are monophyletic. The NSP1 gene was found to be most closely related to human strain QUI-35-F5 from Brazil. These findings suggest that strain RVA/Human-wt/SUR/2014735512/2013/G20P[28] represents a zoonotic infection from a bat host.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/transmissão , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Genome Announc ; 5(47)2017 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29167260

RESUMO

We report here the full coding region sequences for all 11 segments of the first equine-like G3P[8] rotavirus strain detected in the United States, strain RVA/Human-wt/USA/3000390639/2015/G3P[8]. The full genotype constellation of this strain is G3-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2.

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