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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360514

RESUMO

The Maudsley Violence Questionnaire (MVQ) is an instrument specifically developed to evaluate violent thinking through two subscales examining macho attitudes and the acceptance of violence. This study analyzed the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Spanish version of the MVQ questionnaire in a large sample of 1933 Spanish adolescents. An online questionnaire was used to collect variables, such as sociodemographic and sexism data. The factor structure showed good fit indices in Spanish adolescents, which were similar to the original scale. The exploratory analysis yielded a first factor that explained 11.3% of the total variance and a second factor that explained 10.8% of the total variance. The Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) (0.902), Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI) (0.90), Normed Fit Index (NNFI) (0.85), and the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) (0.86) suggested that the model fit the data adequately (with values ≥ 0.90) and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) (≤0.10) values indicative of an adequate fit. This study contributes a Spanish-language validated tool to measure machismo and the acceptance of violence among adolescents.


Assuntos
Idioma , Estudantes , Adolescente , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência
2.
Aggress Behav ; 47(3): 354-363, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611803

RESUMO

Despite the efforts of recent decades to reduce gender inequality, sexism is still prevalent among adolescents. The objective of this study was to identify the main socioeconomic characteristics, personal experiences, resources, and competencies associated with sexism in a sample of adolescents from different European countries. Baseline data from the Lights4Violence project included 1555 students ages 12-17 from secondary schools in six European countries (Spain, Italy, Romania, United Kingdom, Portugal, and Poland). Linear regression models were carried out, stratified by sex for benevolent (BS) and hostile (HS) dimensions of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. The average age of the sample was 14.3 years (SD = 1.5), 59.3% were girls. Boys scored higher on the measure of sexism (mean BS = 29.7; HS = 29.1) than girls (BS = 27.5, HS = 23.0; p < .001). Girls whose mothers had a university degree reported lower BS (ß = -0.113; p = .023) (reference: lower education). Girls who had experienced dating violence reported higher HS (ß = .080; p = .010) than those who had never been in an intimate relationship. For both sexes, high aggressiveness was associated with high levels of HS, and high aggressiveness was related to high levels of BS in boys. High assertiveness was associated with high levels of BS in both sexes and with high levels of HS in boys. A high level of problem-solving ability was associated with lower HS in both sexes. The study reinforces the need to invest in school programs aimed at preventing dating violence and promoting positive youth development.


Assuntos
Sexismo , Adolescente , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiologia , Espanha , Reino Unido
3.
J Adolesc Health ; 68(5): 922-929, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067152

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the potential association between social support, experiences of violence, and sociodemographic characteristics of adolescents and the likelihood of acceptance of violence and machismo in different European countries. METHODS: Cross-sectional design. We recruited 1,555 participants ages 13-16 from secondary schools in Alicante (Spain), Rome (Italy), Iasi (Romania), Matosinhos (Portugal), Poznan (Poland), and Cardiff (UK). We used linear regression models to identify how social support from teachers and parents, experiences of violence-dating violence, bullying, cyberbullying, abuse in childhood-and sociodemographic characteristics were associated with violent thinking, specifically: machismo and acceptance of violence. The analysis was stratified by sex. RESULTS: Acceptance of violence was higher for those who had lower perceived social support from parents (ßgirls = -154, p < .001; ßboys = -.114, p = .019) for both sexes. Perpetration of bullying and/or cyberbullying was associated with higher scores for machismo and acceptance of violence for both sexes (ßgirls = .067, p = .035; ßboys = .225, p < .001; (ßgirls = .118, p < .001; ßboys = .210, p < .001). Being the victim of dating violence, having suffered physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood, and lower perceived social support from teachers were associated with higher scores for both machismo and acceptance of violence. These associations differed between girls and boys. CONCLUSIONS: Machismo and acceptance of violence are widely present amongst adolescents in different European countries. Our results suggest the importance of providing educational/psycho-educational interventions with boys and girls to prevent these attitudes and, in turn, prevent interpersonal violence, including bullying and dating violence.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271817

RESUMO

The aim of the article is to show the role of school social support and school social climate in dating violence victimization prevention among adolescents in Europe. Study participants were students from secondary schools (age 13-16) in Spain, Italy, Romania, Portugal, Poland and UK. The analysis in this text concern student with dating experience (n = 993) (57.2% of girls and 66.5% of boys). School social support was measured by School Social Climate, Factor 1 Scale (CECSCE) and by Student Social Support Scale (CASSS), subscales teachers and classmates. The association between school social support and different types of dating victimization (physical and/or sexual dating violence, control dating violence and fear) was measured by calculating the prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals, estimated by Poisson regression models with robust variance. All the models were adjusted by country and by sociodemographic variables. The results show that the average values of all types of social support are significantly lower in young people who have suffered any type of dating violence or were scared of their partner. The likelihood of suffering physical and/or sexual dating violence decreased when school social support increased [PR (CI 95%): 0.96 (0.92; 0.99)]. In the same way, the likelihood of fear decreased when school social climate increased [PR (CI 95%): 0.98 (0.96; 0.99)].There is an association between school social support and school social climate and experiences of being victim of dating violence among adolescents in Europe. Our results suggest that in the prevention of dating violence building a supportive climate at schools and building/using the support of peers and teachers is important.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Vítimas de Crime , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Polônia , Portugal , Romênia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349359

RESUMO

Significant progress has been made in developing intervention programmes for adolescents at high risk of delinquency, school failure and emotional problems. The most effective programmes incorporate behavioural and skills training aimed at changing attitudes and promoting psychosocial and emotional skills in adolescents. This study examined the effectiveness of a school-based intervention programme based on the Reasoning and Rehabilitation V2 (R&R2). R&R2 is a cognitive behavioural programme developed using psychological theories about the aetiology of delinquency, as well as the cognitive, behavioural and socioemotional deficits in high-risk youth populations. A sample of 142 students (aged 13-17 years old) who were attending alternative education provision in Spain were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions (68 experimental group, 74 control group). The results showed that the R&R2 improved participants' self-esteem, social skills, empathy and rational problem-solving with a medium-large effect size (η2 = 0.08 to 0.26). The effects of the programme were significant after controlling for age and the pre-test scores in baseline. These findings confirm the effectiveness of the Reasoning and Rehabilitation V2 programme in Spanish adolescent students and offer additional evidence regarding the implementation of the R&R2 programme in both alternative educational and mainstream school settings.


Assuntos
Resolução de Problemas , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha , Estudantes
6.
J Affect Disord ; 265: 475-485, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite a vast evidence-base advocating the psychological benefits of physical activity, relatively little is understood about how combining physical activity with psychological therapies may influence these positive effects. The aim of this paper is to systematically analyse evidence from studies adopting a combined approach, and identify potential mechanisms of action on clinical outcomes. METHODS: The Embase, PsycINFO and Medline (PubMed and OVID) databases were searched for applicable trials published up to December 2018. Relevant data was extracted from eligible studies, and the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) tool was utilised to objectively assess the quality of each study. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria, seven of which were rated as methodologically `strong'. Combining physical activity with psychological therapy consistently engendered positive effects on outcomes compared with treatment as usual. Similar improvements in psychological outcomes were observed in most (7/8) groups receiving physical activity alone. Increased levels of physical activity were observed in psychologically-informed interventions, however this effect was unrelated to changes in psychological outcomes. LIMITATIONS: Clinical and methodological heterogeneity precluded meta-analyses of results, while risk of bias detected in the studies may compromise overall validity of the findings. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity interventions may be a viable alternative to psychological therapies, provided psychological approaches are incorporated into the implementation design (i.e. behavioural activation). Improved psychological outcomes may be observed regardless of `dose' received, however further research is required to ascertain whether psychosocial mechanisms of change mediate positive effects.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Saúde Mental , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Psicoterapia
7.
J Interpers Violence ; 35(23-24): 5691-5703, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29294861

RESUMO

This article aims to explore and report on violent thinking and alcohol misuse; how these factors may predict self-reported violence. The role of violent thinking in violent behavior is both well established in theoretical models, yet there are few measures that explain this role. One measure that has been identified is the Maudsley Violence Questionnaire (MVQ). This is the first study to explore the use of the MVQ with a general (nonoffender) adult sample, having already been shown to be valid with young people (under 18 years old), adult male offenders, and mentally disordered offenders. This study involved 808 adult participants-569 female and 239 male participants. As figures demonstrate that around half of all violent crime in the United Kingdom is alcohol related, we also explored the role of alcohol misuse. Regression was used to explore how these factors predicted violence. The results demonstrate the important role of violent thinking in violent behavior. The MVQ factor of "Machismo" was the primary factor in regression models for both male and female self-reported violence. The role of alcohol in the regression models differed slightly between the male and female participants, with alcohol misuse involved in male violence. The study supports theoretical models including the role of violent thinking and encourages those hoping to address violence, to consider "Machismo" as a treatment target. The study also provides further validation of the MVQ as a helpful tool for clinicians or researchers who may be interested in "measuring" violent thinking.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Violência , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
8.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 23(2): 113-23, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23595862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Maudsley Violence Questionnaire (MVQ) was designed to measure explicit rules and beliefs associated with violence. Previous studies with young people and offenders with mental disorder found the MVQ to be a valid and reliable measure of violent thinking. AIMS: This study explores the use of the MVQ with a 'normal' (non-offender) population and an offender population without mental illness in order to evaluate how the MVQ's subscales related to violence within these groups. METHOD: The MVQ was given to 78 adult male participants along with a measure of self-reported violence; demographic information and criminal history were also recorded. Thirty-five of the participants were convicted adult male offenders resident of an adult male closed prison in South Wales; 43 were volunteers from the staff group in the same prison. The MVQ factors were compared with self-reported violence and with officially recorded violent convictions. RESULTS: Although both subscales of the MVQ related to self-reported violence, 'Machismo' showed a stronger relationship to both self-reported and officially recorded violence. CONCLUSIONS: Violent thinking, specifically beliefs measured by the Machismo subscale of the MVQ, was robustly associated with self-reported and officially recorded violence in this study with offender and non-offender adults. IMPLICATIONS: The MVQ is a valid and feasible measure for use with adult populations. Violent thinking (specifically Machismo thinking styles) should be included in the assessments of violent offenders. Work on violent thinking and reducing 'macho' thinking could be a useful adjunct to anger management work with violent offenders.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Pensamento/fisiologia , Violência/psicologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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