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1.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(549)2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581134

RESUMO

Inhibition of sclerostin is a therapeutic approach to lowering fracture risk in patients with osteoporosis. However, data from phase 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of romosozumab, a first-in-class monoclonal antibody that inhibits sclerostin, suggest an imbalance of serious cardiovascular events, and regulatory agencies have issued marketing authorizations with warnings of cardiovascular disease. Here, we meta-analyze published and unpublished cardiovascular outcome trial data of romosozumab and investigate whether genetic variants that mimic therapeutic inhibition of sclerostin are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Meta-analysis of up to three RCTs indicated a probable higher risk of cardiovascular events with romosozumab. Scaled to the equivalent dose of romosozumab (210 milligrams per month; 0.09 grams per square centimeter of higher bone mineral density), the SOST genetic variants were associated with lower risk of fracture and osteoporosis (commensurate with the therapeutic effect of romosozumab) and with a higher risk of myocardial infarction and/or coronary revascularization and major adverse cardiovascular events. The same variants were also associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and higher systolic blood pressure and central adiposity. Together, our findings indicate that inhibition of sclerostin may elevate cardiovascular risk, warranting a rigorous evaluation of the cardiovascular safety of romosozumab and other sclerostin inhibitors.

3.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 481-493, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804560

RESUMO

Reduced lung function predicts mortality and is key to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a genome-wide association study in 400,102 individuals of European ancestry, we define 279 lung function signals, 139 of which are new. In combination, these variants strongly predict COPD in independent populations. Furthermore, the combined effect of these variants showed generalizability across smokers and never smokers, and across ancestral groups. We highlight biological pathways, known and potential drug targets for COPD and, in phenome-wide association studies, autoimmune-related and other pleiotropic effects of lung function-associated variants. This new genetic evidence has potential to improve future preventive and therapeutic strategies for COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 71(6): 620-632, 2018 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29420958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood lipids are established risk factors for myocardial infarction (MI), but uncertainty persists about the relevance of lipids, lipoprotein particles, and circulating metabolites for MI and stroke subtypes. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the associations of plasma metabolic markers with risks of incident MI, ischemic stroke (IS), and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: In a nested case-control study (912 MI, 1,146 IS, and 1,138 ICH cases, and 1,466 common control subjects) 30 to 79 years of age in China Kadoorie Biobank, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measured 225 metabolic markers in baseline plasma samples. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for a 1-SD higher metabolic marker. RESULTS: Very low-, intermediate-, and low-density lipoprotein particles were positively associated with MI and IS. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles were inversely associated with MI apart from small HDL. In contrast, no lipoprotein particles were associated with ICH. Cholesterol in large HDL was inversely associated with MI and IS (OR: 0.79 and 0.88, respectively), whereas cholesterol in small HDL was not (OR: 0.99 and 1.06, respectively). Triglycerides within all lipoproteins, including most HDL particles, were positively associated with MI, with a similar pattern for IS. Glycoprotein acetyls, ketone bodies, glucose, and docosahexaenoic acid were associated with all 3 diseases. The 225 metabolic markers showed concordant associations between MI and IS, but not with ICH. CONCLUSIONS: Lipoproteins and lipids showed similar associations with MI and IS, but not with ICH. Within HDL particles, cholesterol concentrations were inversely associated, whereas triglyceride concentrations were positively associated with MI. Glycoprotein acetyls and several non-lipid-related metabolites associated with all 3 diseases.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Metabolômica/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico
5.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(1): 34-43, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29141072

RESUMO

Importance: Increasing levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol through pharmacologic inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a potentially important strategy for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: To use genetic variants in the CETP gene to assess potential risks and benefits of lifelong lower CETP activity on CVD and other outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective biobank study included 151 217 individuals aged 30 to 79 years who were enrolled from 5 urban and 5 rural areas of China from June 25, 2004, through July 15, 2008. All participants had baseline genotype data, 17 854 of whom had lipid measurements and 4657 of whom had lipoprotein particle measurements. Median follow-up of 9.2 years (interquartile range, 8.2-10.1 years) was completed January 1, 2016, through linkage to health insurance records and death and disease registries. Exposures: Five CETP variants, including an East Asian loss-of-function variant (rs2303790), combined in a genetic score weighted to associations with HDL cholesterol levels. Main Outcomes and Measures: Baseline levels of lipids and lipoprotein particles, cardiovascular risk factors, incidence of carotid plaque and predefined major vascular and nonvascular diseases, and a phenome-wide range of diseases. Results: Among the 151 217 individuals included in this study (58.4% women and 41.6% men), the mean (SD) age was 52.3 (10.9) years. Overall, the mean (SD) low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was 91 (27) mg/dL; HDL cholesterol level, 48 (12) mg/dL. CETP variants were strongly associated with higher concentrations of HDL cholesterol (eg, 6.1 [SE, 0.4] mg/dL per rs2303790-G allele; P = 9.4 × 10-47) but were not associated with lower LDL cholesterol levels. Within HDL particles, cholesterol esters were increased and triglycerides reduced, whereas within very low-density lipoprotein particles, cholesterol esters were reduced and triglycerides increased. When scaled to 10-mg/dL higher levels of HDL cholesterol, the CETP genetic score was not associated with occlusive CVD (18 550 events; odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% CI, 0.91-1.06), major coronary events (5767 events; OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.95-1.22), myocardial infarction (3118 events; OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.97-1.35), ischemic stroke (13 759 events; OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.86-1.02), intracerebral hemorrhage (6532 events; OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.83-1.06), or other vascular diseases or carotid plaque. Similarly, rs2303790 was not associated with any vascular diseases or plaque. No associations with nonvascular diseases were found other than an increased risk for eye diseases with rs2303790 (4090 events; OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.13-1.80; P = .003). Conclusions and Relevance: CETP variants were associated with altered HDL metabolism but did not lower LDL cholesterol levels and had no significant association with risk for CVD. These results suggest that in the absence of reduced LDL cholesterol levels, increasing HDL cholesterol levels by inhibition of CETP may not confer significant benefits for CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , HDL-Colesterol/genética , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/genética , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etnologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde da População Rural , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Saúde da População Urbana
6.
Biol Psychiatry ; 77(8): 749-63, 2015 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25648963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Memory performance in older persons can reflect genetic influences on cognitive function and dementing processes. We aimed to identify genetic contributions to verbal declarative memory in a community setting. METHODS: We conducted genome-wide association studies for paragraph or word list delayed recall in 19 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, comprising 29,076 dementia- and stroke-free individuals of European descent, aged ≥45 years. Replication of suggestive associations (p < 5 × 10(-6)) was sought in 10,617 participants of European descent, 3811 African-Americans, and 1561 young adults. RESULTS: rs4420638, near APOE, was associated with poorer delayed recall performance in discovery (p = 5.57 × 10(-10)) and replication cohorts (p = 5.65 × 10(-8)). This association was stronger for paragraph than word list delayed recall and in the oldest persons. Two associations with specific tests, in subsets of the total sample, reached genome-wide significance in combined analyses of discovery and replication (rs11074779 [HS3ST4], p = 3.11 × 10(-8), and rs6813517 [SPOCK3], p = 2.58 × 10(-8)) near genes involved in immune response. A genetic score combining 58 independent suggestive memory risk variants was associated with increasing Alzheimer disease pathology in 725 autopsy samples. Association of memory risk loci with gene expression in 138 human hippocampus samples showed cis-associations with WDR48 and CLDN5, both related to ubiquitin metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: This largest study to date exploring the genetics of memory function in ~40,000 older individuals revealed genome-wide associations and suggested an involvement of immune and ubiquitin pathways.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Transtornos da Memória/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Claudina-5/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas/genética , Proteoglicanas/genética , Análise de Regressão , Sulfotransferases/genética
7.
J Psychiatr Res ; 62: 48-55, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25708817

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder characterised by recurrent episodes of mania and depression. Many studies have reported altered gene expression in BD, some of which may be attributable to the dysregulated expression of miRNAs. Studies carried out to date have largely studied medicated patients, so it is possible that observed changes in miRNA expression might be a consequence of clinical illness or of its treatment. We sought to establish whether altered miRNA expression might play a causative role in the development of BD by studying young, unmedicated relatives of individuals with BD, who are at a higher genetic risk of developing BD themselves (high-risk individuals). The expression of 20 miRNAs previously implicated in either BD or schizophrenia was measured by qRT-PCR in whole-blood samples from 34 high-risk and 46 control individuals. Three miRNAs, miR-15b, miR-132 and miR-652 were up-regulated in the high-risk individuals, consistent with previous reports of increased expression of these miRNAs in patients with schizophrenia. Our findings suggest that the altered expression of these miRNAs might represent a mechanism of genetic susceptibility for BD. Moreover, our observation of altered miRNA expression in the blood prior to the onset of illness provides hope that one day blood-based tests may aid in the risk-stratification and treatment of BD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Saúde da Família , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 6(1): e16263, 2011 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21298101

RESUMO

We re-annotated the interacting partners of the neuronal scaffold protein DISC1 using a knowledge-based approach that incorporated recent protein interaction data and published literature to. This revealed two highly connected networks. These networks feature cellular function and maintenance, and cell signaling. Of potentially greatest interest was the novel finding of a high degree of connectivity between the DISC1 scaffold protein, linked to psychiatric illness, and huntingtin, the protein which is mutated in Huntington's disease. The potential link between DISC1, huntingtin and their interacting partners may open new areas of research into the effects of pathway dysregulation in severe neurological disorders.


Assuntos
Doença de Huntington/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Proteína Huntingtina , Doença de Huntington/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
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