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1.
Genet Med ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110268

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Genetic testing is routine practice for individuals with unexplained developmental disabilities and multiple congenital anomalies. However, current testing pathways can be costly and time consuming, and the diagnostic yield low. Genome-wide sequencing, including exome sequencing (ES) and genome sequencing (GS), can improve diagnosis, but at a higher cost. This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of genome-wide sequencing in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using a discrete event simulation from a public payer perspective. Six strategies involving ES or GS were compared. Outcomes reported were direct medical costs, number of molecular diagnoses, number of positive findings, and number of active treatment changes. RESULTS: If ES was used as a second-tier test (after the current first-tier, chromosomal microarray, fails to provide a diagnosis), it would be less costly and more effective than standard testing (CAN$6357 [95% CI: 6179-6520] vs. CAN$8783 per patient [95% CI: 2309-31,123]). If ES was used after standard testing, it would cost an additional CAN$15,228 to identify the genetic diagnosis for one additional patient compared with standard testing. The results remained robust when parameters and assumptions were varied. CONCLUSION: ES would likely be cost-saving if used earlier in the diagnostic pathway.

2.
Genet Med ; 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741968

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Inherited axonopathies (IA) are rare, clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases that lead to length-dependent degeneration of the long axons in central (hereditary spastic paraplegia [HSP]) and peripheral (Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 [CMT2]) nervous systems. Mendelian high-penetrance alleles in over 100 different genes have been shown to cause IA; however, about 50% of IA cases do not receive a genetic diagnosis. A more comprehensive spectrum of causative genes and alleles is warranted, including causative and risk alleles, as well as oligogenic multilocus inheritance. METHODS: Through international collaboration, IA exome studies are beginning to be sufficiently powered to perform a pilot rare variant burden analysis. After extensive quality control, our cohort contained 343 CMT cases, 515 HSP cases, and 935 non-neurological controls. We assessed the cumulative mutational burden across disease genes, explored the evidence for multilocus inheritance, and performed an exome-wide rare variant burden analysis. RESULTS: We replicated the previously described mutational burden in a much larger cohort of CMT cases, and observed the same effect in HSP cases. We identified a preliminary risk allele for CMT in the EXOC4 gene (p value= 6.9 × 10-6, odds ratio [OR] = 2.1) and explored the possibility of multilocus inheritance in IA. CONCLUSION: Our results support the continuing emergence of complex inheritance mechanisms in historically Mendelian disorders.

3.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588908

RESUMO

We investigated seven children from six families to expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with an early infantile epileptic encephalopathy caused by biallelic pathogenic variants in the phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class Q (PIGQ) gene. The affected children were all identified by clinical or research exome sequencing. Clinical data, including EEGs and MRIs, was comprehensively reviewed and flow cytometry and transfection experiments were performed to investigate PIGQ function. Pathogenic biallelic PIGQ variants were associated with increased mortality. Epileptic seizures, axial hypotonia, developmental delay and multiple congenital anomalies were consistently observed. Seizure onset occurred between 2.5 months and 7 months of age and varied from treatable seizures to recurrent episodes of status epilepticus. Gastrointestinal issues were common and severe, two affected individuals had midgut volvulus requiring surgical correction. Cardiac anomalies including arrythmias were observed. Flow cytometry using granulocytes and fibroblasts from affected individuals showed reduced expression of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. Transfection of wildtype PIGQ cDNA into patient fibroblasts rescued this phenotype. We expand the phenotypic spectrum of PIGQ-related disease and provide the first functional evidence in human cells of defective GPI-anchoring due to pathogenic variants in PIGQ.

4.
Genetics ; 215(4): 1055-1066, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554600

RESUMO

Dravet syndrome is a developmental epileptic encephalopathy caused by pathogenic variation in SCN1A To characterize the pathogenic substitution (p.H939R) of a local individual with Dravet syndrome, fibroblast cells from the individual were reprogrammed to pluripotent stem cells and differentiated into neurons. Sodium currents of these neurons were compared with healthy control induced neurons. A novel Scn1a H939R/+ mouse model was generated with the p.H939R substitution. Immunohistochemistry and electrophysiological experiments were performed on hippocampal slices of Scn1a H939R/+ mice. We found that the sodium currents recorded in the proband-induced neurons were significantly smaller and slower compared to wild type (WT). The resting membrane potential and spike amplitude were significantly depolarized in the proband-induced neurons. Similar differences in resting membrane potential and spike amplitude were observed in the interneurons of the hippocampus of Scn1a H939R/+ mice. The Scn1a H939R/+ mice showed the characteristic features of a Dravet-like phenotype: increased mortality and both spontaneous and heat-induced seizures. Immunohistochemistry showed a reduction in amount of parvalbumin and vesicular acetylcholine transporter in the hippocampus of Scn1a H939R/+ compared to WT mice. Overall, these results underline hyper-excitability of the hippocampal CA1 circuit of this novel mouse model of Dravet syndrome which, under certain conditions, such as temperature, can trigger seizure activity. This hyper-excitability is due to the altered electrophysiological properties of pyramidal neurons and interneurons which are caused by the dysfunction of the sodium channel bearing the p.H939R substitution. This novel Dravet syndrome model also highlights the reduction in acetylcholine and the contribution of pyramidal cells, in addition to interneurons, to network hyper-excitability.

6.
Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet ; 21: 351-372, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283948

RESUMO

Accurate diagnosis is the cornerstone of medicine; it is essential for informed care and promoting patient and family well-being. However, families with a rare genetic disease (RGD) often spend more than five years on a diagnostic odyssey of specialist visits and invasive testing that is lengthy, costly, and often futile, as 50% of patients do not receive a molecular diagnosis. The current diagnostic paradigm is not well designed for RGDs, especially for patients who remain undiagnosed after the initial set of investigations, and thus requires an expansion of approaches in the clinic. Leveraging opportunities to participate in research programs that utilize new technologies to understand RGDs is an important path forward for patients seeking a diagnosis. Given recent advancements in such technologies and international initiatives, the prospect of identifying a molecular diagnosis for all patients with RGDs has never been so attainable, but achieving this goal will require global cooperation at an unprecedented scale.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(2): 143-152, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032513

RESUMO

Advances in genomics have transformed our ability to identify the genetic causes of rare diseases (RDs), yet we have a limited understanding of the mechanistic roles of most genes in health and disease. When a novel RD gene is first discovered, there is minimal insight into its biological function, the pathogenic mechanisms of disease-causing variants, and how therapy might be approached. To address this gap, the Canadian Rare Diseases Models and Mechanisms (RDMM) Network was established to connect clinicians discovering new disease genes with Canadian scientists able to study equivalent genes and pathways in model organisms (MOs). The Network is built around a registry of more than 500 Canadian MO scientists, representing expertise for over 7,500 human genes. RDMM uses a committee process to identify and evaluate clinician-MO scientist collaborations and approve 25,000 Canadian dollars in catalyst funding. To date, we have made 85 clinician-MO scientist connections and funded 105 projects. These collaborations help confirm variant pathogenicity and unravel the molecular mechanisms of RD, and also test novel therapies and lead to long-term collaborations. To expand the impact and reach of this model, we made the RDMM Registry open-source, portable, and customizable, and we freely share our committee structures and processes. We are currently working with emerging networks in Europe, Australia, and Japan to link international RDMM networks and registries and enable matches across borders. We will continue to create meaningful collaborations, generate knowledge, and advance RD research locally and globally for the benefit of patients and families living with RD.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Marcadores Genéticos , Doenças Raras/genética , Doenças Raras/terapia , Sistema de Registros/normas , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Genômica , Humanos , Doenças Raras/epidemiologia
9.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(2): 103655, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034989

RESUMO

LGMD1D is an autosomal dominant limb girdle muscular dystrophy caused by variants in the DNAJB6 gene. This is typically an adult-onset disorder characterized by moderately progressive proximal muscle weakness without respiratory or bulbar involvement; however phenotypic variability is often observed with some individuals having earlier onset and more severe symptoms. Here, we present a family with a novel NM_005494.2:c.271T > G p.(Phe91Val) variant in DNAJB6 with a late-onset, mild and slowly progressive form of the disease, including one individual, who in her 7th decade of life has subclinical LGMD1D with only mild features on muscle biopsy and MRI. Unlike previously reported cases where missense variants affecting the Phe91 amino acid residue are associated with a more severe form of the disease, this family represents the mild end of the LGMD1D clinical spectrum. Therefore, this family adds further complexity to the genotype-phenotype correlation in DNAJB6-associated muscular dystrophies.

11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(1): 76-87, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395947

RESUMO

PTPN23 is a His-domain protein-tyrosine phosphatase implicated in ciliogenesis, the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway, and RNA splicing. Until recently, no defined human phenotype had been associated with alterations in this gene. We identified and report a cohort of seven patients with either homozygous or compound heterozygous rare deleterious variants in PTPN23. Combined with four patients previously reported, a total of 11 patients with this disorder have now been identified. We expand the phenotypic and variation spectrum associated with defects in this gene. Patients have strong phenotypic overlap, suggesting a defined autosomal recessive syndrome caused by reduced function of PTPN23. Shared characteristics of affected individuals include developmental delay, brain abnormalities (mainly ventriculomegaly and/or brain atrophy), intellectual disability, spasticity, language disorder, microcephaly, optic atrophy, and seizures. We observe a broad range of variants across patients that are likely strongly reducing the expression or disrupting the function of the protein. However, we do not observe any patients with an allele combination predicted to result in complete loss of function of PTPN23, as this is likely incompatible with life, consistent with reported embryonic lethality in the mouse. None of the observed or reported variants are recurrent, although some have been identified in homozygosis in patients from consanguineous populations. This study expands the phenotypic and molecular spectrum of PTPN23 associated disease and identifies major shared features among patients affected with this disorder, while providing additional support to the important role of PTPN23 in human nervous and visual system development and function.

12.
Can J Neurol Sci ; : 1-8, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition that shows a marked genetic predisposition. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has transformed clinical genetic testing by allowing the rapid screen for causative variants in multiple genes. There are currently no NGS-based multigene panel diagnostic tests available for epilepsy as a licensed clinical diagnostic test in Ontario, Canada. Eligible patient samples are sent out of country for testing by commercial laboratories, which incurs significant cost to the public healthcare system. OBJECTIVE: An expert Working Group of medical geneticists, pediatric neurologists/epileptologists, biochemical geneticists, and clinical molecular geneticists from Ontario was formed by the Laboratories and Genetics Branch of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care to develop a programmatic approach to implementing epilepsy panel testing as a provincial service. RESULTS: The Working Group made several recommendations for testing to support the clinical delivery of care in Ontario. First, an extension of community healthcare outcomes-based program should be incorporated to inform and educate ordering providers when requesting and interpreting a genetic panel test. Second, any gene panel testing must be "evidence-based" and takes into account varied clinical indications to reduce the chance of uncertain and secondary results. Finally, an ongoing evaluative process was recommended to ensure continued test improvement for the future. CONCLUSION: This epilepsy panel testing implementation plan will be a model for genetic care directed toward a specific set of conditions in the province and serve as a prototype for genetic testing for other genetically heterogeneous diseases.

13.
Clin Genet ; 96(5): 449-455, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392718

RESUMO

The p21-activated kinase (PAK) family of proteins function as key effectors of RHO family GTPases in mammalian cells to regulate many pathways including Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and Wnt/ß-catenin, amongst others. Here we report an individual with a novel autosomal dominant disorder characterized by severe regressive autism, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. Exome sequencing of the proband and her parents revealed a de novo variant in the PAK1 gene ([NM_001128620] c.362C>T/p.Pro121Leu). Studies in patient cells showed a clear effect on PAK1 protein function, including altered phosphorylation of targets (JNK and ERK), decreased abundance of ß-catenin, and concomitant altered expression downstream of these key regulators. Our findings add PAK1 to the list of PAK proteins and kinases which when mutated cause rare genetic diseases.

14.
J Neuromuscul Dis ; 6(3): 333-339, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356216

RESUMO

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders affecting both motor and sensory neurons. Exome sequencing has driven discovery of genes responsible for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease with more than 70 genes now associated with this neuromuscular disease. The MARS gene was recently reported as the cause of Charcot-Marie-Tooth 2U, a slowly progressive axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy with adult-onset reported in six patients. We report here a patient with a progressive, early childhood-onset, motor-predominant form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Exome sequencing identified a novel MARS variant (c.1189G>A; p.Ala397Thr) that was not present in her unaffected mother; her unaffected father was unavailable. Further studies using structural modeling and a yeast humanization assay support pathogenicity of the variant. Our study expands the phenotype of Charcot-Marie-Tooth 2U, while highlighting the utility of functional assays to evaluate variant pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth/genética , Metionina tRNA Ligase/genética , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação , Fenótipo , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína
15.
Genet Med ; 21(11): 2662, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316168

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

16.
Genet Med ; 21(12): 2798-2806, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239560

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Exome sequencing (ES) can rapidly identify disease-causing variants responsible for rare, single-gene diseases, and potentially reduce the duration of the diagnostic odyssey. Our study examines how parents and families value ES. METHODS: We developed a discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey that was administered to parents of children with rare diseases. The DCE included 14 choice tasks with 6 attributes and 3 alternatives. A valuation-space model was used to estimate willingness to pay, willingness to wait for test results, and minimum acceptable chance of a diagnosis for changes in each attribute. RESULTS: There were n = 319 respondents of whom 89% reported their child had genetic testing, and 66% reported their child had a diagnosis. Twenty-six percent reported that their child had been offered ES. Parents were willing to pay CAD$6590 (US$4943), wait 5.2 years to obtain diagnostic test results, and accept a reduction of 3.1% in the chance of a diagnosis for ES compared with operative procedures. CONCLUSION: Timely access to ES could reduce the diagnostic odyssey and associated costs. Before ES is incorporated routinely into care for patients with rare diseases in Canada and more broadly, there must be a clear understanding of its value to patients and families.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/ética , Preferência do Paciente/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá , Comportamento de Escolha/ética , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais/psicologia , Doenças Raras/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/ética
17.
Nat Med ; 25(6): 911-919, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160820

RESUMO

It is estimated that 350 million individuals worldwide suffer from rare diseases, which are predominantly caused by mutation in a single gene1. The current molecular diagnostic rate is estimated at 50%, with whole-exome sequencing (WES) among the most successful approaches2-5. For patients in whom WES is uninformative, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has shown diagnostic utility in specific tissues and diseases6-8. This includes muscle biopsies from patients with undiagnosed rare muscle disorders6,9, and cultured fibroblasts from patients with mitochondrial disorders7. However, for many individuals, biopsies are not performed for clinical care, and tissues are difficult to access. We sought to assess the utility of RNA-seq from blood as a diagnostic tool for rare diseases of different pathophysiologies. We generated whole-blood RNA-seq from 94 individuals with undiagnosed rare diseases spanning 16 diverse disease categories. We developed a robust approach to compare data from these individuals with large sets of RNA-seq data for controls (n = 1,594 unrelated controls and n = 49 family members) and demonstrated the impacts of expression, splicing, gene and variant filtering strategies on disease gene identification. Across our cohort, we observed that RNA-seq yields a 7.5% diagnostic rate, and an additional 16.7% with improved candidate gene resolution.


Assuntos
Doenças Raras/genética , Ceramidase Ácida/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Mutação , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/genética , Canais de Potássio/genética , RNA/sangue , RNA/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , Doenças Raras/sangue , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
18.
Ann Neurol ; 86(2): 225-240, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify disease-causing variants in autosomal recessive axonal polyneuropathy with optic atrophy and provide targeted replacement therapy. METHODS: We performed genome-wide sequencing, homozygosity mapping, and segregation analysis for novel disease-causing gene discovery. We used circular dichroism to show secondary structure changes and isothermal titration calorimetry to investigate the impact of variants on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding. Pathogenicity was further supported by enzymatic assays and mass spectroscopy on recombinant protein, patient-derived fibroblasts, plasma, and erythrocytes. Response to supplementation was measured with clinical validated rating scales, electrophysiology, and biochemical quantification. RESULTS: We identified biallelic mutations in PDXK in 5 individuals from 2 unrelated families with primary axonal polyneuropathy and optic atrophy. The natural history of this disorder suggests that untreated, affected individuals become wheelchair-bound and blind. We identified conformational rearrangement in the mutant enzyme around the ATP-binding pocket. Low PDXK ATP binding resulted in decreased erythrocyte PDXK activity and low pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) concentrations. We rescued the clinical and biochemical profile with PLP supplementation in 1 family, improvement in power, pain, and fatigue contributing to patients regaining their ability to walk independently during the first year of PLP normalization. INTERPRETATION: We show that mutations in PDXK cause autosomal recessive axonal peripheral polyneuropathy leading to disease via reduced PDXK enzymatic activity and low PLP. We show that the biochemical profile can be rescued with PLP supplementation associated with clinical improvement. As B6 is a cofactor in diverse essential biological pathways, our findings may have direct implications for neuropathies of unknown etiology characterized by reduced PLP levels. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:225-240.


Assuntos
Mutação/genética , Polineuropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Polineuropatias/genética , Piridoxal Quinase/genética , Fosfato de Piridoxal/administração & dosagem , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Eur J Med Genet ; 62(7): 103662, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071488

RESUMO

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are a group of genetically heterogeneous muscular diseases that predominantly affect the proximal muscles. Pathogenic variants in TNPO3 have been associated with a rare, autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1F (LGMD1F) in a large Italian-Spanish family and an isolated LGMD1F case. Here we present two individuals from a Hungarian family with an early-onset, slowly progressive muscular dystrophy. Both the female proband and her affected son had delayed early motor milestones including first walking at 14 months and 18 months, respectively. Both present with progressive weakness of facial, bulbar, axial, and distal muscles especially of the lower extremities. Electromyography indicated myogenic damage and muscle biopsy from the proband showed myopathic alterations with sarcoplasmic masses and signs of mitochondrial dysfunction. Exome sequencing of the female proband identified a novel c.2767delC p.(Arg923AspfsTer17) variant in TNPO3. Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of the TNPO3 variant in the affected son; the unaffected son did not have the variant. The identification of the c.2767delC variant further supports the clinical significance of TNPO3 and expands the clinical spectrum of TNPO3-associated LGMD1F.


Assuntos
Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/genética , beta Carioferinas/genética , Adulto , Exoma , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/patologia , Mutação , Linhagem
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