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1.
Can J Neurol Sci ; : 1-8, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition that shows a marked genetic predisposition. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has transformed clinical genetic testing by allowing the rapid screen for causative variants in multiple genes. There are currently no NGS-based multigene panel diagnostic tests available for epilepsy as a licensed clinical diagnostic test in Ontario, Canada. Eligible patient samples are sent out of country for testing by commercial laboratories, which incurs significant cost to the public healthcare system. OBJECTIVE: An expert Working Group of medical geneticists, pediatric neurologists/epileptologists, biochemical geneticists, and clinical molecular geneticists from Ontario was formed by the Laboratories and Genetics Branch of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care to develop a programmatic approach to implementing epilepsy panel testing as a provincial service. RESULTS: The Working Group made several recommendations for testing to support the clinical delivery of care in Ontario. First, an extension of community healthcare outcomes-based program should be incorporated to inform and educate ordering providers when requesting and interpreting a genetic panel test. Second, any gene panel testing must be "evidence-based" and takes into account varied clinical indications to reduce the chance of uncertain and secondary results. Finally, an ongoing evaluative process was recommended to ensure continued test improvement for the future. CONCLUSION: This epilepsy panel testing implementation plan will be a model for genetic care directed toward a specific set of conditions in the province and serve as a prototype for genetic testing for other genetically heterogeneous diseases.

2.
Clin Genet ; 96(5): 449-455, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392718

RESUMO

The p21-activated kinase (PAK) family of proteins function as key effectors of RHO family GTPases in mammalian cells to regulate many pathways including Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and Wnt/ß-catenin, amongst others. Here we report an individual with a novel autosomal dominant disorder characterized by severe regressive autism, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. Exome sequencing of the proband and her parents revealed a de novo variant in the PAK1 gene ([NM_001128620] c.362C>T/p.Pro121Leu). Studies in patient cells showed a clear effect on PAK1 protein function, including altered phosphorylation of targets (JNK and ERK), decreased abundance of ß-catenin, and concomitant altered expression downstream of these key regulators. Our findings add PAK1 to the list of PAK proteins and kinases which when mutated cause rare genetic diseases.

3.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395947

RESUMO

PTPN23 is a His-domain protein-tyrosine phosphatase implicated in ciliogenesis, the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway, and RNA splicing. Until recently, no defined human phenotype had been associated with alterations in this gene. We identified and report a cohort of seven patients with either homozygous or compound heterozygous rare deleterious variants in PTPN23. Combined with four patients previously reported, a total of 11 patients with this disorder have now been identified. We expand the phenotypic and variation spectrum associated with defects in this gene. Patients have strong phenotypic overlap, suggesting a defined autosomal recessive syndrome caused by reduced function of PTPN23. Shared characteristics of affected individuals include developmental delay, brain abnormalities (mainly ventriculomegaly and/or brain atrophy), intellectual disability, spasticity, language disorder, microcephaly, optic atrophy, and seizures. We observe a broad range of variants across patients that are likely strongly reducing the expression or disrupting the function of the protein. However, we do not observe any patients with an allele combination predicted to result in complete loss of function of PTPN23, as this is likely incompatible with life, consistent with reported embryonic lethality in the mouse. None of the observed or reported variants are recurrent, although some have been identified in homozygosis in patients from consanguineous populations. This study expands the phenotypic and molecular spectrum of PTPN23 associated disease and identifies major shared features among patients affected with this disorder, while providing additional support to the important role of PTPN23 in human nervous and visual system development and function.

4.
J Neuromuscul Dis ; 6(3): 333-339, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356216

RESUMO

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders affecting both motor and sensory neurons. Exome sequencing has driven discovery of genes responsible for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease with more than 70 genes now associated with this neuromuscular disease. The MARS gene was recently reported as the cause of Charcot-Marie-Tooth 2U, a slowly progressive axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy with adult-onset reported in six patients. We report here a patient with a progressive, early childhood-onset, motor-predominant form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Exome sequencing identified a novel MARS variant (c.1189G>A; p.Ala397Thr) that was not present in her unaffected mother; her unaffected father was unavailable. Further studies using structural modeling and a yeast humanization assay support pathogenicity of the variant. Our study expands the phenotype of Charcot-Marie-Tooth 2U, while highlighting the utility of functional assays to evaluate variant pathogenicity.

5.
Genet Med ; 21(11): 2662, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316168

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

6.
Nat Med ; 25(6): 911-919, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160820

RESUMO

It is estimated that 350 million individuals worldwide suffer from rare diseases, which are predominantly caused by mutation in a single gene1. The current molecular diagnostic rate is estimated at 50%, with whole-exome sequencing (WES) among the most successful approaches2-5. For patients in whom WES is uninformative, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has shown diagnostic utility in specific tissues and diseases6-8. This includes muscle biopsies from patients with undiagnosed rare muscle disorders6,9, and cultured fibroblasts from patients with mitochondrial disorders7. However, for many individuals, biopsies are not performed for clinical care, and tissues are difficult to access. We sought to assess the utility of RNA-seq from blood as a diagnostic tool for rare diseases of different pathophysiologies. We generated whole-blood RNA-seq from 94 individuals with undiagnosed rare diseases spanning 16 diverse disease categories. We developed a robust approach to compare data from these individuals with large sets of RNA-seq data for controls (n = 1,594 unrelated controls and n = 49 family members) and demonstrated the impacts of expression, splicing, gene and variant filtering strategies on disease gene identification. Across our cohort, we observed that RNA-seq yields a 7.5% diagnostic rate, and an additional 16.7% with improved candidate gene resolution.


Assuntos
Doenças Raras/genética , Ceramidase Ácida/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Mutação , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/genética , Canais de Potássio/genética , RNA/sangue , RNA/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , Doenças Raras/sangue , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
7.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239560

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Exome sequencing (ES) can rapidly identify disease-causing variants responsible for rare, single-gene diseases, and potentially reduce the duration of the diagnostic odyssey. Our study examines how parents and families value ES. METHODS: We developed a discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey that was administered to parents of children with rare diseases. The DCE included 14 choice tasks with 6 attributes and 3 alternatives. A valuation-space model was used to estimate willingness to pay, willingness to wait for test results, and minimum acceptable chance of a diagnosis for changes in each attribute. RESULTS: There were n = 319 respondents of whom 89% reported their child had genetic testing, and 66% reported their child had a diagnosis. Twenty-six percent reported that their child had been offered ES. Parents were willing to pay CAD$6590 (US$4943), wait 5.2 years to obtain diagnostic test results, and accept a reduction of 3.1% in the chance of a diagnosis for ES compared with operative procedures. CONCLUSION: Timely access to ES could reduce the diagnostic odyssey and associated costs. Before ES is incorporated routinely into care for patients with rare diseases in Canada and more broadly, there must be a clear understanding of its value to patients and families.

9.
Ann Neurol ; 86(2): 225-240, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify disease-causing variants in autosomal recessive axonal polyneuropathy with optic atrophy and provide targeted replacement therapy. METHODS: We performed genome-wide sequencing, homozygosity mapping, and segregation analysis for novel disease-causing gene discovery. We used circular dichroism to show secondary structure changes and isothermal titration calorimetry to investigate the impact of variants on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding. Pathogenicity was further supported by enzymatic assays and mass spectroscopy on recombinant protein, patient-derived fibroblasts, plasma, and erythrocytes. Response to supplementation was measured with clinical validated rating scales, electrophysiology, and biochemical quantification. RESULTS: We identified biallelic mutations in PDXK in 5 individuals from 2 unrelated families with primary axonal polyneuropathy and optic atrophy. The natural history of this disorder suggests that untreated, affected individuals become wheelchair-bound and blind. We identified conformational rearrangement in the mutant enzyme around the ATP-binding pocket. Low PDXK ATP binding resulted in decreased erythrocyte PDXK activity and low pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) concentrations. We rescued the clinical and biochemical profile with PLP supplementation in 1 family, improvement in power, pain, and fatigue contributing to patients regaining their ability to walk independently during the first year of PLP normalization. INTERPRETATION: We show that mutations in PDXK cause autosomal recessive axonal peripheral polyneuropathy leading to disease via reduced PDXK enzymatic activity and low PLP. We show that the biochemical profile can be rescued with PLP supplementation associated with clinical improvement. As B6 is a cofactor in diverse essential biological pathways, our findings may have direct implications for neuropathies of unknown etiology characterized by reduced PLP levels. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:225-240.

10.
Eur J Med Genet ; 62(7): 103662, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071488

RESUMO

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are a group of genetically heterogeneous muscular diseases that predominantly affect the proximal muscles. Pathogenic variants in TNPO3 have been associated with a rare, autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1F (LGMD1F) in a large Italian-Spanish family and an isolated LGMD1F case. Here we present two individuals from a Hungarian family with an early-onset, slowly progressive muscular dystrophy. Both the female proband and her affected son had delayed early motor milestones including first walking at 14 months and 18 months, respectively. Both present with progressive weakness of facial, bulbar, axial, and distal muscles especially of the lower extremities. Electromyography indicated myogenic damage and muscle biopsy from the proband showed myopathic alterations with sarcoplasmic masses and signs of mitochondrial dysfunction. Exome sequencing of the female proband identified a novel c.2767delC p.(Arg923AspfsTer17) variant in TNPO3. Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of the TNPO3 variant in the affected son; the unaffected son did not have the variant. The identification of the c.2767delC variant further supports the clinical significance of TNPO3 and expands the clinical spectrum of TNPO3-associated LGMD1F.


Assuntos
Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/genética , beta Carioferinas/genética , Adulto , Exoma , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/patologia , Mutação , Linhagem
11.
Eur J Med Genet ; : 103655, 2019 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034989

RESUMO

LGMD1D is an autosomal dominant limb girdle muscular dystrophy caused by variants in the DNAJB6 gene. This is typically an adult-onset disorder characterized by moderately progressive proximal muscle weakness without respiratory or bulbar involvement; however phenotypic variability is often observed with some individuals having earlier onset and more severe symptoms. Here, we present a family with a novel NM_005494.2:c.271T > G p.(Phe91Val) variant in DNAJB6 with a late-onset, mild and slowly progressive form of the disease, including one individual, who in her 7th decade of life has subclinical LGMD1D with only mild features on muscle biopsy and MRI. Unlike previously reported cases where missense variants affecting the Phe91 amino acid residue are associated with a more severe form of the disease, this family represents the mild end of the LGMD1D clinical spectrum. Therefore, this family adds further complexity to the genotype-phenotype correlation in DNAJB6-associated muscular dystrophies.

13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(5): 813-816, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838783

RESUMO

Neu-Laxova syndrome (NLS) is a lethal autosomal recessive microcephaly syndrome associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and multiple congenital anomalies. Clinical features include central nervous system malformations, joint contractures, ichthyosis, edema, and dysmorphic facial features. Biallelic pathogenic variants in either the PHGDH or PSAT1 genes have been shown to cause NLS. Using exome sequencing, we aimed to identify the underlying genetic diagnosis in three fetuses (from one family) with prenatal skin edema, severe IUGR, micrognathia, renal anomalies, and arthrogryposis and identified a homozygous c.1A>C (p.Met1?, NM_006623.3) variant in the PHGDH gene. Loss of the translation start codon is a novel genetic mechanism for the development of NLS. Prenatal diagnosis of NLS is challenging and few reports describe the fetal pathology. Fetal neuropathologic examination revealed: delayed brain development, congenital agenesis of the corticospinal tracts, and hypoplasia of the hippocampus, cerebellum and brainstem. Each pregnancy also showed increased nuchal translucency (NT) or cystic hygroma. While NLS is rare, it may be a cause of recurrent increased NT/cystic hygroma. This finding provides further support that cystic hygroma has many different genetic causes and that exome sequencing may shed light on the underlying genetic diagnoses in this group of prenatal patients.

14.
Cell ; 177(1): 32-37, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901545

RESUMO

The introduction of exome sequencing in the clinic has sparked tremendous optimism for the future of rare disease diagnosis, and there is exciting opportunity to further leverage these advances. To provide diagnostic clarity to all of these patients, however, there is a critical need for the field to develop and implement strategies to understand the mechanisms underlying all rare diseases and translate these to clinical care.

15.
Clin Genet ; 95(5): 601-606, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790272

RESUMO

The GTPBP2 gene encodes a guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein of unknown function. Biallelic loss-of-function variants in the GTPBP2 gene have been previously reported in association with a neuro-ectodermal clinical presentation in six individuals from four unrelated families. Here, we provide detailed descriptions of three additional individuals from two unrelated families in the context of the previous literature. Both families carry nonsense variants in GTPBP2: homozygous p.(Arg470*) and compound heterozygous p.(Arg432*)/p.(Arg131*). Key features of this clinically recognizable condition include prenatal onset microcephaly, tone abnormalities, and movement disorders, epilepsy, dysmorphic features, retinal dysfunction, ectodermal dysplasia, and brain iron accumulation. Our findings suggest that some aspects of the clinical presentation appear to be age-related; brain iron accumulation may appear only after childhood, and the ectodermal findings and peripheral neuropathy are most prominent in older individuals. In addition, we present prenatal and neonatal findings as well as the first Caucasian and black African families with GTPBP2 biallelic variants. The individuals described herein provide valuable additional phenotypic information about this rare, novel, and progressive neuroectodermal condition.

16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724471

RESUMO

The 39th Annual David W. Smith workshop on Malformations and Morphogenesis was held from August 24th-29th 2018 at the Banff Centre for Arts and Creativity, Banff, Alberta, Canada. The Workshop, which honors the legacy of David W. Smith, brought together clinicians and researchers from around the world interested in congenital malformations and their underlying mechanisms of morphogenesis in this addition to this year's five themes: phenotypes and phenotyping of known, novel and emerging syndromes; treatment; epigenetics and chromatin disorders; placenta; and, gene-environment interaction. This Conference Report includes the abstracts presented at the 2018 Workshop.

17.
Brain ; 142(3): 542-559, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668673

RESUMO

Biallelic pathogenic variants in PLPBP (formerly called PROSC) have recently been shown to cause a novel form of vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy, the pathophysiological basis of which is poorly understood. When left untreated, the disease can progress to status epilepticus and death in infancy. Here we present 12 previously undescribed patients and six novel pathogenic variants in PLPBP. Suspected clinical diagnoses prior to identification of PLPBP variants included mitochondrial encephalopathy (two patients), folinic acid-responsive epilepsy (one patient) and a movement disorder compatible with AADC deficiency (one patient). The encoded protein, PLPHP is believed to be crucial for B6 homeostasis. We modelled the pathogenicity of the variants and developed a clinical severity scoring system. The most severe phenotypes were associated with variants leading to loss of function of PLPBP or significantly affecting protein stability/PLP-binding. To explore the pathophysiology of this disease further, we developed the first zebrafish model of PLPHP deficiency using CRISPR/Cas9. Our model recapitulates the disease, with plpbp-/- larvae showing behavioural, biochemical, and electrophysiological signs of seizure activity by 10 days post-fertilization and early death by 16 days post-fertilization. Treatment with pyridoxine significantly improved the epileptic phenotype and extended lifespan in plpbp-/- animals. Larvae had disruptions in amino acid metabolism as well as GABA and catecholamine biosynthesis, indicating impairment of PLP-dependent enzymatic activities. Using mass spectrometry, we observed significant B6 vitamer level changes in plpbp-/- zebrafish, patient fibroblasts and PLPHP-deficient HEK293 cells. Additional studies in human cells and yeast provide the first empirical evidence that PLPHP is localized in mitochondria and may play a role in mitochondrial metabolism. These models provide new insights into disease mechanisms and can serve as a platform for drug discovery.

18.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 178(4): 458-463, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580481

RESUMO

For years, the genetics community has estimated the number of individual rare genetic diseases to be approximately 6,000-8,000. A commonly quoted derivation of this estimate is based on the simple addition of the number of phenotypic entries with and without confirmed molecular etiologies in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM®). Here, we examine the validity of this estimation by mining the phenotypic entries in OMIM that are of likely or suspected Mendelian inheritance without a molecular cause (MIM number prefix "%" or "null"). Of the 3,204 unsolved phenotypic entries in OMIM, only two-thirds (2,034 entries) represented rare diseases. Of these, 8% were considered "well-established" based on their description in commonly used reference textbooks. We hypothesize based on the large proportion of entries that represent single families reported prior to 2011, that a number of the unsolved entries represent pathogenic variants in known genes. The novel gene discovery potential of these entries is therefore likely lower than originally thought. Given that the majority of the ~300 new disease-gene associations curated each year by OMIM were never associated with a "%" or "null" sign, the true scope of the rare disease atlas is likely much larger than previously anticipated.

19.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 178(4): 382-386, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580485

RESUMO

Due to the efforts of the clinical and scientific communities and boosted by recent advances in genetic technologies, we now understand the molecular mechanisms underlying most of the frequent and recognizable human malformation syndromes. However, some well-established human malformation syndromes remain without a molecular diagnosis despite intensive investigation. This issue of Seminars mines the phenotypic entries in OMIM and estimates that of the documented 2,034 unsolved entries likely to represent a rare genetic disease, only 160 are well-established and possibly amenable to investigation. This issue also reviews well-characterized and extensively investigated human malformation syndromes and associations that remain unsolved, including the following: Dubowitz syndrome (MIM 223370%), Hallermann-Streiff syndrome (MIM 234100%), PHACE syndrome (MIM 606519), Oculocerebrocutaneous syndrome (MIM 164180), Aicardi syndrome (MIM 304050%), Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome and Rhombencephalosynapsis (MIM 601853%), VACTERL (MIM 192350%), and Nablus syndrome (MIM #608156). Possible explanations for their intractability to molecular diagnosis are explored, including genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, mosaicism, epigenetics, gene-environment interactions, and other non-Mendelian contributions. Finally, this issue of Seminars presents a path forward for these unsolved rare conditions and suggests a renewed focus on solving amendable OMIM disorders. It is clear that the way forward will require new technologies, global cooperation, and data sharing; these will also be necessary to help reach the vision of the International Rare Diseases Research Consortium (IRDiRC), that is to enable all people living with a rare disease to receive an accurate diagnosis, care and available therapy within 1 year of coming to medical attention.

20.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 178(4): 447-457, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580486

RESUMO

Nablus syndrome was first described by the late Ahmad Teebi in 2000, and 13 individuals have been reported to date. Nablus syndrome can be clinically diagnosed based on striking facial features, including tight glistening skin with reduced facial expression, blepharophimosis, telecanthus, bulky nasal tip, abnormal external ear architecture, upswept frontal hairline, and sparse eyebrows. However, the precise genetic etiology for this rare condition remains elusive. Comparative microarray analyses of individuals with Nablus syndrome (including two mother-son pairs) reveal an overlapping 8q22.1 microdeletion, with a minimal critical region of 1.84 Mb (94.43-96.27 Mb). Whereas this deletion is present in all affected individuals, 13 individuals without Nablus syndrome (including two mother-child pairs) also have the 8q22.1 microdeletion that partially or fully overlaps the minimal critical region. Thus, the 8q22.1 microdeletion is necessary but not sufficient to cause the clinical features characteristic of Nablus syndrome. We discuss possible explanations for Nablus syndrome, including one-locus, two-locus, epigenetic, and environmental mechanisms. We performed exome sequencing for five individuals with Nablus syndrome. Although we failed to identify any deleterious rare coding variants in the critical region that were shared between individuals, we did identify one common SNP in an intronic region that was shared. Clearly, unraveling the genetic mechanism(s) of Nablus syndrome will require additional investigation, including genomic and RNA sequencing of a larger cohort of affected individuals. If successful, it will provide important insights into fundamental concepts such as variable expressivity, incomplete penetrance, and complex disease relevant to both Mendelian and non-Mendelian disorders.

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