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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e210667, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662134

RESUMO

Importance: Before the widespread implementation of robotic systems to provide patient care during the COVID-19 pandemic occurs, it is important to understand the acceptability of these systems among patients and the economic consequences associated with the adoption of robotics in health care settings. Objective: To assess the acceptability and feasibility of using a mobile robotic system to facilitate health care tasks. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study included 2 components: a national survey to examine the acceptability of using robotic systems to perform health care tasks in a hospital setting and a single-site cohort study of patient experiences and satisfaction with the use of a mobile robotic system to facilitate triage and telehealth tasks in the emergency department (ED). The national survey comprised individuals living in the US who participated in a sampling-based survey via an online analytic platform. Participants completed the national survey between August 18 and August 21, 2020. The single-site cohort study included patients living in the US who presented to the ED of a large urban academic hospital providing quaternary care in Boston, Massachusetts between April and August 2020. All data were analyzed from August to October 2020. Exposures: Participants in the national survey completed an online survey to measure the acceptability of using a mobile robotic system to perform health care tasks (facilitating telehealth interviews, acquiring vital signs, obtaining nasal or oral swabs, placing an intravenous catheter, performing phlebotomy, and turning a patient in bed) in a hospital setting in the contexts of general interaction and interaction during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients in the cohort study were exposed to a mobile robotic system, which was controlled by an ED clinician and used to facilitate a triage interview. After exposure, patients completed an assessment to measure their satisfaction with the robotic system. Main Outcomes and Measures: Acceptability of the use of a mobile robotic system to facilitate health care tasks in a hospital setting (national survey) and feasibility and patient satisfaction regarding the use of a mobile robotic system in the ED (cohort study). Results: For the national survey, 1154 participants completed all acceptability questions, representing a participation rate of 35%. After sample matching, a nationally representative sample of 1000 participants (mean [SD] age, 48.7 [17.0] years; 535 women [53.5%]) was included in the analysis. With regard to the usefulness of a robotic system to perform specific health care tasks, the response of "somewhat useful" was selected by 373 participants (37.3%) for facilitating telehealth interviews, 350 participants (35.0%) for acquiring vital signs, 307 participants (30.7%) for obtaining nasal or oral swabs, 228 participants (22.8%) for placing an intravenous catheter, 249 participants (24.9%) for performing phlebotomy, and 371 participants (37.1%) for turning a patient in bed. The response of "extremely useful" was selected by 287 participants (28.7%) for facilitating telehealth interviews, 413 participants (41.3%) for acquiring vital signs, 192 participants (19.2%) for obtaining nasal or oral swabs, 159 participants (15.9%) for placing an intravenous catheter, 167 participants (16.7%) for performing phlebotomy, and 371 participants (37.1%) for turning a patient in bed. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the median number of individuals who perceived the application of robotic systems to be acceptable for completing telehealth interviews, obtaining nasal and oral swabs, placing an intravenous catheter, and performing phlebotomy increased. For the ED cohort study, 51 individuals were invited to participate, and 41 participants (80.4%) enrolled. One participant was unable to complete the study procedures because of a signaling malfunction in the robotic system. Forty patients (mean [SD] age, 45.8 [2.7] years; 29 women [72.5%]) completed the mobile robotic system-facilitated triage interview, and 37 patients (92.5%) reported that the interaction was satisfactory. A total of 33 participants (82.5%) reported that their experience of receiving an interview facilitated by a mobile robotic system was as satisfactory as receiving an in-person interview from a clinician. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a mobile robotic system was perceived to be acceptable for use in a broad set of health care tasks among survey respondents across the US. The use of a mobile robotic system enabled the facilitation of contactless triage interviews of patients in the ED and was considered acceptable among participants. Most patients in the ED rated the quality of mobile robotic system-facilitated interaction to be equivalent to in-person interaction with a clinician.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitais , Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Satisfação do Paciente , Robótica/métodos , Triagem , Adulto , Idoso , Boston , Cateterismo , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Flebotomia , Exame Físico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1018, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589636

RESUMO

Antibodies serve as biomarkers of infection, but if sustained can confer long-term immunity. Yet, for most clinically approved vaccines, binding antibody titers only serve as a surrogate of protection. Instead, the ability of vaccine induced antibodies to neutralize or mediate Fc-effector functions is mechanistically linked to protection. While evidence has begun to point to persisting antibody responses among SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals, cases of re-infection have begun to emerge, calling the protective nature of humoral immunity against this highly infectious pathogen into question. Using a community-based surveillance study, we aimed to define the relationship between titers and functional antibody activity to SARS-CoV-2 over time. Here we report significant heterogeneity, but limited decay, across antibody titers amongst 120 identified seroconverters, most of whom had asymptomatic infection. Notably, neutralization, Fc-function, and SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell responses were only observed in subjects that elicited RBD-specific antibody titers above a threshold. The findings point to a switch-like relationship between observed antibody titer and function, where a distinct threshold of activity-defined by the level of antibodies-is required to elicit vigorous humoral and cellular response. This response activity level may be essential for durable protection, potentially explaining why re-infections occur with SARS-CoV-2 and other common coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , /imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
AIDS Behav ; 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219877

RESUMO

Once daily tenofovir/emtricitabine when used for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective in preventing HIV acquisition but requires consistent medication adherence. The use of ingestible technologies to monitor PrEP adherence can assist in understanding the impact of behavioral interventions. Digital pill systems (DPS) utilize an ingestible radiofrequency emitter integrated onto a gelatin capsule, which permits direct, real-time measurement of medication adherence. DPS monitoring may lead to discovery of nascent episodes of PrEP nonadherence and allow delivery of interventions that prevent the onset of sustained nonadherence. Yet, the acceptance and potential use of DPS in high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM; i.e., those who engage in condomless sex and use substances) is unknown. In this investigation, we conducted individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews with 30 MSM with self-reported non-alcohol substance use to understand their responses to the DPS, willingness and perceived barriers to its use, and their perceptions of its potential utility. We also sought to describe how MSM would potentially interact with a messaging system integrated into the DPS. We identified major themes around improved confidence of PrEP adherence patterns, safety of ingestible radiofrequency sensors, and design optimization of the DPS. They also expressed willingness to interact with messaging contingent on DPS recorded ingestion patterns. These data demonstrate that MSM who use substances find the DPS to be an acceptable method to measure and record PrEP adherence.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027507

RESUMO

One-carbon metabolism is an important contributor to aging-related diseases; nevertheless, relationships of one-carbon metabolites with novel DNA methylation-based measures of biological aging remain poorly characterized. We examined relationships of one-carbon metabolites with three DNA methylation-based measures of biological aging: DNAmAge, GrimAge, and PhenoAge. We measured plasma levels of four common one-carbon metabolites (vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine) in 715 VA Normative Aging Study participants with at least one visit between 1999 and 2008 (observations = 1153). DNA methylation age metrics were calculated using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We utilized Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) models adjusted for chronological age, lifestyle factors, age-related diseases, and study visits to determine metabolites important to the aging outcomes. BKMR models allowed for the estimation of the relationships of single metabolites and the cumulative metabolite mixture with methylation age. Log vitamin B6 was selected as important to PhenoAge (ß = -1.62-years, 95%CI: -2.28, -0.96). Log folate was selected as important to GrimAge (ß = 0.75-years, 95%CI: 0.41, 1.09) and PhenoAge (ß = 1.62-years, 95%CI: 0.95, 2.29). Compared to a model where each metabolite in the mixture is set to its 50 th percentile, the log cumulative mixture with each metabolite at its 30 th (ß = -0.13-years, 95%CI: -0.26, -0.005) and 40 th percentile (ß = -0.06-years, 95%CI: -0.11, -0.005) was associated with decreased GrimAge. Our results provide novel characterizations of the relationships between one-carbon metabolites and DNA methylation age in a human population study. Further research is required to confirm these findings and establish their generalizability.

6.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 216: 108310, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Made as a tea, the Thai traditional drug "kratom" reportedly possesses pharmacological actions that include both a coca-like stimulant effect and opium-like depressant effect. Kratom has been used as a substitute for opium in physically-dependent subjects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antinociception, somatic and physical dependence produced by kratom tea, and then assess if the tea ameliorated withdrawal in opioid physically-dependent subjects. METHODS: Lyophilized kratom tea (LKT) was evaluated in C57BL/6J and opioid receptor knockout mice after oral administration. Antinociceptive activity was measured in the 55 °C warm-water tail-withdrawal assay. Potential locomotor impairment, respiratory depression and locomotor hyperlocomotion, and place preference induced by oral LKT were assessed in the rotarod, Comprehensive Lab Animal Monitoring System, and conditioned place preference assays, respectively. Naloxone-precipitated withdrawal was used to determine potential physical dependence in mice repeatedly treated with saline or escalating doses of morphine or LKT, and LKT amelioration of morphine withdrawal. Data were analyzed using one- and two-way ANOVA. RESULTS: Oral administration of LKT resulted in dose-dependent antinociception (≥1 g/kg, p.o.) absent in mice lacking the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) and reduced in mice lacking the kappa-opioid receptor. These doses of LKT did not alter coordinated locomotion or induce conditioned place preference, and only briefly reduced respiration. Repeated administration of LKT did not produce physical dependence, but significantly decreased naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine dependent mice. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms the MOR agonist activity and therapeutic effect of LKT for the treatment of pain and opioid physical dependence.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235190, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735593

RESUMO

To examine changes in U.S. medical school basic science faculty over the last 20 years (1998-2018), we undertook an observational study utilizing data from the American Association of Medical Colleges Faculty Roster. Rank (Instructor, Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, and Professor), sex (Female), and race/ethnicity (Asian, Black or African American, Hispanic, Latino, Spanish Origin, or Multiple Race-Hispanic, and White) were analyzed; this reflected a population of 14,047 (1998) to 18,601 (2018) faculty. Summary percent of faculty in various gender, race/ethnicity origin categories were analyzed across years of the study using regression models. We found that females (24.47% to 35.32%) were underrepresented at all timepoints and a minority of faculty identified as Black or African American (1.57% to 1.99%), Hispanic, Latino, Spanish Origin, or Multiple Race-Hispanic (3.03% to 4.44%), or Asian (10.90% to 20.41%). The largest population at all time points was White Male Professors (30.53% to 20.85%), followed by White Male Associate Professors (15.67% to 9.34%), and White Male Assistant Professors (13.22% to 9.75%). Small statistically significant increases were observed among female faculty and faculty at multiple ranks who identified as Black or African American or Hispanic, Latino, Spanish Origin, or Multiple Race-Hispanic. We then completed secondary analyses looking at the interaction of race/ethnicity and Gender. We found: (1) a significant increase (p<0.0001) in both genders who identify as Asian although males had a higher rate of increase (6 point difference, p<0.0001); (2) a significant increase for Black or African American females (P<0.01) not found among males; (3) significant increases (p<0.0001) among both genders of faculty who identify as Hispanic, Latino, Spanish Origin, or Multiple Race-Hispanic although females had an approximately 1% higher rate of increase; and (4) among faculty who identify as White, males had a significant decrease (p<0.0001) while females demonstrated an increase (p<0.0001).


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
8.
Med (N Y) ; 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838357

RESUMO

Background: Due to supply chain disruption, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused severe shortages in personal protective equipment for health care professionals. Local fabrication based on 3D printing is one way to address this challenge, particularly in the case of products such as protective face shields. No clear path exists, however, for introducing a locally fabricated product into a clinical setting. Methods: We describe a research protocol under Institutional Review Board supervision that allowed clinicians to participate in an iterative design process followed by real-world testing in an emergency department. All designs, materials used, testing protocols, and survey results are reported in full to facilitate similar efforts in other clinical settings. Findings: Clinical testing allowed the incident command team at a major academic medical center to introduce the locally fabricated face shield into general use in a rapid but well-controlled manner. Unlike standard hospital face shields, the locally fabricated design was intended to be reusable. We discuss the design and testing process and provide an overview of regulatory considerations associated with fabrication and testing of personal protective equipment, such as face shields. Conclusions: Our work serves as a case study for robust, local responses to pandemic-related disruption of medical supply chains with implications for health care professionals, hospital administrators, regulatory agencies, and concerned citizens in the COVID-19 and future health care emergencies. Funding: : This work was supported by the Harvard MIT Center for Regulatory Sciences, NIH/NCI grants U54-CA225088 and T32-GM007753, and the Harvard Ludwig Center. M.-J.A. is a Friends of McGovern Graduate Fellow.

9.
Crit Rev Toxicol ; 50(6): 531-538, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715837

RESUMO

In this review, we examine the known and suspected toxicity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in adolescents and young adults, to improve awareness of risks and identification of complications of their use. The use of e-cigarettes, or "vaping," is exploding among the pediatric population. E-cigarettes heat a solution containing a psychoactive compound, most commonly nicotine or tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), along with flavorings and other additives to a vapor, which users inhale. Since their introduction in the early 2000s, e-cigarette use is now prolific among youth, per the Monitoring the Future survey, with over 40% of high school seniors reporting use within the past year. Adolescents are vulnerable to the risks of e-cigarettes, as they are targeted as new consumers with advertisements and flavoring compounds, and are not utilizing them as a means to smoking cessation. The pulmonary risks of vaping are rapidly emerging, with the most immediately alarming being the condition electronic-cigarette/vaping associated lung injury (EVALI). Additionally, there have been more recent studies showing extrapulmonary effects including cardiovascular, immunologic and neuro-developmental effects. Many of these effects are likely dose-dependent. Public health efforts are urgently needed to decrease or eliminate new e-cigarette initiation, and support should be established to assist current e-cigarette users with cessation. We strongly advocate for the elimination of e-cigarette flavorings and advertising directed at adolescents, and call for physicians to be cognizant of this expanding epidemic.

10.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 26: 1076029620943671, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702995

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection (COVID-19) is known to induce severe inflammation and activation of the coagulation system, resulting in a prothrombotic state. Although inflammatory conditions and organ-specific diseases have been shown to be strong determinants of morbidity and mortality in patients with COVID-19, it is unclear whether preexisting differences in coagulation impact the severity of COVID-19. African Americans have higher rates of COVID-19 infection and disease-related morbidity and mortality. Moreover, African Americans are known to be at a higher risk for thrombotic events due to both biological and socioeconomic factors. In this review, we explore whether differences in baseline coagulation status and medical management of coagulation play an important role in COVID-19 disease severity and contribute to racial disparity trends within COVID-19.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Trombofilia/etnologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/genética , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Anemia Falciforme/etnologia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Fator VIII/análise , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etnologia , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prevalência , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etnologia , Fatores de Risco , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Trombofilia/sangue , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombofilia/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
11.
medRxiv ; 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511612

RESUMO

Due to supply chain disruption, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused severe shortages in personal protective equipment (PPE) for health care professionals. Local fabrication based on 3D printing is one way to address this challenge, particularly in the case of simple products such as protective face shields. As a consequence, many public domain designs for face shields have become available. No clear path exists, however, for introducing a locally fabricated and unapproved product into a clinical setting. In a US health care setting, face shields are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA); similar policies exist in other countries. We describe a research protocol under which rapid iteration on an existing design, coupled with clinical feedback and real-world testing in an emergency department, allowed a face shield to be adopted by the incident command team at a major academic medical center. We describe our design and testing process and provide an overview of regulatory considerations associated with fabrication and testing of face shields and related products. All designs, materials used, testing protocols, and survey results are reported in full to facilitate the execution of similar face shield efforts in other clinical settings. Our work serves as a case study for development of a robust local response to pandemics and other health care emergencies, with implications for healthcare professionals, hospital administrators, regulatory agencies and concerned citizens.

12.
Reprod Toxicol ; 96: 27-35, 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522586

RESUMO

Exposure to dioxin, a known endocrine disruptor and carcinogen, is associated with poor reproductive outcomes. Yet, few studies have explored the role of DNA methylation in these relationships. Utilizing a publicly available dataset from 37 male Air Force Health Study participants exposed to dioxin-contaminated Agent Orange during the Vietnam war, we cross-sectionally examined the relationship of serum dioxin levels with a novel DNA methylation-based measure of sperm age (DNAm-agesperm). DNAm-agesperm was calculated using CpG sites on the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We estimated associations of dioxin levels with DNAm-agesperm using linear regression models adjusted for chronological age, body mass index, and smoking status. Chronological age was highly correlated with DNAmagesperm (r = 0.80). In fully-adjusted linear models, a one percent increase in serum dioxin levels was significantly associated with a 0.0126-year (i.e. 4.6-day) increase in DNAm-agesperm (95%CI: 0.003, 0.022, p = 0.01). Further analyses demonstrated significant negative associations of dioxin levels (ß = -0.0005, 95%CI: -0.0010, 0.00004, P = 0.03) and DNAm-agesperm (ß = -0.02, 95%CI: -0.04, -0.001, P = 0.03) with methylation levels of FOXK2 - a gene previously reported to be hypomethylated in infertile men. In sum, we demonstrate associations of dioxin with increased methylation aging of sperm. DNAm-agesperm may provide utility for understanding how dioxin levels impact sperm health and potentially male reproductive capacity in human population studies. Moreover, our pilot study contributes further evidence that some environmental toxicants are associated with methylation aging. Additional studies are necessary to confirm these findings, and better characterize dioxin and sperm methylation relationships with male reproductive health.

13.
medRxiv ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587994

RESUMO

Post-infectious anosmias typically follow death of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) with a months-long recovery phase associated with parosmias. While profound anosmia is the leading symptom associated with COVID-19 infection, many patients regain olfactory function within days to weeks without distortions. Here, we demonstrate that sterile induction of anti-viral type I interferon signaling in the mouse olfactory epithelium is associated with diminished odor discrimination and reduced odor-evoked local field potentials. RNA levels of all class I, class II, and TAAR odorant receptors are markedly reduced in OSNs in a non-cell autonomous manner. We find that people infected with COVID-19 rate odors with lower intensities and have odor discrimination deficits relative to people that tested negative for COVID-19. Taken together, we propose that inflammatory-mediated loss of odorant receptor expression with preserved circuit integrity accounts for the profound anosmia and rapid recovery of olfactory function without parosmias caused by COVID-19.

14.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(5): e18537, 2020 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency physicians face the challenge of relieving acute pain daily. While opioids are a potent treatment for pain, the opioid epidemic has ignited a search for nonopioid analgesic alternatives that may decrease the dose or duration of opioid exposure. While behavioral therapies and complementary medicine are effective, they are difficult to deploy in the emergency department. Music is a potential adjunctive therapy that has demonstrated effectiveness in managing pain. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to understand the feasibility and potential for an effect of a novel music app to address acute pain and anxiety in patients admitted to an emergency department observation unit. METHODS: This prospective cohort study enrolled patients admitted to an emergency department observation unit with pain who had received orders for opioids. We gathered baseline pain and psychosocial characteristics including anxiety, sleep disturbance, and pain catastrophizing using validated questionnaires. Participants received a smartphone-based music intervention and listened to the music in either a supervised (research assistant-delivered music session 3 times during their stay) or unsupervised manner (music used ad lib by participant). The app collected premusic and postmusic pain and anxiety scores, and participants provided qualitative feedback regarding acceptability of operating the music intervention. RESULTS: We enrolled 81 participants and randomly assigned 38 to an unsupervised and 43 to a supervised group. Mean pain in both groups was 6.1 (1.8) out of a possible score of 10. A total of 43 (53%) reported previous use of music apps at home. We observed an overall modest but significant decrease in pain (mean difference -0.81, 95% CI -0.45 to -1.16) and anxiety (mean difference -0.72, 95% CI -0.33 to -1.12) after music sessions. Reduction of pain and anxiety varied substantially among participants. Individuals with higher baseline pain, catastrophizing (about pain), or anxiety reported greater relief. Changes in pain were correlated to changes in anxiety (Pearson ρ=0.3, P=.02) but did not vary between supervised and unsupervised groups. Upon conclusion of the study, 46/62 (74%) reported they liked the music intervention, 57/62 (92%) reported the app was easy to use, and 49/62 (79%) reported they would be willing to use the music intervention at home. CONCLUSIONS: A smartphone-based music intervention decreased pain and anxiety among patients in an emergency department observation unit, with no difference between supervised and unsupervised use. Individuals reporting the greatest reduction in pain after music sessions included those scoring highest on baseline assessment of catastrophic thinking, suggesting there may be specific patient populations that may benefit more from using music as an analgesic adjunct in the emergency department. Qualitative feedback suggested that this intervention was feasible and acceptable by emergency department patients.


Assuntos
Musicoterapia/métodos , Dor/psicologia , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aplicativos Móveis , Estudos Prospectivos , Smartphone
15.
Environ Res ; 186: 109573, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, toxic metal exposures are a well-recognized risk factor for many adverse health outcomes. DNA methylation-based measures of biological aging are predictive of disease, but have poorly understood relationships with metal exposures. OBJECTIVE: We performed a pilot study examining the relationships of 24-h urine metal concentrations with three novel DNA methylation-based measures of biological aging: DNAmAge, GrimAge, and PhenoAge. METHODS: We utilized a previously established urine panel of five common metals [arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), and mercury (Hg)] found in a subset of the elderly US Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study cohort (N = 48). The measures of DNA methylation-based biological age were calculated using CpG sites on the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) was used to determine metals most important to the aging outcomes and the relationship of the cumulative metal mixture with the outcomes. Individual relationships of important metals with the biological aging outcomes were modeled using fully-adjusted linear models controlling for chronological age, renal function, and lifestyle/environmental factors. RESULTS: Mn was selected as important to PhenoAge. A 1 ng/mL increase in urine Mn was associated with a 9.93-year increase in PhenoAge (95%CI: 1.24, 18.61, p = 0.03). The cumulative urine metal mixture was associated with increases in PhenoAge. Compared to a model where each metal in the mixture is set to its 50th percentile value, every one-unit increase of the cumulative mixture with each metal at its 70th percentile was associated with a 2.53-year increase in PhenoAge (95%CI: 0.10, 4.96, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Our results add novel evidence that metals detected in urine are associated with increases in biological aging and suggest that these DNA methylation-based measures may be useful for identifying individuals at-risk for diseases related to toxic metal exposures. Further research is necessary to confirm these findings more broadly.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Metilação de DNA , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Masculino , Metais , Projetos Piloto
16.
Pain Med ; 2020 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Music has been shown to modulate pain, although the impact of music on specific aspects of nociceptive processing is less well understood. Using quantitative sensory testing (QST), we assessed the impact of a novel music app on specific aspects of nociceptive processing. DESIGN: Within-subjects paired comparison of pain processing in control vs music condition. SETTING: Human psychophysical laboratory. SUBJECTS: Sixty healthy adult volunteers. METHODS: Subjects were assessed for baseline anxiety, depression, and catastrophizing using validated questionnaires. QSTs measured included 1) pain threshold and tolerance to deep muscle pressure, 2) pain with mechanical pinprick, 3) temporal summation of pain (TSP) with a repeated pain stimulus, and 4) conditioned pain modulation (CPM) with a second painful stimulus. QSTs were performed in the absence and presence of music delivered through a music app. RESULTS: We found an increase in pressure pain thresholds in both the forearm (P = 0.007) and trapezius (P = 0.002) with music, as well as a decrease in the amount of pinprick pain (P < 0.001) and TSP (P = 0.01) with music. Interestingly, CPM was also significantly diminished (P < 0.001) in the music condition. No significant difference in cold pain, anxiety, or situational catastrophizing was observed with music. Higher baseline pain catastrophizing scores were associated with less music-induced pressure pain reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Several measures of mechanical pain sensitivity were reduced with music. TSP, a measure of central sensitization, also decreased with music, but CPM, a measure of descending modulation of pain, was not further augmented by music.

17.
J Med Toxicol ; 16(4): 405-415, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253630

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emergency department (ED)-based naloxone distribution programs are a widespread harm reduction strategy. However, data describing the community penetrance of naloxone distributed from these programs are lacking. This study gauges acceptance of naloxone use and monitoring technology among people who use drugs (PWUD), and explores the use of real-time location systems (RTLS) in monitoring naloxone movements. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted on a convenience sample of individuals (N = 30) presenting to a tertiary-care academic medical center ED for an opioid-related complaint. A naloxone kit equipped with a low-energy Bluetooth (BLE) tracking system was employed to detect movement of naloxone off the hospital campus as a proxy for community penetrance, followed by a qualitative interview to gauge participant acceptance of naloxone use and monitoring technology. RESULTS: Detection of BLE signals verified transit of 24 distributed naloxone kits off our hospital campus. Three participants whose BLE signals were not captured reported taking their kits with them following discharge, suggesting technological errors occurred; another three participants were lost to follow-up. Qualitative interviews demonstrated that participants accepted ED-based naloxone distribution programs and passive tracking technologies, but revealed concerns regarding hypothetical continuous monitoring systems and problematic interactions with first responders and law enforcement personnel. CONCLUSIONS: Based on acquired BLE signals, 80% of dispensed naloxone kits left the hospital campus. Use of RTLS to passively geolocate naloxone rescue kits is feasible, but detection can be adversely affected by technological errors. PWUD are amenable to transient monitoring technologies but identified barriers to implementation.

18.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(5): 1224-1236, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168438

RESUMO

Alongside the epidemic use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) across the country, evidence of multiple pulmonary complications has emerged, with the most immediately life-threatening being the new clinical condition of e-cigarette/vaping-associated lung injury (EVALI), with investigation actively underway to further define this entity and determine the cause or causes. We present a series of cases of respiratory illnesses associated with e-cigarette use, many of which meet criteria for suspected or confirmed EVALI, managed at a pediatric tertiary care center, demonstrating notable variation in presenting symptoms and severity. Most cases improved with supportive respiratory care and the administration of corticosteroids and antibiotics, although generally no infection was found. The cases also tend to show improvement with discontinuation of the use of e-cigarettes. We discuss challenges in determining the contribution of e-cigarettes to the case pathology and review possible diagnostic and treatment options. In patients suffering from e-cigarette-related respiratory illness including EVALI, the primary treatment goal should be the cessation of e-cigarette use and avoidance of other possible pulmonary toxins, including conventional cigarettes. Prevention of e-cigarette use is critical in the youth population, as these patients are typically nicotine naïve and do not engage in smoking conventional cigarettes before initiation of vaping.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
19.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(2): 304-312, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191187

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emergency physicians face multiple challenges to obtaining federal funding. The objective of this investigation was to describe the demographics of federally-funded emergency physicians and identify key challenges in obtaining funding. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective database search of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool (NIH RePORTER) to collect data regarding the distribution and characteristics of federally-funded grants awarded to emergency medicine (EM) principal investigators between 2010-2017. An electronic survey was then administered to the identified investigators to obtain additional demographic data, and information regarding their career paths, research environment, and perceived barriers to obtaining federal funding. RESULTS: We identified 219, corresponding to 51 unique, mentored career development awardees and 105 independent investigators. Sixty-two percent of investigators responded to the electronic survey. Awardees were predominantly White males, although a larger portion of the mentored awardee group was female. Greater than half of respondents reported their mentor to be outside of the field of EM. The most common awarding institution was the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Respondents identified barriers in finding adequate mentorship, time to gather preliminary data, and the quality of administrative support. CONCLUSION: The last five years have showed a trend toward increasing grants awarded to EM investigators; however, we identified several barriers to funding. Initiatives geared toward support and mentorship of junior faculty, particularly to females, minorities, and those in less heavily funded areas of the country are warranted.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Medicina de Emergência/economia , Financiamento Governamental , Mentores , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economia , Pesquisadores/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
20.
J Med Toxicol ; 16(4): 458-464, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215849

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to machines or software that process information and interact with the world as understanding beings. Examples of AI in medicine include the automated reading of chest X-rays and the detection of heart dysrhythmias from wearables. A key promise of AI is its potential to apply logical reasoning at the scale of data too vast for the human mind to comprehend. This scaling up of logical reasoning may allow clinicians to bring the entire breadth of current medical knowledge to bear on each patient in real time. It may also unearth otherwise unreachable knowledge in the attempt to integrate knowledge and research across disciplines. In this review, we discuss two complementary aspects of artificial intelligence: deep learning and knowledge representation. Deep learning recognizes and predicts patterns. Knowledge representation structures and interprets those patterns or predictions. We frame this review around how deep learning and knowledge representation might expand the reach of Poison Control Centers and enhance syndromic surveillance from social media.

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