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1.
Science ; 377(6614): 1529-1532, 2022 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36173863

RESUMO

The samarium-146 (146Sm)-neodymium-142 (142Nd) short-lived decay system (half-life of 103 million years) is a powerful tracer of the early mantle-crust evolution of planetary bodies. However, an increased 142Nd/144Nd in modern terrestrial rocks relative to chondrite meteorites has been proposed to be caused by nucleosynthetic anomalies, obscuring early Earth's differentiation history. We use stepwise dissolution of primitive chondrites to quantify nucleosynthetic contributions on the composition of chondrites. After correction for nucleosynthetic anomalies, Earth and the silicate parts of differentiated planetesimals contain resolved excesses of 142Nd relative to chondrites. We conclude that only collisional erosion of primordial crusts can explain such compositions. This process associated with planetary accretion must have produced substantial loss of incompatible elements, including long-term heat-producing elements such as uranium, thorium, and potassium.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(12): e2120933119, 2022 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290127

RESUMO

The formation and differentiation of planetary bodies are dated using radioactive decay systems, including the short-lived 146Sm-142Nd (T½ = 103 or 68 Ma) and long-lived 147Sm-143Nd (T½ = 106 Ga) radiogenic pairs that provide relative and absolute ages, respectively. However, the initial abundance and half-life of the extinct radioactive isotope 146Sm are still debated, weakening the interpretation of 146Sm-142Nd systematics obtained for early planetary processes. Here, we apply the short-lived 26Al-26Mg, 146Sm-142Nd, and long-lived 147Sm-143Sm chronometers to the oldest known andesitic meteorite, Erg Chech 002 (EC 002), to constrain the Solar System initial abundance of 146Sm. The 26Al-26Mg mineral isochron of EC 002 provides a tightly constrained initial δ26Mg* of −0.009 ± 0.005 ‰ and (26Al/27Al)0 of (8.89 ± 0.09) × 10−6. This initial abundance of 26Al is the highest measured so far in an achondrite and corresponds to a crystallization age of 1.80 ± 0.01 Myr after Solar System formation. The 146Sm-142Nd mineral isochron returns an initial 146Sm/144Sm ratio of 0.00830 ± 0.00032. By combining the Al-Mg crystallization age and initial 146Sm/144Sm ratio of EC 002 with values for refractory inclusions, achondrites, and lunar samples, the best-fit half-life for 146Sm is 102 ± 9 Ma, corresponding to the physically measured value of 103 ± 5 Myr, rather than the latest and lower revised value of 68 ± 7 Ma. Using a half-life of 103 Ma for 146Sm, the 146Sm/144Sm abundance of EC 002 translates into an initial Solar System 146Sm/144Sm ratio of 0.00840 ± 0.00032, which represents the most reliable and precise estimate to date and makes EC 002 an ideal anchor for the 146Sm-142Nd clock.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 829: 154383, 2022 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276143

RESUMO

Volcanic ash exposure can lead to significant health risks. Damage to the respiratory and pulmonary systems are the most evident toxic side effects although the causes of these symptoms remain unclear. Conversely, the effects on other organs remain largely under-explored, limiting our understanding of the long-term volcanic ash-related risk at the whole-body scale. The metallome i.e. metal concentrations and isotopic compositions within the body, is suspected to be affected by volcanic ash exposure, having thus the potential for capturing some specificities of ash toxicity. However, the means by and extent to which the metallome is affected at the entire body scale and how the consequent chemical and isotopic deregulations correlate with pathophysiological dysfunctions are currently poorly understood. Here, we adopt a transdisciplinary approach combining high precision chemical analyses (major and trace element concentrations) and CuZn isotope measurements in seven organs and two biological fluids of isogenic mice (C57BL/6) exposed to eruption products from La Soufrière de Guadeloupe (Eastern Carribean), in tandem with biological parameters including physiological and morphological data. Based on principal component analysis, we show that after one month of exposure to volcanic ash deposits, the mice metallome; originally organ-specific and isotopically-typified, is highly disrupted as shown for example by heavy metal accumulation in testis (e.g., Fe, Zn) and Cu, Zn isotopic divergence in liver, intestine and blood. These metallomic variations are correlated with early testicular defects and might reflect the warning signs of premature (entero)hepatic impairments that may seriously affect fertility and favor the emergence of liver diseases after prolonged exposure. Monitoring the temporal evolution of the Cu and Zn isotope compositions seems to be a promising technique to identify the main biological processes and vital functions that are vulnerable to environmental volcanogenic pollutants although this will require further validation on human subjects.


Assuntos
Metais , Erupções Vulcânicas , Animais , Humanos , Isótopos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Erupções Vulcânicas/efeitos adversos
4.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 372(2024): 20130246, 2014 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25114305

RESUMO

New Rb-Sr, (146,147)Sm-(142,143)Nd and Lu-Hf isotopic analyses of Mg-suite lunar crustal rocks 67667, 76335, 77215 and 78238, including an internal isochron for norite 77215, were undertaken to better define the time and duration of lunar crust formation and the history of the source materials of the Mg-suite. Isochron ages determined in this study for 77215 are: Rb-Sr=4450±270 Ma, (147)Sm-(143)Nd=4283±23 Ma and Lu-Hf=4421±68 Ma. The data define an initial (146)Sm/(144)Sm ratio of 0.00193±0.00092 corresponding to ages between 4348 and 4413 Ma depending on the half-life and initial abundance used for (146)Sm. The initial Nd and Hf isotopic compositions of all samples indicate a source region with slight enrichment in the incompatible elements in accord with previous suggestions that the Mg-suite crustal rocks contain a component of KREEP. The Sm/Nd-(142)Nd/(144)Nd correlation shown by both ferroan anorthosite and Mg-suite rocks is coincident with the trend defined by mare and KREEP basalts, the slope of which corresponds to ages between 4.35 and 4.45 Ga. These data, along with similar ages for various early Earth differentiation events, are in accord with the model of lunar formation via giant impact into Earth at ca 4.4 Ga.

5.
Nature ; 491(7422): 96-100, 2012 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23128231

RESUMO

The first indisputable evidence for very early differentiation of the silicate Earth came from the extinct (146)Sm-(142)Nd chronometer. (142)Nd excesses measured in 3.7-billion-year (Gyr)-old rocks from Isua (southwest Greenland) relative to modern terrestrial samples imply their derivation from a depleted mantle formed in the Hadean eon (about 4,570-4,000 Gyr ago). As dictated by mass balance, the differentiation event responsible for the formation of the Isua early-depleted reservoir must also have formed a complementary enriched component. However, considerable efforts to find early-enriched mantle components in Isua have so far been unsuccessful. Here we show that the signature of the Hadean enriched reservoir, complementary to the depleted reservoir in Isua, is recorded in 3.4-Gyr-old mafic dykes intruding into the Early Archaean rocks. Five out of seven dykes carry (142)Nd deficits compared to the terrestrial Nd standard, with three samples yielding resolvable deficits down to -10.6 parts per million. The enriched component that we report here could have been a mantle reservoir that differentiated owing to the crystallization of a magma ocean, or could represent a mafic proto-crust that separated from the mantle more than 4.47 Gyr ago. Our results testify to the existence of an enriched component in the Hadean, and may suggest that the southwest Greenland mantle preserved early-formed heterogeneities until at least 3.4 Gyr ago.

6.
Nature ; 477(7362): 70-2, 2011 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21849974

RESUMO

Chemical evolution of planetary bodies, ranging from asteroids to the large rocky planets, is thought to begin with differentiation through solidification of magma oceans many hundreds of kilometres in depth. The Earth's Moon is the archetypical example of this type of differentiation. Evidence for a lunar magma ocean is derived largely from the widespread distribution, compositional and mineralogical characteristics, and ancient ages inferred for the ferroan anorthosite (FAN) suite of lunar crustal rocks. The FANs are considered to be primary lunar flotation-cumulate crust that crystallized in the latter stages of magma ocean solidification. According to this theory, FANs represent the oldest lunar crustal rock type. Attempts to date this rock suite have yielded ambiguous results, however, because individual isochron measurements are typically incompatible with the geochemical make-up of the samples, and have not been confirmed by additional isotopic systems. By making improvements to the standard isotopic techniques, we report here the age of crystallization of FAN 60025 using the (207)Pb-(206)Pb, (147)Sm-(143)Nd and (146)Sm-(142)Nd isotopic systems to be 4,360 ± 3 million years. This extraordinarily young age requires that either the Moon solidified significantly later than most previous estimates or the long-held assumption that FANs are flotation cumulates of a primordial magma ocean is incorrect. If the latter is correct, then much of the lunar crust may have been produced by non-magma-ocean processes, such as serial magmatism.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 108(19): 7693-7, 2011 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21515828

RESUMO

The short-lived (146)Sm-(142)Nd chronometer (T(1/2) = 103 Ma) is used to constrain the early silicate evolution of planetary bodies. The composition of bulk terrestrial planets is then considered to be similar to that of primitive chondrites that represent the building blocks of rocky planets. However for many elements chondrites preserve small isotope differences. In this case it is not always clear to what extent these variations reflect the isotope heterogeneity of the protosolar nebula rather than being produced by the decay of parent isotopes. Here we present Sm-Nd isotopes data measured in a comprehensive suite of enstatite chondrites (EC). The EC preserve (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratios that range from those of ordinary chondrites to values similar to terrestrial samples. The EC having terrestrial (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratios are also characterized by small (144)Sm excesses, which is a pure p-process nuclide. The correlation between (144)Sm and (142)Nd for chondrites may indicate a heterogeneous distribution in the solar nebula of p-process matter synthesized in supernovae. However to explain the difference in (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratios, 20% of the p-process contribution to (142)Nd is required, at odds with the value of 4% currently proposed in stellar models. This study highlights the necessity of obtaining high-precision (144)Sm measurements to interpret properly measured (142)Nd signatures. Another explanation could be that the chondrites sample material formed in different pulses of the lifetime of asymptotic giant branch stars. Then the isotope signature measured in SiC presolar would not represent the unique s-process signature of the material present in the solar nebula during accretion.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 107(24): 10810-4, 2010 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20534492

RESUMO

Recent high precision (142)Nd isotope measurements showed that global silicate differentiation may have occurred as early as 30-75 Myr after the Solar System formation [Bennett V, et al. (2007) Science 318:1907-1910]. This time scale is almost contemporaneous with Earth's core formation at approximately 30 Myr [Yin Q, et al. (2002) Nature 418:949-952]. The (182)Hf-(182)W system provides a powerful complement to the (142)Nd results for early silicate differentiation, because both core formation and silicate differentiation fractionate Hf from W. Here we show that eleven terrestrial samples from diverse tectonic settings, including five early Archean samples from Isua, Greenland, of which three have been previously shown with (142)Nd anomalies, all have a homogeneous W isotopic composition, which is approximately 2epsilon-unit more radiogenic than the chondritic value. By using a 3-stage model calculation that describes the isotopic evolution in chondritic reservoir and core segregation, as well as silicate differentiation, we show that the W isotopic composition of terrestrial samples provides the most stringent time constraint for early core formation (27.5-38 Myr) followed by early terrestrial silicate differentiation (38-75 Myr) that is consistent with the terrestrial (142)Nd anomalies.

9.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 366(1883): 4077-103, 2008 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18826922

RESUMO

The detection of excess 142Nd caused by the decay of 103Ma half-life 146Sm in all terrestrial rocks compared with chondrites shows that the chondrite analogue compositional model cannot be strictly correct, at least for the accessible portion of the Earth. Both the continental crust (CC) and the mantle source of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) originate from the material characterized by superchondritic 142Nd/144Nd. Thus, the mass balance of CC plus mantle depleted by crust extraction (the MORB-source mantle) does not sum back to chondritic compositions, but instead to a composition with Sm/Nd ratio sufficiently high to explain the superchondritic 142Nd/144Nd. This requires that the mass of mantle depleted by CC extraction expand to 75-100 per cent of the mantle depending on the composition assumed for average CC. If the bulk silicate Earth has chondritic relative abundances of the refractory lithophile elements, then there must exist within the Earth's interior an incompatible-element-enriched reservoir that contains roughly 40 per cent of the Earth's 40Ar and heat-producing radioactive elements. The existence of this enriched reservoir is demonstrated by time-varying 142Nd/144Nd in Archaean crustal rocks. Calculations of the mass of the enriched reservoir along with seismically determined properties of the D'' layer at the base of the mantle allow the speculation that this enriched reservoir formed by the sinking of dense melts deep in a terrestrial magma ocean. The enriched reservoir may now be confined to the base of the mantle owing to a combination of compositionally induced high density and low viscosity, both of which allow only minimal entrainment into the overlying convecting mantle.


Assuntos
Evolução Planetária , Geologia , Planeta Terra , Sedimentos Geológicos , Isótopos , Viscosidade
10.
Science ; 316(5828): 1175-8, 2007 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17525335

RESUMO

Isotopic variability in barium, neodymium, and samarium in carbonaceous chondrites reflects the distinct stellar nucleosynthetic contributions to the early solar system. We used 148Nd/144Nd to correct for the observed s-process deficiency, which produced a chondrite 146Sm-142Nd isochron consistent with previous estimates of the initial solar system abundance of 146Sm and a 142Nd/144Nd at average chondrite Sm/Nd ratio that is lower than that measured in terrestrial rocks by 21 +/- 3 parts per million. This result strengthens the conclusion that the deficiency in 142Nd in chondrites relative to terrestrial rocks reflects 146Sm decayand earlyplanetary differentiation processes.

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