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2.
Pediatr Res ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581173

RESUMO

Rare monogenetic diseases serve as natural models to dissect the molecular pathophysiology of the complex disease traits. Rheumatologic disorders by their nature are considered complex diseases with partially genetic origin, as illustrated by their heterogeneous genetic background and variable phenotypic presentation. Recent advances in genetic technologies have helped uncover multiple variants associated with disease susceptibility; however, a precise understanding of genotype-phenotype relationships is still missing. Inborn errors of immunity (IEIs), in addition to recurrent infections, may also present with autoimmune and autoinflammatory rheumatologic manifestations and have provided insights for understanding the underlying the principles of immune system homeostasis and mechanisms of immune dysregulation. This review discusses the rheumatologic manifestations in IEIs with overlapping and differentiating features in immunodeficiencies and rheumatologic disorders.

4.
Blood ; 134(18): 1510-1516, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501153

RESUMO

Dysregulated immune responses are essential underlying causes of a plethora of pathologies including cancer, autoimmunity, and immunodeficiency. We here investigated 4 patients from unrelated families presenting with immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and malignancy. We identified 4 distinct homozygous mutations in TNFRSF9 encoding the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member CD137/4-1BB, leading to reduced, or loss of, protein expression. Lymphocytic responses crucial for immune surveillance, including activation, proliferation, and differentiation, were impaired. Genetic reconstitution of CD137 reversed these defects. CD137 deficiency is a novel inborn error of human immunity characterized by lymphocytic defects with early-onset Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. Our findings elucidate a functional role and relevance of CD137 in human immune homeostasis and antitumor responses.

5.
J Clin Invest ; 129(10): 4194-4206, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449058

RESUMO

Polymerase δ is essential for eukaryotic genome duplication and synthesizes DNA at both the leading and lagging strands. The polymerase δ complex is a heterotetramer comprising the catalytic subunit POLD1 and the accessory subunits POLD2, POLD3, and POLD4. Beyond DNA replication, the polymerase δ complex has emerged as a central element in genome maintenance. The essentiality of polymerase δ has constrained the generation of polymerase δ-knockout cell lines or model organisms and, therefore, the understanding of the complexity of its activity and the function of its accessory subunits. To our knowledge, no germline biallelic mutations affecting this complex have been reported in humans. In patients from 2 independent pedigrees, we have identified what we believe to be a novel syndrome with reduced functionality of the polymerase δ complex caused by germline biallelic mutations in POLD1 or POLD2 as the underlying etiology of a previously unknown autosomal-recessive syndrome that combines replicative stress, neurodevelopmental abnormalities, and immunodeficiency. Patients' cells showed impaired cell-cycle progression and replication-associated DNA lesions that were reversible upon overexpression of polymerase δ. The mutations affected the stability and interactions within the polymerase δ complex or its intrinsic polymerase activity. We believe our discovery of human polymerase δ deficiency identifies the central role of this complex in the prevention of replication-related DNA lesions, with particular relevance to adaptive immunity.

6.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 726-738, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432443

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Autosomal recessively inherited lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) protein deficiency was shown to be responsible for different types of inborn errors of immunity, such as common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). The aim of this study was to compare patients with LRBA-related ALPS and LRBA-related CVID, to describe their clinical and laboratory phenotypes, and to prepare an algorithm for their diagnosis and management. METHODS: Fifteen LRBA-deficient patients were identified among 31 CVID and 14 possible ALPS patients with Western blotting (WB), primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD) gene, next-generation panel screening (NGS), and whole exome sequencing (WES). RESULTS: The median age on admission and age of diagnosis were 7 years (0.3-16.5) and 11 years (5-44), respectively. Splenomegaly was seen in 93.3% (14/15) of the patients on admission. Splenectomy was performed to 1/5. Recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (93.3% (14/15)), autoimmune cytopenia (80% (12/15)), chronic diarrhea (53.3% (8/15)), lower respiratory tract infections (53.3% (8/15)), lymphoma (26.6% (4/15)), Evans syndrome (26.6% (4/15)), and autoimmune thyroiditis (20% (3/15)) were common clinical findings and diseases. Lymphopenia (5/15), intermittant neutropenia (4/15), eosinophilia (4/15), and progressive hypogammaglobulinemia are recorded in given number of patients. Double negative T cells (TCRαß+CD4-CD8-) were increased in 80% (8/10) of the patients. B cell percentage/numbers were low in 60% (9/15) of the patients on admission. Decreased switched memory B cells, decreased naive and recent thymic emigrant (RTE) Thelper (Th) cells, markedly increased effector memory/effector memory RA+ (TEMRA) Th were documented. Large PD1+ population, increased memory, and enlarged follicular helper T cell population in the CD4+ T cell compartment was seen in one of the patients. Most of the deleterious missense mutations were located in the DUF1088 and BEACH domains. Interestingly, one of the two siblings with the same homozygous LRBA defect did not have any clinical symptom. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was performed to 7/15 (46.6%) of the patients. Transplanted patients are alive and well after a median of 2 years (1-3). In total, one patient died from sepsis during adulthood before HSCT. CONCLUSION: Patients with LRBA deficiency may initially be diagnosed as CVID or ALPS in the clinical practice. Progressive decrease in B cells as well as IgG in ALPS-like patients and addition of IBD symptoms in the follow-up should raise the suspicion for LRBA deficiency. Decreased switched memory B cells, decreased naive and recent thymic emigrant (RTE) Th cells, and markedly increased effector memory/effector memory RA+ Th cells (TEMRA Th) cells are important for the diagnosis of the patients in addition to clinical features. Analysis of protein by either WB or flow cytometry is required when the clinicians come across especially with missense LRBA variants of uncertain significance. High rate of malignancy shows the regulatory T cell's important role of immune surveillance. HSCT is curative and succesful in patients with HLA-matched family donor.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3106, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308374

RESUMO

Immune responses need to be controlled tightly to prevent autoimmune diseases, yet underlying molecular mechanisms remain partially understood. Here, we identify biallelic mutations in three patients from two unrelated families in differentially expressed in FDCP6 homolog (DEF6) as the molecular cause of an inborn error of immunity with systemic autoimmunity. Patient T cells exhibit impaired regulation of CTLA-4 surface trafficking associated with reduced functional CTLA-4 availability, which is replicated in DEF6-knockout Jurkat cells. Mechanistically, we identify the small GTPase RAB11 as an interactor of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor DEF6, and find disrupted binding of mutant DEF6 to RAB11 as well as reduced RAB11+CTLA-4+ vesicles in DEF6-mutated cells. One of the patients has been treated with CTLA-4-Ig and achieved sustained remission. Collectively, we uncover DEF6 as player in immune homeostasis ensuring availability of the checkpoint protein CTLA-4 at T-cell surface, identifying a potential target for autoimmune and/or cancer therapy.

8.
J Exp Med ; 216(9): 1986-1998, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235509

RESUMO

IL-6 excess is central to the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory conditions and is targeted in clinical practice by immunotherapy that blocks the IL-6 receptor encoded by IL6R We describe two patients with homozygous mutations in IL6R who presented with recurrent infections, abnormal acute-phase responses, elevated IgE, eczema, and eosinophilia. This study identifies a novel primary immunodeficiency, clarifying the contribution of IL-6 to the phenotype of patients with mutations in IL6ST, STAT3, and ZNF341, genes encoding different components of the IL-6 signaling pathway, and alerts us to the potential toxicity of drugs targeting the IL-6R.

10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(1): 236-253, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD cause a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections, susceptibility to herpesvirus infections, and impaired antibody responses. Previous work revealed defects in CD8+ T and B cells that contribute to this clinical phenotype, but less is understood about the role of CD4+ T cells in disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to dissect the effects of increased phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling on CD4+ T-cell function. METHODS: We performed detailed ex vivo, in vivo, and in vitro phenotypic and functional analyses of patients' CD4+ T cells and a novel murine disease model caused by overactive PI3K signaling. RESULTS: PI3K overactivation caused substantial increases in numbers of memory and follicular helper T (TFH) cells and dramatic changes in cytokine production in both patients and mice. Furthermore, PIK3CD GOF human TFH cells had dysregulated phenotype and function characterized by increased programmed cell death protein 1, CXCR3, and IFN-γ expression, the phenotype of a TFH cell subset with impaired B-helper function. This was confirmed in vivo in which Pik3cd GOF CD4+ T cells also acquired an aberrant TFH phenotype and provided poor help to support germinal center reactions and humoral immune responses by antigen-specific wild-type B cells. The increase in numbers of both memory and TFH cells was largely CD4+ T-cell extrinsic, whereas changes in cytokine production and TFH cell function were cell intrinsic. CONCLUSION: Our studies reveal that CD4+ T cells with overactive PI3K have aberrant activation and differentiation, thereby providing mechanistic insight into dysfunctional antibody responses in patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations.

11.
Immunol Rev ; 287(1): 162-185, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565237

RESUMO

Rare, monogenetic diseases present unique models to dissect gene functions and biological pathways, concomitantly enhancing our understanding of the etiology of complex (and often more common) traits. Although inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a generally prototypic complex disease, it can also manifest in an early-onset, monogenic fashion, often following Mendelian modes of inheritance. Recent advances in genomic technologies have spurred the identification of genetic defects underlying rare, very early-onset IBD (VEO-IBD) as a disease subgroup driven by strong genetic influence, pinpointing key players in the delicate homeostasis of the immune system in the gut and illustrating the intimate relationships between bowel inflammation, systemic immune dysregulation, and primary immunodeficiency with increased susceptibility to infections. As for other human diseases, it is likely that adult-onset diseases may represent complex diseases integrating the effects of host genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers. Comparison of adult-onset IBD and VEO-IBD thus provides beautiful models to investigate the relationship between monogenic and multifactorial/polygenic diseases. This review discusses the present and novel findings regarding monogenic IBD as well as key questions and future directions of IBD research.


Assuntos
Homeostase , Imunidade/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Animais , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Fenótipo
12.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2554, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450104

RESUMO

Early diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID) is vital and allows directed treatment, especially in syndromes with severe or profound combined immunodeficiency. In PID patients with perinatal CMV or other opportunistic, invasive infections (e.g., Pneumocystis or Aspergillus), multi-organ morbidity may already arise within the first months of life, before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or gene therapy can be undertaken, compromising the definitive treatment and outcome. Deficiency of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) protein-interacting protein (WIP deficiency) causes an autosomal recessive, WAS-like syndrome with early-onset combined immunodeficiency that has been described in three pedigrees to date. While WAS typically includes combined immunodeficiency, microthrombocytopenia, and eczema, the clinical and laboratory phenotypes of WIP-deficient patients-including lymphocyte subsets, platelets, lymphocyte proliferation in vitro, and IgE-varied widely and did not entirely recapitulate WAS, impeding early diagnosis in the reported patients. To elucidate the phenotype of WIP deficiency, we provide a comprehensive synopsis of clinical and laboratory features of all hitherto-described patients (n = 6) and WIP negative mice. Furthermore, we summarize the treatment modalities and outcomes of these patients and review in detail the course of one of them who was successfully treated with serial, unconditioned, maternal, HLA-identical donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) against life-threatening, invasive CMV infection, followed by a TCRαß/CD19-depleted, treosulfan/melphalan-conditioned, peripheral blood HSCT and repetitive, secondary-prophylactic, CMV-specific DLI with 1-year post-HSCT follow-up. This strategy could be useful in other patients with substantial premorbidity, considered "too bad to transplant," who have an HLA-identical family donor, to eliminate infections and bridge until definitive treatment.

13.
Haematologica ; 2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309848

RESUMO

Hyper-IgE Syndromes comprise a group of inborn errors of immunity. STAT3-deficient hyper-IgE syndrome is characterized by elevated serum IgE levels, recurrent infections and eczema, and characteristic skeletal anomalies. A loss-of-function biallelic mutation in IL6ST encoding the GP130 receptor subunit (p.N404Y) has very recently been identified in a singleton patient (herein referred to as PN404Y) as a novel etiology of hyper-IgE syndrome. Here, we studied a patient with hyper-IgE syndrome caused by a novel homozygous mutation in IL6ST (p.P498L; patient herein referred to as PP498L) leading to abrogated GP130 signaling after stimulation with IL-6 and IL-27 in PBMCs as well as IL-6 and IL-11 in fibroblasts. Extending the initial identification of selective GP130 deficiency, we aimed to dissect the effects of aberrant cytokine signaling on T helper cell differentiation in both patients. Our results reveal the importance of IL-6 signaling for the development of CCR6-expressing memory CD4+ T cells (including T helper 17-enriched subsets) and non-conventional CD8+ T cells which were reduced in both patients. Downstream functional analysis of the GP130 mutants (p.N404Y and p.P498L) have shown differences in response to IL-27, with the p.P498L mutation having a more severe effect that is reflected by reduced T helper 1 cells in this patient (PP498L) only. Collectively, our data suggest that characteristic features of GP130-deficient hyper-IgE syndrome phenotype are IL-6 and IL-11 dominated, and indicate selective roles of aberrant IL-6 and IL-27 signaling on the differentiation of T cell subsets.

14.
Cell Death Differ ; 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30237509

RESUMO

Regulation of cell and tissue homeostasis by programmed cell death is a fundamental process with wide physiological and pathological implications. The advent of scalable somatic cell genetic technologies creates the opportunity to functionally map such essential pathways, thereby identifying potential disease-relevant components. We investigated the genetic basis underlying necroptotic cell death by performing a complementary set of loss-of-function and gain-of-function genetic screens. To this end, we established FADD-deficient haploid human KBM7 cells, which specifically and efficiently undergo necroptosis after a single treatment with either TNFα or the SMAC mimetic compound birinapant. A series of unbiased gene-trap screens identified key signaling mediators, such as TNFR1, RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL. Among the novel components, we focused on the zinc transporter SLC39A7, whose knock-out led to necroptosis resistance by affecting TNF receptor surface levels. Orthogonal, solute carrier (SLC)-focused CRISPR/Cas9-based genetic screens revealed the exquisite specificity of SLC39A7, among ~400 SLC genes, for TNFR1-mediated and FAS-mediated but not TRAIL-R1-mediated responses. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that loss of SLC39A7 resulted in augmented ER stress and impaired receptor trafficking, thereby globally affecting downstream signaling. The newly established cellular model also allowed genome-wide gain-of-function screening for genes conferring resistance to necroptosis via the CRISPR/Cas9-based synergistic activation mediator approach. Among these, we found cIAP1 and cIAP2, and characterized the role of TNIP1, which prevented pathway activation in a ubiquitin-binding dependent manner. Altogether, the gain-of-function and loss-of-function screens described here provide a global genetic chart of the molecular factors involved in necroptosis and death receptor signaling, prompting further investigation of their individual contribution and potential role in pathological conditions.

15.
Clin Immunol ; 197: 1-5, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121298

RESUMO

V(D)J recombination, during which recognition and repair of broken DNA chains are accomplished by non-homologous end joining pathway, is a critical process in B and T cell development.Null mutations of each enzyme or protein of this pathway result in T- B- NK+ severe combined immunodeficiency whereas hypomorphic mutations result in atypical(leaky)severe combined immunodeficiency forms. We present two siblings with PRKDC (Protein Kinase, DNA-Activated, Catalytic Polypeptide) mutation who presented with granulomatous skin lesions and recurrent lung infections. Primary immune deficiencies may initially present with skin findings. Disruption in central and peripheral B-cell tolerance and impaired intrathymic T-cell maturation,a central player in T-cell tolerance, have been identified as the mechanism of autoimmunity and granuloma seen in patients. The variation in clinical phenotypes of patients with PRKDC mutation suggests that additional factors such as modifying genes, epigenetic and environmental factors may affect the severity and clinical phenotype of the disease. Functional studies during the follow-up and evaluation before and after hematopoeitic stem cell transplantation will hopefully increase our knowledge about the autoimmune and inflammatory process of the disease spectrum.

16.
J Exp Med ; 215(8): 2073-2095, 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30018075

RESUMO

Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD, encoding the p110δ subunit of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), cause a primary immunodeficiency. Affected individuals display impaired humoral immune responses following infection or immunization. To establish mechanisms underlying these immune defects, we studied a large cohort of patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations and established a novel mouse model using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing to introduce a common pathogenic mutation in Pik3cd In both species, hyperactive PI3K severely affected B cell development and differentiation in the bone marrow and the periphery. Furthermore, PI3K GOF B cells exhibited intrinsic defects in class-switch recombination (CSR) due to impaired induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and failure to acquire a plasmablast gene signature and phenotype. Importantly, defects in CSR, AID expression, and Ig secretion were restored by leniolisib, a specific p110δ inhibitor. Our findings reveal key roles for balanced PI3K signaling in B cell development and long-lived humoral immunity and memory and establish the validity of treating affected individuals with p110δ inhibitors.

18.
Br J Haematol ; 182(2): 251-258, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29797310

RESUMO

Establishing a precise diagnosis is essential in inborn haematological cytopenias to enable appropriate treatment decisions and avoid secondary organ damage. However, both diversity and phenotypic overlap of distinct disease entities may make the identification of underlying genetic aetiologies by classical Sanger sequencing challenging. Instead of exome sequencing, we established a systematic next generation sequencing-based panel targeting 292 candidate genes and screened 38 consecutive patients for disease-associated mutations. Efficient identification of the underlying genetic cause in 17 patients (44·7%), including 13 novel mutations, demonstrates that this approach is time- and cost-efficient, enabling optimal management and genetic counselling.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline gain-of function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD, encoding the catalytic p110δ subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), result in hyperactivation of the PI3K-AKT-mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway and underlie a novel inborn error of immunity. Affected subjects exhibit perturbed humoral and cellular immunity, manifesting as recurrent infections, autoimmunity, hepatosplenomegaly, uncontrolled EBV and/or cytomegalovirus infection, and increased incidence of B-cell lymphoproliferation, lymphoma, or both. Mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning inefficient surveillance of EBV-infected B cells is required to understand disease in patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations, identify key molecules required for cell-mediated immunity against EBV, and develop immunotherapeutic interventions for the treatment of this and other EBV-opathies. METHODS: We studied the consequences of PIK3CD GOF mutations on the generation, differentiation, and function of CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which are implicated in host defense against infection with herpesviruses, including EBV. RESULTS: PIK3CD GOF total and EBV-specific CD8+ T cells were skewed toward an effector phenotype, with exaggerated expression of markers associated with premature immunosenescence/exhaustion and increased susceptibility to reactivation-induced cell death. These findings were recapitulated in a novel mouse model of PI3K GOF mutations. NK cells in patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations also exhibited perturbed expression of differentiation-associated molecules. Both CD8+ T and NK cells had reduced capacity to kill EBV-infected B cells. PIK3CD GOF B cells had increased expression of CD48, programmed death ligand 1/2, and CD70. CONCLUSIONS: PIK3CD GOF mutations aberrantly induce exhaustion, senescence, or both and impair cytotoxicity of CD8+ T and NK cells. These defects might contribute to clinical features of affected subjects, such as impaired immunity to herpesviruses and tumor surveillance.

20.
J Clin Immunol ; 2018 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29744787

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency. It results in the intracellular accumulation of toxic metabolites which have effects particularly on lymphocytes and the brain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of 13 ADA-deficient patients. We planned to evaluate their clinical and laboratory findings before and after enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT), and hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (HSCGT). METHODS: Measurement of ADA enzyme activity and metabolites and sequencing of the ADA gene were performed in most of the patients with ADA deficiency. One of the patients with late-onset ADA deficiency was diagnosed by the help of primary immunodeficiency panel screening. RESULTS: Ten out of 13 patients were diagnosed as SCID, while 3 out of 13 were diagnosed as delayed-/late-onset ADA deficiency. Late-onset ADA deficiency patients had clinical and laboratory findings of combined immunodeficiency (CID). Eight patients with ADA-SCID were found to have higher levels of ADA metabolite (dAXP%) (62.1% (34.6-71.9)) than 3 patients with delayed-/late-onset ADA deficiency (6.9% (2.1-8.9). All but one patient with SCID had T-B-NK- phenotype, one had T-B-NK+ phenotype. Genetic defect was documented in 11 patients. Four out of 11 patients had compound heterozygous defects. Three out of 4 patients with compound heterozygous defects had delayed-onset/late-onset ADA deficiency. Seven out of 11 patients with SCID had homozygous defects. Five out of 7 had the same homozygous indel frameshift mutation (c.955-959delGAAGA) showing a founder effect. There were two novel splice site defects: one (IVS10+2T>C) was heterozygous in a patient with late-onset ADA deficiency, and the other was homozygous (IVS2delT+2) in a SCID patient. Other defects were missense defects. Nine out of 13 patients were put on pegylated ADA ERT. Four out of six patients were transplanted without using a conditioning regimen. HSCGT was performed to one of the patients. CONCLUSION: The genetic diagnosis of SCID is utmost important. There is a chance to give ERT before the definitive therapy if the patient with SCID/CID has ADA deficiency. Although ERT was insufficient to restore a normal immune function in ADA-SCID patients, it was useful to improve and stabilize the clinical status before curative therapy (aHSCT/HSCGT). Enzyme replacement therapy was successful in patients with late-/delayed-onset ADA deficiency who presented with the features of combined immunodeficiency. Gastrointestinal polyposis in a patient with late-onset ADA deficiency may be an association or a coincidental finding. Intermittent neurodevelopmental evaluation especially for hearing impairment should be performed in most of the ADA-deficient patients. This may alleviate the speech delay and cognitive abnormalities which may be observed in the follow-up.

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