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1.
JAMA ; 322(3): 216-228, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310297

RESUMO

Importance: The effects of intensive care unit (ICU) visiting hours remain uncertain. Objective: To determine whether a flexible family visitation policy in the ICU reduces the incidence of delirium. Design, Setting and Participants: Cluster-crossover randomized clinical trial involving patients, family members, and clinicians from 36 adult ICUs with restricted visiting hours (<4.5 hours per day) in Brazil. Participants were recruited from April 2017 to June 2018, with follow-up until July 2018. Interventions: Flexible visitation (up to 12 hours per day) supported by family education (n = 837 patients, 652 family members, and 435 clinicians) or usual restricted visitation (median, 1.5 hours per day; n = 848 patients, 643 family members, and 391 clinicians). Nineteen ICUs started with flexible visitation, and 17 started with restricted visitation. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was incidence of delirium during ICU stay, assessed using the CAM-ICU. Secondary outcomes included ICU-acquired infections for patients; symptoms of anxiety and depression assessed using the HADS (range, 0 [best] to 21 [worst]) for family members; and burnout for ICU staff (Maslach Burnout Inventory). Results: Among 1685 patients, 1295 family members, and 826 clinicians enrolled, 1685 patients (100%) (mean age, 58.5 years; 47.2% women), 1060 family members (81.8%) (mean age, 45.2 years; 70.3% women), and 737 clinicians (89.2%) (mean age, 35.5 years; 72.9% women) completed the trial. The mean daily duration of visits was significantly higher with flexible visitation (4.8 vs 1.4 hours; adjusted difference, 3.4 hours [95% CI, 2.8 to 3.9]; P < .001). The incidence of delirium during ICU stay was not significantly different between flexible and restricted visitation (18.9% vs 20.1%; adjusted difference, -1.7% [95% CI, -6.1% to 2.7%]; P = .44). Among 9 prespecified secondary outcomes, 6 did not differ significantly between flexible and restricted visitation, including ICU-acquired infections (3.7% vs 4.5%; adjusted difference, -0.8% [95% CI, -2.1% to 1.0%]; P = .38) and staff burnout (22.0% vs 24.8%; adjusted difference, -3.8% [95% CI, -4.8% to 12.5%]; P = .36). For family members, median anxiety (6.0 vs 7.0; adjusted difference, -1.6 [95% CI, -2.3 to -0.9]; P < .001) and depression scores (4.0 vs 5.0; adjusted difference, -1.2 [95% CI, -2.0 to -0.4]; P = .003) were significantly better with flexible visitation. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients in the ICU, a flexible family visitation policy, vs standard restricted visiting hours, did not significantly reduce the incidence of delirium. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02932358.


Assuntos
Delírio/prevenção & controle , Família/psicologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Visitas a Pacientes , Ansiedade , Brasil , Esgotamento Profissional , Cuidados Críticos/psicologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Depressão , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 213, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As more patients are surviving intensive care, mental health concerns in survivors have become a research priority. Among these, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can have an important impact on the quality of life of critical care survivors. However, data on its burden are conflicting. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the prevalence of PTSD symptoms in adult critical care patients after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Web of Science, PsycNET, and Scopus databases from inception to September 2018. We included observational studies assessing the prevalence of PTSD symptoms in adult critical care survivors. Two reviewers independently screened studies and extracted data. Studies were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model to estimate PTSD symptom prevalence at different time points, also estimating confidence and prediction intervals. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were performed to explore heterogeneity. Risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute tool and the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Of 13,267 studies retrieved, 48 were included in this review. Overall prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 19.83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.72-23.13; I2 = 90%, low quality of evidence). Prevalence varied widely across studies, with a wide range of expected prevalence (from 3.70 to 43.73% in 95% of settings). Point prevalence estimates were 15.93% (95% CI, 11.15-21.35; I2 = 90%; 17 studies), 16.80% (95% CI, 13.74-20.09; I2 = 66%; 13 studies), 18.96% (95% CI, 14.28-24.12; I2 = 92%; 13 studies), and 20.21% (95% CI, 13.79-27.44; I2 = 58%; 7 studies) at 3, 6, 12, and > 12 months after discharge, respectively. CONCLUSION: PTSD symptoms may affect 1 in every 5 adult critical care survivors, with a high expected prevalence 12 months after discharge. ICU survivors should be screened for PTSD symptoms and cared for accordingly, given the potential negative impact of PTSD on quality of life. In addition, action should be taken to further explore the causal relationship between ICU stay and PTSD, as well as to propose early measures to prevent PTSD in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42017075124 , Registered 6 December 2017.

3.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(2): 193-201, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1013776

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Caracterizar a disponibilidade de recursos a partir de amostra aleatória representativa das unidades de terapia intensiva do Brasil. Métodos: Realizou-se um questionário estruturado on-line para ser respondido pelo diretor médico de cada unidade participante do estudo SPREAD (Sepsis PREvalence Assessment Database), um estudo de prevalência de um único dia para avaliar o ônus da sepse no Brasil. Resultados: Uma amostra representativa de 277 das 317 unidades convidadas participou por meio de resposta ao questionário estruturado. Em sua maior parte, os hospitais participantes tinham menos que 500 leitos (94,6%), com mediana de 14 leitos na unidade de terapia intensiva. A principal fonte de recursos financeiros para dois terços das unidades pesquisadas era o atendimento de pacientes do sistema público de saúde. Não havia disponibilidade de laboratório de microbiologia próprio em 26,8% das unidades de terapia intensiva pesquisadas, e 10,5% geralmente não tinham acesso à realização de hemoculturas. Em 10,5% das unidades pesquisadas geralmente não estavam disponíveis antibióticos de amplo espectro, e 21,3% das unidades geralmente não podiam obter mensurações de lactato dentro de 3 horas. As instituições com alta disponibilidade de recursos (158 unidades; 57%) eram, em geral, maiores e atendiam principalmente pacientes do sistema de saúde privado. As unidades sem alta disponibilidade de recursos geralmente não dispunham de antibióticos de amplo espectro (24,4%), vasopressores (4,2%) e cristaloides (7,6%). Conclusão: Um número importante de unidades não tem condições para realizar intervenções básicas de monitoramento e terapêutica em pacientes sépticos. Nossos resultados salientam importantes oportunidades que o Brasil tem para melhorar, em termos de adesão a intervenções simples, porém eficazes.


ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize resource availability from a nationally representative random sample of intensive care units in Brazil. Methods: A structured online survey of participating units in the Sepsis PREvalence Assessment Database (SPREAD) study, a nationwide 1-day point prevalence survey to assess the burden of sepsis in Brazil, was sent to the medical director of each unit. Results: A representative sample of 277 of the 317 invited units responded to the resources survey. Most of the hospitals had fewer than 500 beds (94.6%) with a median of 14 beds in the intensive care unit. Providing care for public-insured patients was the main source of income in two-thirds of the surveyed units. Own microbiology laboratory was not available for 26.8% of the surveyed intensive care units, and 10.5% did not always have access to blood cultures. Broad spectrum antibiotics were not always available in 10.5% of surveyed units, and 21.3% could not always measure lactate within three hours. Those institutions with a high resource availability (158 units, 57%) were usually larger and preferentially served patients from the private health system compared to institutions without high resource availability. Otherwise, those without high resource availability did not always have broad-spectrum antibiotics (24.4%), vasopressors (4.2%) or crystalloids (7.6%). Conclusion: Our study indicates that a relevant number of units cannot perform basic monitoring and therapeutic interventions in septic patients. Our results highlight major opportunities for improvement to adhere to simple but effective interventions in Brazil.

4.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 31(2): 193-201, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize resource availability from a nationally representative random sample of intensive care units in Brazil. METHODS: A structured online survey of participating units in the Sepsis PREvalence Assessment Database (SPREAD) study, a nationwide 1-day point prevalence survey to assess the burden of sepsis in Brazil, was sent to the medical director of each unit. RESULTS: A representative sample of 277 of the 317 invited units responded to the resources survey. Most of the hospitals had fewer than 500 beds (94.6%) with a median of 14 beds in the intensive care unit. Providing care for public-insured patients was the main source of income in two-thirds of the surveyed units. Own microbiology laboratory was not available for 26.8% of the surveyed intensive care units, and 10.5% did not always have access to blood cultures. Broad spectrum antibiotics were not always available in 10.5% of surveyed units, and 21.3% could not always measure lactate within three hours. Those institutions with a high resource availability (158 units, 57%) were usually larger and preferentially served patients from the private health system compared to institutions without high resource availability. Otherwise, those without high resource availability did not always have broad-spectrum antibiotics (24.4%), vasopressors (4.2%) or crystalloids (7.6%). CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that a relevant number of units cannot perform basic monitoring and therapeutic interventions in septic patients. Our results highlight major opportunities for improvement to adhere to simple but effective interventions in Brazil.

5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 319, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The identification and management of cardiovascular risk factors became a major clinical issue among HIV-infected individuals in the post-cART era. As in the past decades the link between acute infections and cardiovascular diseases became clear in the general population, we sorted to investigate the role of severe infections on incident cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) among HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: HIV-infected individuals aged ≥18 years, with no history of CVD were followed from January 2000 to December 2013 until the occurrence of the first CVD event, death or end of study, whichever occurred first. To explore the effect of severe infections on the incidence of CVD we used extended Cox regression models and stratified post-hospitalization follow-up time into three periods: < 3 months, 3-12 months and > 12 months post discharge. RESULTS: One hundred-eighty four persons from 3384 HIV-infected individuals developed incident CVD events during the follow-up (incidence rate = 11.10/1000 PY (95%CI: 9.60-12.82)). Risk of an incident CVD was 4-fold higher at < 3 months post-hospitalization for severe infections (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 4.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.46-8.30), after adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors as well as comorbidities. This risk remained significant up to one year (3-12 months post hospital discharge aHR 2.39, 95% CI 1.30-4.38). Additionally, non-white race/ethnicity (aHR 1.49, 95% CI 1.10-2.02), age ≥ 60 years (aHR 2.01, 95% CI 1.01-3.97) and hypertension (aHR 1.90, 95% CI 1.38-2.60) were associated with an increased risk of CVD events. High CD4 (≥ 500 cells/mm3: aHR 0.41, 95% CI 0.27-0.62) and cART use (aHR 0.21, 95% CI 0.14-0.31) reduced the risk of CVD events. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence for a time-dependent association between severe infection and incident cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected individuals. cART use, and high CD4 count were significantly associated with reduced hazards of CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecção/complicações , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Infecção/microbiologia , Infecção/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
7.
World Neurosurg ; 115: e292-e298, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29660554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is an acute cerebrovascular event that leads to devastating consequences. Early brain infarction (EBI) develops very early, within the first 72 hours after bleeding, and may have a significant impact on long-term outcomes. The incidence and impact of EBI in the prognosis of aSAH remain uncertain. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the incidence of EBI in patients with aSAH and determine its effect on mortality and functional outcomes. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Inclusion criteria were 1) studies that evaluated aSAH within 72 hours after bleeding; 2) performed a brain imaging study up to 72 hours of hemorrhage; 3) used computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging; and 4) included a description of the findings of the brain imaging study (whether or not an infarct was present). RESULTS: Ten studies that met the criteria were included. The incidence of EBI was 17%. The risk ratio for 3-month mortality was 2.18 (95% confidence interval 1.48-3.30). The overall risk ratio for poor outcome was 2.26 (95% confidence interval 1.75-2.93). CONCLUSIONS: EBI plays an important role in the outcome of patients with aSAH. Its significant impact could represent a new therapeutic frontier for improving outcomes of these patients.


Assuntos
Infarto Encefálico/diagnóstico , Infarto Encefálico/mortalidade , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/mortalidade , Infarto Encefálico/etiologia , Humanos , Mortalidade/tendências , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/complicações , Fatores de Tempo
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(3): e0006214, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae infection. In 2016, more than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world, representing the most frequent cause of infectious irreversible deformities and disabilities. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present work, we demonstrate a consistent procoagulant profile on 40 reactional and non-reactional multibacillary leprosy patients. A retrospective analysis in search of signs of coagulation abnormalities among 638 leprosy patients identified 35 leprosy patients (5.48%) which displayed a characteristic lipid-like clot formed between blood clot and serum during serum harvesting, herein named 'leprosum clot'. Most of these patients (n = 16, 45.7%) belonged to the lepromatous leprosy pole of the disease. In addition, formation of the leprosum clot was directly correlated with increased plasma levels of soluble tissue factor and von Willebrand factor. High performance thin layer chromatography demonstrated a high content of neutral lipids in the leprosum clot, and proteomic analysis demonstrated that the leprosum clot presented in these patients is highly enriched in fibrin. Remarkably, differential 2D-proteomics analysis between leprosum clots and control clots identified two proteins present only in leprosy patients clots: complement component 3 and 4 and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family heavy chain-related protein (IHRP). In agreement with those observations we demonstrated that M. leprae induces hepatocytes release of IHRP in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that leprosy MB patients develop a procoagulant status due to high levels of plasmatic fibrinogen, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, von Willebrand factor and soluble tissue factor. We propose that some of these components, fibrinogen for example, presents potential as predictive biomarkers of leprosy reactions, generating tools for earlier diagnosis and treatment of these events.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/microbiologia , Eritema Nodoso/sangue , Hanseníase Virchowiana/sangue , Pele/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil , Criança , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Eritema Nodoso/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase Virchowiana/complicações , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteômica/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Neuroinflammation ; 15(1): 28, 2018 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microglia function is essential to maintain the brain homeostasis. Evidence shows that aged microglia are primed and show exaggerated response to acute inflammatory challenge. Systemic inflammation signals to the brain inducing changes that impact cognitive function. However, the mechanisms involved in age-related cognitive decline associated to episodic systemic inflammation are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to identify neuropathological features associated to age-related cognitive decline in a mouse model of episodic systemic inflammation. METHODS: Young and aged Swiss mice were injected with low doses of LPS once a week for 6 weeks to induce episodic systemic inflammation. Sickness behavior, inflammatory markers, and neuroinflammation were assessed in different phases of systemic inflammation in young and aged mice. Behavior was evaluated long term after episodic systemic inflammation by open field, forced swimming, object recognition, and water maze tests. RESULTS: Episodic systemic inflammation induced systemic inflammation and sickness behavior mainly in aged mice. Systemic inflammation induced depressive-like behavior in both young and aged mice. Memory and learning were significantly affected in aged mice that presented lower exploratory activity and deficits in episodic and spatial memories, compared to aged controls and to young after episodic systemic inflammation. Systemic inflammation induced acute microglia activation in young mice that returned to base levels long term after episodic systemic inflammation. Aged mice presented dystrophic microglia in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex at basal level and did not change morphology in the acute response to SI. Regardless of their dystrophic microglia, aged mice produced higher levels of pro-inflammatory (IL-1ß and IL-6) as well as pro-resolution (IL-10 and IL-4) cytokines in the brain. Also, higher levels of Nox2 expression, oxidized proteins and lower antioxidant defenses were found in the aged brains compared to the young after episodic systemic inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that aged mice have increased susceptibility to episodic systemic inflammation. Aged mice that showed cognitive impairments also presented higher oxidative stress and abnormal production of cytokines in their brains. These results indicate that a neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are pathophysiological mechanisms of age-related cognitive impairments.

10.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 73: e148, 2018 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29466493

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop a strategy to identify adverse drug events associated with drug-drug interactions by analyzing the prescriptions of critically ill patients. METHODS: This retrospective study included HIV/AIDS patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit between November 2006 and September 2008. Data were collected in two stages. In the first stage, three prescriptions administered throughout the entire duration of these patients' hospitalization were reviewed, with the Micromedex database used to search for potential drug-drug interactions. In the second stage, a search for adverse drug events in all available medical, nursing and laboratory records was performed. The probability that a drug-drug interaction caused each adverse drug events was assessed using the Naranjo algorithm. RESULTS: A total of 186 drug prescriptions of 62 HIV/AIDS patients were analyzed. There were 331 potential drug-drug interactions, and 9% of these potential interactions resulted in adverse drug events in 16 patients; these adverse drug events included treatment failure (16.7%) and adverse reactions (83.3%). Most of the adverse drug reactions were classified as possible based on the Naranjo algorithm. CONCLUSIONS: The approach used in this study allowed for the detection of adverse drug events related to 9% of the potential drug-drug interactions that were identified; these adverse drug events affected 26% of the study population. With the monitoring of adverse drug events based on prescriptions, a combination of the evaluation of potential drug-drug interactions by clinical pharmacy services and the monitoring of critically ill patients is an effective strategy that can be used as a complementary tool for safety assessments and the prevention of adverse drug events.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Interações de Medicamentos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Falha de Tratamento
11.
Clinics ; 73: e148, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop a strategy to identify adverse drug events associated with drug-drug interactions by analyzing the prescriptions of critically ill patients. METHODS: This retrospective study included HIV/AIDS patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit between November 2006 and September 2008. Data were collected in two stages. In the first stage, three prescriptions administered throughout the entire duration of these patients' hospitalization were reviewed, with the Micromedex database used to search for potential drug-drug interactions. In the second stage, a search for adverse drug events in all available medical, nursing and laboratory records was performed. The probability that a drug-drug interaction caused each adverse drug events was assessed using the Naranjo algorithm. RESULTS: A total of 186 drug prescriptions of 62 HIV/AIDS patients were analyzed. There were 331 potential drug-drug interactions, and 9% of these potential interactions resulted in adverse drug events in 16 patients; these adverse drug events included treatment failure (16.7%) and adverse reactions (83.3%). Most of the adverse drug reactions were classified as possible based on the Naranjo algorithm. CONCLUSIONS: The approach used in this study allowed for the detection of adverse drug events related to 9% of the potential drug-drug interactions that were identified; these adverse drug events affected 26% of the study population. With the monitoring of adverse drug events based on prescriptions, a combination of the evaluation of potential drug-drug interactions by clinical pharmacy services and the monitoring of critically ill patients is an effective strategy that can be used as a complementary tool for safety assessments and the prevention of adverse drug events.

12.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0186968, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29065165

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is unclear whether the treatment of an HIV infection with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) affects intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes. In this paper, we report the results of a systematic review and meta-analysis performed to summarize the effects of HAART on the prognosis of critically ill HIV positive patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A bibliographic search was performed in 3 databases (PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus) to identify articles that investigated the use of HAART during ICU admissions for short- and long-term mortality or survival. Eligible articles were selected in a staged process and were independently assessed by two investigators. The methodological quality of the selected articles was evaluated using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) tool. RESULTS: Twelve articles met the systematic review inclusion criteria and examined short-term mortality. Six of them also examined long-term mortality (≥90 days) after ICU discharge. The short-term mortality meta-analysis showed a significant beneficial effect of initiating or maintaining HAART during the ICU stay (random effects odds ratio 0.53, p = 0.02). The data analysis of long-term outcomes also suggested a reduced mortality when HAART was used, but the effect of HAART on long-term mortality of HIV positive critically ill patients remains uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests improved survival rates for HIV positive patients who were treated with HAART during their ICU admission.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Estado Terminal , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
13.
DST j. bras. doenças sex. transm ; 29(2): 36-43, 20171010.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-878927

RESUMO

Conhecer os fatores prognósticos de curto prazo de pacientes HIV, criticamente doentes, na era de terapia antirretroviral combinada, é importante para adoção de medidas preventivas e mais efetivas de tratamento. Para identificar os fatores mais significativos e comuns que determinam a mortalidade a curto prazo, uma revisão sistemática da literatura mais relevante foi conduzida. Método: Uma busca na internet foi conduzida em 3 bases de dados de artigos científicos indexados (PubMed, Scopus e Web of Science) para estudos que investigaram fatores prognósticos de mortalidade ou sobrevivência a curto prazo (em UTIs, ou em outros setores do hospital, seguindo a internação na UTI) de pacientes HIV criticamente enfermos. Os artigos foram selecionados de acordo com critérios pré-estabelecidos e avaliados independentemente por 2 pesquisadores. As variáveis coletadas foram autor, ano, local e tipo do estudo, número de pacientes com HIV, mortalidade, fatores significativos em regressão logística simples e múltipla, principais causas de admissão e critérios de inclusão. Resultados: Vinte e seis artigos foram selecionados para revisão sistemática. Quinze lidaram com fatores que determinavam mortalidade na UTI, 9 com mortalidade hospitalar após internação em UTI, e 2 com ambos. Conclusões: Fatores associados à gravidade de doença aguda, como escores prognósticos, albumina e disfunção orgânica (choque e insuficiência respiratória) parecem ser mais importantes como determinantes da mortalidade a curto prazo que aqueles associados ao HIV.


Knowing the short-term prognostic factors of critically ill HIV patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is important for the adoption of preventive measures and more effective treatment. To identify the most significant and common factors that determine short-term mortality, a systematic review of the relevant literature was carried out. Method: An internet search was conducted in three databases indexing scientific articles (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) for studies investigating the prognostic factors of mortality or short-term survival (in ICUs and elsewhere in hospitals following ICU admission) of critically ill HIV-infected patients. The articles were selected according to pre-established criteria and evaluated independently by two researchers. The variables collected were author, year, study location, study type, number of patients with HIV, mortality, significant factors in simple logistic regression and multiple regression, main causes of admission, and inclusion criteria. Results: Twenty-six articles were selected for systematic review. Fifteen dealt with factors that determine mortality in the ICU, nine with hospital mortality following ICU admission, and two with both. Conclusions: Factors associated with the severity of acute disease, such as prognostic scores, albumin, and organ failure (shock and respiratory failure), seem to be more important as determinants of short-term mortality than those associated with HIV


Assuntos
Humanos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , Cuidados Críticos , HIV , Hospitalização , Prognóstico
14.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 17(11): 1180-1189, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28826588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The sepsis burden on acute care services in middle-income countries is a cause for concern. We estimated incidence, prevalence, and mortality of sepsis in adult Brazilian intensive care units (ICUs) and association of ICU organisational factors with outcome. METHODS: We did a 1-day point prevalence study with follow-up of patients in ICU with sepsis in a nationally representative pseudo-random sample. We produced a sampling frame initially stratified by geographical region. Each stratum was then stratified by hospitals' main source of income (serving general public vs privately insured individuals) and ICU size (ten or fewer beds vs more than ten beds), finally generating 40 strata. In each stratum we selected a random sample of ICUs so as to enrol the total required beds in 1690 Brazilian adult ICUs. We followed up patients until hospital discharge censored at 60 days, estimated incidence from prevalence and length of stay, and generated national estimates. We assessed mortality prognostic factors using random-effects logistic regression models. FINDINGS: On Feb 27, 2014, 227 (72%) of 317 ICUs that were randomly selected provided data on 2632 patients, of whom 794 had sepsis (30·2 septic patients per 100 ICU beds, 95% CI 28·4-31·9). The ICU sepsis incidence was 36·3 per 1000 patient-days (95% CI 29·8-44·0) and mortality was observed in 439 (55·7%) of 788 patients (95% CI 52·2-59·2). Low availability of resources (odds ratio [OR] 1·67, 95% CI 1·02-2·75, p=0·045) and adequacy of treatment (OR 0·56, 0·37-0·84, p=0·006) were independently associated with mortality. The projected incidence rate is 290 per 100 000 population (95% CI 237·9-351·2) of adult cases of ICU-treated sepsis per year, which yields about 420 000 cases annually, of whom 230 000 die in hospital. INTERPRETATION: The incidence, prevalence, and mortality of ICU-treated sepsis is high in Brazil. Outcome varies considerably, and is associated with access to adequate resources and treatment. Our results show the burden of sepsis in resource-limited settings, highlighting the need to establish programmes aiming for sepsis prevention, early diagnosis, and adequate treatment. FUNDING: Fundação de Apoio a Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP).


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Sepse/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação , Prevalência , Distribuição Aleatória , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
Ann Intensive Care ; 7(1): 53, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28523584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The performance of severity-of-illness scores varies in different scenarios and must be validated prior of being used in a specific settings and geographic regions. Moreover, models' calibration may deteriorate overtime and performance of such instruments should be reassessed regularly. Therefore, we aimed at to validate the SAPS 3 in a large contemporary cohort of patients admitted to Brazilian ICUs. In addition, we also compared the performance of the SAPS 3 with the MPM0-III. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study in which 48,816 (medical admissions = 67.9%) adult patients are admitted to 72 Brazilian ICUs during 2013. We evaluated models' discrimination using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). We applied the calibration belt to evaluate the agreement between observed and expected mortality rates (calibration). RESULTS: Mean SAPS 3 score was 44.3 ± 15.4 points. ICU and hospital mortality rates were 11.0 and 16.5%. We estimated predicted mortality using both standard (SE) and Central and South American (CSA) customized equations. Predicted mortality rates were 16.4 ± 19.3% (SAPS 3-SE), 21.7 ± 23.2% (SAPS 3-CSA) and 14.3 ± 14.0% (MPM0-III). Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) obtained for each model were: 1.00 (95% CI, 0.98-0.102) for the SAPS 3-SE, 0.75 (0.74-0.77) for the SAPS 3-CSA and 1.15 (1.13-1.18) for the MPM0-III. Discrimination was better for SAPS 3 models (AUROC = 0.85) than for MPM0-III (AUROC = 0.80) (p < 0.001). We applied the calibration belt to evaluate the agreement between observed and expected mortality rates (calibration): the SAPS 3-CSA overestimated mortality throughout all risk classes while the MPM0-III underestimated it uniformly. The SAPS 3-SE did not show relevant deviations from ideal calibration. CONCLUSIONS: In a large contemporary database, the SAPS 3-SE was accurate in predicting outcomes, supporting its use for performance evaluation and benchmarking in Brazilian ICUs.

16.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 16(1): 40, 2016 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27439509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventilation with low tidal volume (VT) is well recognized as a protective approach to patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but the optimal level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) remains uncertain. This study aims to evaluate two protective ventilatory strategies sequentially applied in patients with early ARDS. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, fifteen patients were ventilated during 24 h with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) adjusted according to the ARDSnet low-PEEP table (ARDSnet-24 h). During the next 24 h, nine patients with PaO2/FIO2 ratio below 350 mmHg were ventilated with PEEP titrated according to the Open Lung Concept protocol (ARDSnet + OLC). In the other six patients, regardless of their PaO2/FIO2 ratio, the ARDSnet remained for a further 24 h (ARDSnet-48 h). Ventilatory variables, arterial blood-gas and cytokine were obtained at baseline, 24 and 48 h. Additionally, whole-lung-computed tomography was acquired at 24 and 48 h. RESULTS: A sustained improvement in PaO2/FIO2 ratio (P = 0.008) with a decrease in collapsed regions (P = 0.008) was observed in the ARDSnet + OLC group compared with the ARDSnet-24 h group. A reduction in IL-6 in plasma (P < 0.02) was observed throughout the protocol in the ARDSnet + OLC group. Compared with the ARDSnet-48 h group, the ARDSnet + OLC presented smaller amounts of collapsed areas (P = 0.018) without significant differences in hyperinflated regions and in driving and plateau pressures. CONCLUSIONS: In this set of patients with early ARDS, mechanical ventilation with an individually tailored PEEP sustained improved pulmonary function with better aeration, without significant increase in hyperinflated areas". TRIAL REGISTRATION: Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (ReBec). RBR-5zm9pr. 04th November 2015.


Assuntos
Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Atelectasia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Gasometria , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-8/sangue , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Atelectasia Pulmonar/complicações , Atelectasia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/sangue , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral , Adulto Jovem
17.
JAMA ; 315(14): 1480-90, 2016 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27115264

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: The effectiveness of checklists, daily goal assessments, and clinician prompts as quality improvement interventions in intensive care units (ICUs) is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a multifaceted quality improvement intervention reduces the mortality of critically ill adults. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This study had 2 phases. Phase 1 was an observational study to assess baseline data on work climate, care processes, and clinical outcomes, conducted between August 2013 and March 2014 in 118 Brazilian ICUs. Phase 2 was a cluster randomized trial conducted between April and November 2014 with the same ICUs. The first 60 admissions of longer than 48 hours per ICU were enrolled in each phase. INTERVENTIONS: Intensive care units were randomized to a quality improvement intervention, including a daily checklist and goal setting during multidisciplinary rounds with follow-up clinician prompting for 11 care processes, or to routine care. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: In-hospital mortality truncated at 60 days (primary outcome) was analyzed using a random-effects logistic regression model, adjusted for patients' severity and the ICU's baseline standardized mortality ratio. Exploratory secondary outcomes included adherence to care processes, safety climate, and clinical events. RESULTS: A total of 6877 patients (mean age, 59.7 years; 3218 [46.8%] women) were enrolled in the baseline (observational) phase and 6761 (mean age, 59.6 years; 3098 [45.8%] women) in the randomized phase, with 3327 patients enrolled in ICUs (n = 59) assigned to the intervention group and 3434 patients in ICUs (n = 59) assigned to routine care. There was no significant difference in in-hospital mortality between the intervention group and the usual care group, with 1096 deaths (32.9%) and 1196 deaths (34.8%), respectively (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.82-1.26; P = .88). Among 20 prespecified secondary outcomes not adjusted for multiple comparisons, 6 were significantly improved in the intervention group (use of low tidal volumes, avoidance of heavy sedation, use of central venous catheters, use of urinary catheters, perception of team work, and perception of patient safety climate), whereas there were no significant differences between the intervention group and the control group for 14 outcomes (ICU mortality, central line-associated bloodstream infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, urinary tract infection, mean ventilator-free days, mean ICU length of stay, mean hospital length of stay, bed elevation to ≥30°, venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, diet administration, job satisfaction, stress reduction, perception of management, and perception of working conditions). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among critically ill patients treated in ICUs in Brazil, implementation of a multifaceted quality improvement intervention with daily checklists, goal setting, and clinician prompting did not reduce in-hospital mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01785966.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Metas , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Visitas com Preceptor , Brasil , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/mortalidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Clin Immunol ; 164: 95-105, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26826597

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of dengue in subjects coinfected with HIV remains largely unknown. We investigate clinical and immunological parameters in coinfected DENV/HIV patients. According to the new dengue classification, most coinfected DENV/HIV patients presented mild clinical manifestations of dengue infection. Herein, we show that DENV/HIV coinfected patients had higher CD8 T cells percentages reflected as a lower CD4/CD8 ratio. Furthermore, CCR5 expression on CD4 T cells and CD107a expression on both T subsets were significantly higher in coinfected patients when compared with monoinfected DENV and HIV individuals respectively. Increased inflammatory response was observed in treated HAART coinfected patients despite undetectable HIV load. These data indicate that DENV infection may influence the clinical profile and immune response in individuals concomitantly infected with HIV.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Dengue/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Relação CD4-CD8 , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Coinfecção/sangue , Dengue/sangue , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 27(1): 57-63, 2015 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25909314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate Brazilian physicians' perceptions regarding the diagnosis, severity assessment, treatment and risk stratification of severe community-acquired pneumonia patients and to compare those perceptions to current guidelines. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional international anonymous survey among a convenience sample of critical care, pulmonary, emergency and internal medicine physicians from Brazil between October and December 2008. The electronic survey evaluated physicians' attitudes towards the diagnosis, risk assessment and therapeutic interventions for patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia. RESULTS: A total of 253 physicians responded to the survey, with 66% from Southeast Brazil. The majority (60%) of the responding physicians had > 10 years of medical experience. The risk assessment of severe community-acquired pneumonia was very heterogeneous, with clinical evaluation as the most frequent approach. Although blood cultures were recognized as exhibiting a poor diagnostic performance, these cultures were performed by 75% of respondents. In contrast, the presence of urinary pneumococcal and Legionella antigens was evaluated by less than 1/3 of physicians. The vast majority of physicians (95%) prescribe antibiotics according to a guideline, with the combination of a 3rd/4th generation cephalosporin plus a macrolide as the most frequent choice. CONCLUSION: This Brazilian survey identified an important gap between guidelines and clinical practice and recommends the institution of educational programs that implement evidence-based strategies for the management of severe community-acquired pneumonia.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/terapia , Pneumonia/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 27(1): 57-63, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-744685

RESUMO

Objetivo: Avaliar a percepção dos médicos brasileiros quanto ao diagnóstico, à avaliação de gravidade, ao tratamento e à estratificação de risco em pacientes com pneumonia grave adquirida na comunidade, e compará-la com as diretrizes atuais. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado por meio da aplicação de um questionário anônimo a uma amostra de médicos brasileiros especialistas em cuidados intensivos, medicina de emergência, medicina interna e pneumologia. Entre outubro e dezembro de 2008, foram avaliadas as atitudes dos médicos no diagnóstico, a avaliação de risco e as intervenções terapêuticas para pacientes com pneumonia grave adquirida na comunidade. Resultados: Responderam ao questionário 253 médicos, sendo 66% da Região Sudeste do Brasil. A maioria (60%) dos médicos que responderam tinha mais de 10 anos de experiência. Verificou-se que a avaliação de risco de pneumonia grave adquirida na comunidade foi muito heterogênea, sendo a avaliação clínica a forma de avaliação de risco mais frequente. As hemoculturas foram habitualmente realizadas por 75% dos médicos, entretanto, foi reconhecido seu fraco desempenho diagnóstico. Por outro lado, a pesquisa de antígenos urinários de Pneumococo e Legionella foi solicitada por menos de um terço dos médicos. A maioria (95%) prescreveu antibióticos de acordo com as diretrizes. A combinação de uma cefalosporina de terceira ou quarta geração com um macrolídeo foi a escolha mais comum. Conclusão: Este inquérito brasileiro demonstrou diferenças entre as diretrizes publicadas e a prática clínica. Isso leva à necessidade de se desenvolverem programas educacionais e de adoção de protocolos para implementar estratégias baseadas em evidências no manejo da pneumonia grave adquirida na comunidade. .


Objective: This study aimed to evaluate Brazilian physicians’ perceptions regarding the diagnosis, severity assessment, treatment and risk stratification of severe community-acquired pneumonia patients and to compare those perceptions to current guidelines. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional international anonymous survey among a convenience sample of critical care, pulmonary, emergency and internal medicine physicians from Brazil between October and December 2008. The electronic survey evaluated physicians’ attitudes towards the diagnosis, risk assessment and therapeutic interventions for patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia. Results: A total of 253 physicians responded to the survey, with 66% from Southeast Brazil. The majority (60%) of the responding physicians had > 10 years of medical experience. The risk assessment of severe community-acquired pneumonia was very heterogeneous, with clinical evaluation as the most frequent approach. Although blood cultures were recognized as exhibiting a poor diagnostic performance, these cultures were performed by 75% of respondents. In contrast, the presence of urinary pneumococcal and Legionella antigens was evaluated by less than 1/3 of physicians. The vast majority of physicians (95%) prescribe antibiotics according to a guideline, with the combination of a 3rd/4th generation cephalosporin plus a macrolide as the most frequent choice. Conclusion: This Brazilian survey identified an important gap between guidelines and clinical practice and recommends the institution of educational programs that implement evidence-based strategies for the management of severe community-acquired pneumonia. .

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