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1.
JAMA ; 322(3): 216-228, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310297

RESUMO

Importance: The effects of intensive care unit (ICU) visiting hours remain uncertain. Objective: To determine whether a flexible family visitation policy in the ICU reduces the incidence of delirium. Design, Setting and Participants: Cluster-crossover randomized clinical trial involving patients, family members, and clinicians from 36 adult ICUs with restricted visiting hours (<4.5 hours per day) in Brazil. Participants were recruited from April 2017 to June 2018, with follow-up until July 2018. Interventions: Flexible visitation (up to 12 hours per day) supported by family education (n = 837 patients, 652 family members, and 435 clinicians) or usual restricted visitation (median, 1.5 hours per day; n = 848 patients, 643 family members, and 391 clinicians). Nineteen ICUs started with flexible visitation, and 17 started with restricted visitation. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was incidence of delirium during ICU stay, assessed using the CAM-ICU. Secondary outcomes included ICU-acquired infections for patients; symptoms of anxiety and depression assessed using the HADS (range, 0 [best] to 21 [worst]) for family members; and burnout for ICU staff (Maslach Burnout Inventory). Results: Among 1685 patients, 1295 family members, and 826 clinicians enrolled, 1685 patients (100%) (mean age, 58.5 years; 47.2% women), 1060 family members (81.8%) (mean age, 45.2 years; 70.3% women), and 737 clinicians (89.2%) (mean age, 35.5 years; 72.9% women) completed the trial. The mean daily duration of visits was significantly higher with flexible visitation (4.8 vs 1.4 hours; adjusted difference, 3.4 hours [95% CI, 2.8 to 3.9]; P < .001). The incidence of delirium during ICU stay was not significantly different between flexible and restricted visitation (18.9% vs 20.1%; adjusted difference, -1.7% [95% CI, -6.1% to 2.7%]; P = .44). Among 9 prespecified secondary outcomes, 6 did not differ significantly between flexible and restricted visitation, including ICU-acquired infections (3.7% vs 4.5%; adjusted difference, -0.8% [95% CI, -2.1% to 1.0%]; P = .38) and staff burnout (22.0% vs 24.8%; adjusted difference, -3.8% [95% CI, -4.8% to 12.5%]; P = .36). For family members, median anxiety (6.0 vs 7.0; adjusted difference, -1.6 [95% CI, -2.3 to -0.9]; P < .001) and depression scores (4.0 vs 5.0; adjusted difference, -1.2 [95% CI, -2.0 to -0.4]; P = .003) were significantly better with flexible visitation. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients in the ICU, a flexible family visitation policy, vs standard restricted visiting hours, did not significantly reduce the incidence of delirium. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02932358.


Assuntos
Delírio/prevenção & controle , Família/psicologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Visitas a Pacientes , Ansiedade , Brasil , Esgotamento Profissional , Cuidados Críticos/psicologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Depressão , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 213, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As more patients are surviving intensive care, mental health concerns in survivors have become a research priority. Among these, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can have an important impact on the quality of life of critical care survivors. However, data on its burden are conflicting. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the prevalence of PTSD symptoms in adult critical care patients after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Web of Science, PsycNET, and Scopus databases from inception to September 2018. We included observational studies assessing the prevalence of PTSD symptoms in adult critical care survivors. Two reviewers independently screened studies and extracted data. Studies were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model to estimate PTSD symptom prevalence at different time points, also estimating confidence and prediction intervals. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were performed to explore heterogeneity. Risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute tool and the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Of 13,267 studies retrieved, 48 were included in this review. Overall prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 19.83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.72-23.13; I2 = 90%, low quality of evidence). Prevalence varied widely across studies, with a wide range of expected prevalence (from 3.70 to 43.73% in 95% of settings). Point prevalence estimates were 15.93% (95% CI, 11.15-21.35; I2 = 90%; 17 studies), 16.80% (95% CI, 13.74-20.09; I2 = 66%; 13 studies), 18.96% (95% CI, 14.28-24.12; I2 = 92%; 13 studies), and 20.21% (95% CI, 13.79-27.44; I2 = 58%; 7 studies) at 3, 6, 12, and > 12 months after discharge, respectively. CONCLUSION: PTSD symptoms may affect 1 in every 5 adult critical care survivors, with a high expected prevalence 12 months after discharge. ICU survivors should be screened for PTSD symptoms and cared for accordingly, given the potential negative impact of PTSD on quality of life. In addition, action should be taken to further explore the causal relationship between ICU stay and PTSD, as well as to propose early measures to prevent PTSD in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42017075124 , Registered 6 December 2017.

3.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(2): 193-201, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1013776

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Caracterizar a disponibilidade de recursos a partir de amostra aleatória representativa das unidades de terapia intensiva do Brasil. Métodos: Realizou-se um questionário estruturado on-line para ser respondido pelo diretor médico de cada unidade participante do estudo SPREAD (Sepsis PREvalence Assessment Database), um estudo de prevalência de um único dia para avaliar o ônus da sepse no Brasil. Resultados: Uma amostra representativa de 277 das 317 unidades convidadas participou por meio de resposta ao questionário estruturado. Em sua maior parte, os hospitais participantes tinham menos que 500 leitos (94,6%), com mediana de 14 leitos na unidade de terapia intensiva. A principal fonte de recursos financeiros para dois terços das unidades pesquisadas era o atendimento de pacientes do sistema público de saúde. Não havia disponibilidade de laboratório de microbiologia próprio em 26,8% das unidades de terapia intensiva pesquisadas, e 10,5% geralmente não tinham acesso à realização de hemoculturas. Em 10,5% das unidades pesquisadas geralmente não estavam disponíveis antibióticos de amplo espectro, e 21,3% das unidades geralmente não podiam obter mensurações de lactato dentro de 3 horas. As instituições com alta disponibilidade de recursos (158 unidades; 57%) eram, em geral, maiores e atendiam principalmente pacientes do sistema de saúde privado. As unidades sem alta disponibilidade de recursos geralmente não dispunham de antibióticos de amplo espectro (24,4%), vasopressores (4,2%) e cristaloides (7,6%). Conclusão: Um número importante de unidades não tem condições para realizar intervenções básicas de monitoramento e terapêutica em pacientes sépticos. Nossos resultados salientam importantes oportunidades que o Brasil tem para melhorar, em termos de adesão a intervenções simples, porém eficazes.


ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize resource availability from a nationally representative random sample of intensive care units in Brazil. Methods: A structured online survey of participating units in the Sepsis PREvalence Assessment Database (SPREAD) study, a nationwide 1-day point prevalence survey to assess the burden of sepsis in Brazil, was sent to the medical director of each unit. Results: A representative sample of 277 of the 317 invited units responded to the resources survey. Most of the hospitals had fewer than 500 beds (94.6%) with a median of 14 beds in the intensive care unit. Providing care for public-insured patients was the main source of income in two-thirds of the surveyed units. Own microbiology laboratory was not available for 26.8% of the surveyed intensive care units, and 10.5% did not always have access to blood cultures. Broad spectrum antibiotics were not always available in 10.5% of surveyed units, and 21.3% could not always measure lactate within three hours. Those institutions with a high resource availability (158 units, 57%) were usually larger and preferentially served patients from the private health system compared to institutions without high resource availability. Otherwise, those without high resource availability did not always have broad-spectrum antibiotics (24.4%), vasopressors (4.2%) or crystalloids (7.6%). Conclusion: Our study indicates that a relevant number of units cannot perform basic monitoring and therapeutic interventions in septic patients. Our results highlight major opportunities for improvement to adhere to simple but effective interventions in Brazil.

4.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e028570, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243035

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is an increasing demand for multi-organ donors for organ transplantation programmes. This study protocol describes the Donation Network to Optimise Organ Recovery Study, a planned cluster randomised controlled trial that aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of an evidence-based, goal-directed checklist for brain-dead potential organ donor management in intensive care units (ICUs) in reducing the loss of potential donors due to cardiac arrest. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study will include ICUs of at least 60 Brazilian sites with an average of ≥10 annual notifications of valid potential organ donors. Hospitals will be randomly assigned (with a 1:1 allocation ratio) to the intervention group, which will involve the implementation of an evidence-based, goal-directed checklist for potential organ donor maintenance, or the control group, which will maintain the usual care practices of the ICU. Team members from all participating ICUs will receive training on how to conduct family interviews for organ donation. The primary outcome will be loss of potential donors due to cardiac arrest. Secondary outcomes will include the number of actual organ donors and the number of organs recovered per actual donor. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The institutional review board (IRB) of the coordinating centre and of each participating site individually approved the study. We requested a waiver of informed consent for the IRB of each site. Study results will be disseminated to the general medical community through publications in peer-reviewed medical journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03179020; Pre-results.

5.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 31(2): 193-201, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize resource availability from a nationally representative random sample of intensive care units in Brazil. METHODS: A structured online survey of participating units in the Sepsis PREvalence Assessment Database (SPREAD) study, a nationwide 1-day point prevalence survey to assess the burden of sepsis in Brazil, was sent to the medical director of each unit. RESULTS: A representative sample of 277 of the 317 invited units responded to the resources survey. Most of the hospitals had fewer than 500 beds (94.6%) with a median of 14 beds in the intensive care unit. Providing care for public-insured patients was the main source of income in two-thirds of the surveyed units. Own microbiology laboratory was not available for 26.8% of the surveyed intensive care units, and 10.5% did not always have access to blood cultures. Broad spectrum antibiotics were not always available in 10.5% of surveyed units, and 21.3% could not always measure lactate within three hours. Those institutions with a high resource availability (158 units, 57%) were usually larger and preferentially served patients from the private health system compared to institutions without high resource availability. Otherwise, those without high resource availability did not always have broad-spectrum antibiotics (24.4%), vasopressors (4.2%) or crystalloids (7.6%). CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that a relevant number of units cannot perform basic monitoring and therapeutic interventions in septic patients. Our results highlight major opportunities for improvement to adhere to simple but effective interventions in Brazil.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7096, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068600

RESUMO

HIV-infected subjects under virological control still exhibit a persistent proinflammatory state. Thus, chronic HIV infection changes the host homeostasis towards an adapted immune response that may affect the outcome of coinfections. However, little is known about the impact of HIV infection on inflammatory amplification and clinical presentation in dengue. Platelets have been shown to participate in immune response in dengue and HIV. We hypothesized that altered platelet responses in HIV-infected subjects may contribute to altered inflammatory milieu and disease progression in dengue. We prospectively followed a cohort of 84 DENV-infected patients of whom 29 were coinfected with HIV under virological control. We report that dengue and HIV coinfection progress with reduced inflammation and milder disease progression with lower risk of vascular instability. Even though the degree of thrombocytopenia and platelet activation were similar between dengue-infected and HIV plus dengue-coinfected patients, plasma levels of the platelet-derived chemokines RANTES/CCL5 and PF4/CXCL4 were lower in coinfection. Consistently, platelets from coinfected patients presented defective secretion of the stored-chemokines PF4 and RANTES, but not newly synthesized IL-1ß, when cultured ex vivo. These data indicate that platelets from HIV-infected subjects release lower levels of chemokines during dengue illness, which may contribute to milder clinical presentation during coinfection.

7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 319, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The identification and management of cardiovascular risk factors became a major clinical issue among HIV-infected individuals in the post-cART era. As in the past decades the link between acute infections and cardiovascular diseases became clear in the general population, we sorted to investigate the role of severe infections on incident cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) among HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: HIV-infected individuals aged ≥18 years, with no history of CVD were followed from January 2000 to December 2013 until the occurrence of the first CVD event, death or end of study, whichever occurred first. To explore the effect of severe infections on the incidence of CVD we used extended Cox regression models and stratified post-hospitalization follow-up time into three periods: < 3 months, 3-12 months and > 12 months post discharge. RESULTS: One hundred-eighty four persons from 3384 HIV-infected individuals developed incident CVD events during the follow-up (incidence rate = 11.10/1000 PY (95%CI: 9.60-12.82)). Risk of an incident CVD was 4-fold higher at < 3 months post-hospitalization for severe infections (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 4.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.46-8.30), after adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors as well as comorbidities. This risk remained significant up to one year (3-12 months post hospital discharge aHR 2.39, 95% CI 1.30-4.38). Additionally, non-white race/ethnicity (aHR 1.49, 95% CI 1.10-2.02), age ≥ 60 years (aHR 2.01, 95% CI 1.01-3.97) and hypertension (aHR 1.90, 95% CI 1.38-2.60) were associated with an increased risk of CVD events. High CD4 (≥ 500 cells/mm3: aHR 0.41, 95% CI 0.27-0.62) and cART use (aHR 0.21, 95% CI 0.14-0.31) reduced the risk of CVD events. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence for a time-dependent association between severe infection and incident cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected individuals. cART use, and high CD4 count were significantly associated with reduced hazards of CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecção/complicações , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Infecção/microbiologia , Infecção/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
8.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213837, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is the third major cause of death in the world and the second in Brazil. The purpose of this work was to assess the stroke-related hospitalization, in-hospital mortality, and case fatality rates under the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) from 2009 to 2016. METHODS: We evaluated the hospital admissions for stroke and their associated outcomes using data from the Hospital Information available at the Informatics Department of SUS. We selected hospitalization registries according to stroke diagnosis codes from the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10). We identified the association of age and sex with patient death through multiple logistic regression and calculated the rates of hospitalization, mortality and case-fatality per 100,000 inhabitants using age-adjustment methodology. RESULTS: We analyzed 1,113,599 stroke hospitalizations. From 2009 to 2016, the number of admissions increased from 131,122 to 146,950 and the absolute number of in-hospital deaths increased from 28,731 to 31,937. Younger age and male sex were significantly associated with patient survival. Our results showed that the annual age-adjusted hospitalization and in-hospital mortality rates decreased by 11.8% and 12.6%, respectively, but the case fatality rate increased for patients older than 70 years. CONCLUSIONS: Although the age-adjusted hospitalization and in-hospital mortality rates declined, the total number of hospitalization and deaths have increased. It is expected a continuous increase over the next years of stroke admissions with the rapid aging of the Brazilian population. Efforts should be renewed targeting risk factors, access to hospital and rehabilitation in particular for the elderly population.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2760, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809003

RESUMO

Brazil, which is hyperendemic for dengue virus (DENV), has had recent Zika (ZIKV) and (CHIKV) Chikungunya virus outbreaks. Since March 2016, CHIKV is the arbovirus infection most frequently diagnosed in Rio de Janeiro. In the analysis of 1835 syndromic patients, screened by real time RT-PCR, 56.4% of the cases were attributed to CHIKV, 29.6% to ZIKV, and 14.1% to DENV-4. Sequence analyses of CHIKV from sixteen samples revealed that the East-Central-South-African (ECSA) genotype of CHIKV has been circulating in Brazil since 2013 [95% bayesian credible interval (BCI): 03/2012-10/2013], almost a year before it was detected by arbovirus surveillance program. Brazilian cases are related to Central African Republic sequences from 1980's. To the best of our knowledge, given the available sequence published here and elsewhere, the ECSA genotype was likely introduced to Rio de Janeiro early on 2014 (02/2014; BCI: 07/2013-08/2014) through a single event, after primary circulation in the Bahia state at the Northestern Brazil in the previous year. The observation that the ECSA genotype of CHIKV was circulating undetected underscores the need for improvements in molecular methods for viral surveillance.

11.
Blood ; 133(19): 2013-2026, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723081

RESUMO

Evolving evidence indicates that platelets and megakaryocytes (MKs) have unexpected activities in inflammation and infection; whether viral infections upregulate biologically active, antiviral immune genes in platelets and MKs is unknown, however. We examined antiviral immune genes in these cells in dengue and influenza infections, viruses that are global public health threats. Using complementary biochemical, pharmacological, and genetic approaches, we examined the regulation and function of interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3), an antiviral immune effector gene not previously studied in human platelets and MKs. IFITM3 was markedly upregulated in platelets isolated from patients during clinical influenza and dengue virus (DENV) infections. Lower IFITM3 expression in platelets correlated with increased illness severity and mortality in patients. Administering a live, attenuated DENV vaccine to healthy subjects significantly increased platelet IFITM3 expression. Infecting human MKs with DENV selectively increased type I interferons and IFITM3. Overexpression of IFITM3 in MKs was sufficient to prevent DENV infection. In naturally occurring, genetic loss-of-function studies, MKs from healthy subjects harboring a homozygous mutation in IFITM3 (rs12252-C, a common single-nucleotide polymorphism in areas of the world where DENV is endemic) were significantly more susceptible to DENV infection. DENV-induced MK secretion of interferons prevented infection of bystander MKs and hematopoietic stem cells. Thus, viral infections upregulate IFITM3 in human platelets and MKs, and IFITM3 expression is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. These observations establish, for the first time, that human MKs possess antiviral functions, preventing DENV infection of MKs and hematopoietic stem cells after local immune signaling.

12.
Nat Biotechnol ; 37(2): 160-168, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718881

RESUMO

Metagenomic sequencing has the potential to transform microbial detection and characterization, but new tools are needed to improve its sensitivity. Here we present CATCH, a computational method to enhance nucleic acid capture for enrichment of diverse microbial taxa. CATCH designs optimal probe sets, with a specified number of oligonucleotides, that achieve full coverage of, and scale well with, known sequence diversity. We focus on applying CATCH to capture viral genomes in complex metagenomic samples. We design, synthesize, and validate multiple probe sets, including one that targets the whole genomes of the 356 viral species known to infect humans. Capture with these probe sets enriches unique viral content on average 18-fold, allowing us to assemble genomes that could not be recovered without enrichment, and accurately preserves within-sample diversity. We also use these probe sets to recover genomes from the 2018 Lassa fever outbreak in Nigeria and to improve detection of uncharacterized viral infections in human and mosquito samples. The results demonstrate that CATCH enables more sensitive and cost-effective metagenomic sequencing.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Genoma Viral , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Animais , Culicidae/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Biblioteca Gênica , Variação Genética , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Febre Lassa/virologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Sondas de Oligonucleotídeos , Oligonucleotídeos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Viroses
13.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 34, 2019 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although light sedation levels are associated with several beneficial outcomes for critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation, the majority of patients are still deeply sedated. Organizational factors may play a role on adherence to light sedation levels. We aimed to identify organizational factors associated with a moderate to light sedation target on the first 48 h of mechanical ventilation, as well as the association between early achievement of within-target sedation and mortality. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of a multicenter two-phase study (prospective cohort followed by a cluster-randomized controlled trial) performed in 118 Brazilian ICUs. We included all critically ill patients who were on mechanical ventilation 48 h after ICU admission. A moderate to light level of sedation or being alert and calm (i.e., the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale of - 3 to 0) was the target for all patients on mechanical ventilation during the study period. We collected data on the type of hospital (public, private, profit and private, nonprofit), hospital teaching status, nursing and physician staffing, and presence of sedation, analgesia, and weaning protocols. We used multivariate random-effects regression with ICU and study phase as random-effects and correction for patients' Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment. We also performed a mediation analysis to explore whether sedation level was just a mediator of the association between organizational factors and mortality. RESULTS: We included 5719 patients. Only 1710 (29.9%) were on target sedation levels on day 2. Board-certified intensivists on the morning and afternoon shifts were associated with an adequate sedation level on day 2 (OR = 2.43; CI 95%, 1.09-5.38). Target sedation levels were associated with reduced hospital mortality (OR = 0.63; CI 95%, 0.55-0.72). Mediation analysis also suggested such an association, but did not suggest a relationship between the physician staffing model and hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Board-certified intensivists on morning and afternoon shifts were associated with an increased number of patients achieving lighter sedation goals. These findings reinforce the importance of organizational factors, such as intensivists' presence, as a modifiable quality improvement target.

15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(1): e0007072, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699122

RESUMO

Yellow fever virus (YFV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family. In Brazil, yellow fever (YF) cases have increased dramatically in sylvatic areas neighboring urban zones in the last few years. Because of the high lethality rates associated with infection and absence of any antiviral treatments, it is essential to identify therapeutic options to respond to YFV outbreaks. Repurposing of clinically approved drugs represents the fastest alternative to discover antivirals for public health emergencies. Other Flaviviruses, such as Zika (ZIKV) and dengue (DENV) viruses, are susceptible to sofosbuvir, a clinically approved drug against hepatitis C virus (HCV). Our data showed that sofosbuvir docks onto YFV RNA polymerase using conserved amino acid residues for nucleotide binding. This drug inhibited the replication of both vaccine and wild-type strains of YFV on human hepatoma cells, with EC50 values around 5 µM. Sofosbuvir protected YFV-infected neonatal Swiss mice and adult type I interferon receptor knockout mice (A129-/-) from mortality and weight loss. Because of its safety profile in humans and significant antiviral effects in vitro and in mice, Sofosbuvir may represent a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of YF. Key-words: Yellow fever virus; Yellow fever, antiviral; sofosbuvir.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral , RNA Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Sofosbuvir/farmacologia , Febre Amarela/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Febre Amarela/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cercopithecus aethiops , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/genética , Células Vero , Febre Amarela/sangue , Febre Amarela/patologia , Febre Amarela/virologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela/genética
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(2): 311-315, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666934

RESUMO

In seroconversion panels obtained from patients from Brazil, diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection was improved by combining multiple antibody isotypes, techniques, and antigens, but sensitivity remained suboptimal. In contrast, chikungunya virus diagnostic testing was unambiguous. Recurrent recent arbovirus infections suggested by serologic data and unspecific symptoms highlight the need for exhaustive virologic testing.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Febre de Chikungunya/imunologia , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/fisiologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus/fisiologia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Masculino , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
17.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(4): 405-413, out.-dez. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977985

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de incapacidades físicas, cognitivas e psiquiátricas, fatores associados e sua relação com qualidade de vida em pacientes sobreviventes de internação em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras. Métodos: Um estudo de coorte prospectivo multicêntrico está sendo conduzido em dez unidades de terapia intensiva adulto clínico-cirúrgicas representativas das cinco regiões geopolíticas do Brasil. Pacientes com idade ≥ 18 anos que receberam alta das unidades de terapia intensiva participantes e permaneceram internados na unidade de terapia intensiva por 72 horas ou mais, nos casos de internação clínica ou cirúrgica de urgência, e por 120 horas ou mais, nos casos de internação cirúrgica eletiva, serão incluídos de forma consecutiva. Estes pacientes serão seguidos por 1 ano, por meio de entrevistas telefônicas estruturadas 3, 6 e 12 meses pós-alta da unidade de terapia intensiva. Dependência funcional, disfunção cognitiva, sintomas de ansiedade e depressão, sintomas de estresse pós-traumático, qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde, re-hospitalizações e mortalidade em longo prazo serão avaliados como desfechos. Discussão: O presente estudo tem o potencial de contribuir para o conhecimento a respeito da prevalência e dos fatores associados à síndrome pós-cuidados intensivos na população de pacientes adultos sobreviventes de internação em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras. Ademais, a associação entre síndrome pós-cuidados intensivos e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde poderá ser estabelecida.


ABSTRACT Objective: To establish the prevalence of physical, cognitive and psychiatric disabilities, associated factors and their relationship with the qualities of life of intensive care survivors in Brazil. Methods: A prospective multicenter cohort study is currently being conducted at 10 adult medical-surgical intensive care units representative of the 5 Brazilian geopolitical regions. Patients aged ≥ 18 years who are discharged from the participating intensive care units and stay 72 hours or more in the intensive care unit for medical or emergency surgery admissions or 120 hours or more for elective surgery admissions are consecutively included. Patients are followed up for a period of one year by means of structured telephone interviews conducted at 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge from the intensive care unit. The outcomes are functional dependence, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety and depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, health-related quality of life, rehospitalization and long-term mortality. Discussion: The present study has the potential to contribute to current knowledge of the prevalence and factors associated with postintensive care syndrome among adult intensive care survivors in Brazil. In addition, an association might be established between postintensive care syndrome and health-related quality of life.

18.
Trials ; 19(1): 636, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30454019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most adult intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide adopt restrictive family visitation models (RFVMs). However, evidence, mostly from non-randomized studies, suggests that flexible adult ICU visiting hours are safe policies that can result in benefits such as prevention of delirium and increase in satisfaction with care. Accordingly, the ICU Visits Study was designed to compare the effectiveness and safety of a flexible family visitation model (FFVM) vs. an RFVM on delirium prevention among ICU patients, and also to analyze its potential effects on family members and ICU professionals. METHODS/DESIGN: The ICU Visits Study is a cluster-randomized crossover trial which compares an FFVM (12 consecutive ICU visiting hours per day) with an RFVM (< 4.5 ICU visiting hours per day) in 40 Brazilian adult ICUs. Participant ICUs are randomly assigned to either an FFVM or RFVM in a 1:1 ratio. After enrollment and follow-up of 25 patients, each ICU is crossed over to the other visitation model, until 25 more patients per site are enrolled and followed. The primary outcome is the cumulative incidence of delirium measured by the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. Secondary and tertiary outcomes include relevant measures of effectiveness and safety of ICU visiting policies among patients, family members, and ICU professionals. Herein, we describe all primary statistical procedures that will be used to evaluate the results and perform exploratory and sensitivity analyses of this study. This pre-specified statistical analysis plan was written and submitted without knowledge of the study data. DISCUSSION: This a priori statistical analysis plan aims to enhance the transparency of our study, facilitating unbiased analyses of ICU visit study data, and provide guidance for statistical analysis for groups conducting studies in the same field. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02932358 . Registered on 11 October 2016.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455237

RESUMO

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes a febrile disease associated with chronic arthralgia, which may progress to neurological impairment. Chikungunya fever (CF) is an ongoing public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, where control of the CHIKV vector, Aedes mosquitos, has failed. As there is no vaccine or specific treatment for CHIKV, patients receive only palliative care to alleviate pain and arthralgia. Thus, drug repurposing is necessary to identify antivirals against CHIKV. CHIKV RNA polymerase is similar to the orthologue enzyme of other positive-sense RNA viruses, such as members of the Flaviviridae family. Among the Flaviviridae, not only is hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase susceptible to sofosbuvir, a clinically approved nucleotide analogue, but so is dengue, Zika, and yellow fever virus replication. Here, we found that sofosbuvir was three times more selective in inhibiting CHIKV production in human hepatoma cells than ribavirin, a pan-antiviral drug. Although CHIKV replication in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived astrocytes was less susceptible to sofosbuvir compared to the hepatoma cells, sofosbuvir nevertheless impaired virus production and cell death in a multiplicity of infection-dependent manner. Sofosbuvir also exhibited antiviral activity in vivo by preventing CHIKV-induced paw edema in adult mice at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day, and prevented mortality in a neonate mouse model at 40 and 80 mg/kg/day doses. Our data demonstrate that a prototypic alphavirus, CHIKV, is also susceptible to sofosbuvir. As sofosbuvir is a clinically approved drug, our findings could pave the way to it becoming a therapeutic option against CF.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14999, 2018 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301959

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases and thrombotic events became major clinical problems in the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era. Although the precise mechanisms behind these clinical problems have not been fully elucidated, a persistent pro-inflammatory state plays a central role. As platelets play important roles on both, thrombus formation and inflammatory/immune response, we aimed at investigating platelet function in HIV-infected subjects virologically controlled through cART. We evaluate parameters of activation, mitochondrial function and activation of apoptosis pathways in platelets from 30 HIV-infected individuals under stable cART and 36 healthy volunteers. Despite viral control achieved through cART, HIV-infected individuals exhibited increased platelet activation as indicated by P-selectin expression and platelet spreading when adhered on fibrinogen-coated surfaces. Platelets from HIV-infected subjects also exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of apoptosis pathways. Finally, thrombin stimuli induced lower levels of P-selectin translocation and RANTES secretion, but not TXA2 synthesis, in platelets from HIV-infected individuals compared to control; and labeling of platelet alpha granules showed reduced granule content in platelets from HIV-infected individuals when compared to healthy subjects. In summary, platelets derived from HIV-infected individuals under stable cART exhibit a phenotype of increased activation, activation of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and undermined granule secretion in response to thrombin.

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