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1.
Sci Adv ; 7(5)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571131

RESUMO

Chronic activation and dysregulation of the neuroendocrine stress response have severe physiological and psychological consequences, including the development of metabolic and stress-related psychiatric disorders. We provide the first unbiased, cell type-specific, molecular characterization of all three components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, under baseline and chronic stress conditions. Among others, we identified a previously unreported subpopulation of Abcb1b+ cells involved in stress adaptation in the adrenal gland. We validated our findings in a mouse stress model, adrenal tissues from patients with Cushing's syndrome, adrenocortical cell lines, and peripheral cortisol and genotyping data from depressed patients. This extensive dataset provides a valuable resource for researchers and clinicians interested in the organism's nervous and endocrine responses to stress and the interplay between these tissues. Our findings raise the possibility that modulating ABCB1 function may be important in the development of treatment strategies for patients suffering from metabolic and stress-related psychiatric disorders.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452433

RESUMO

Heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of major depressive disorder and response to antidepressants limits clinicians' ability to accurately predict a specific patient's eventual response to therapy. Validated depressive symptom profiles may be an important tool for identifying poor outcomes early in the course of treatment. To derive these symptom profiles, we first examined data from 947 depressed subjects treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to delineate the heterogeneity of antidepressant response using probabilistic graphical models (PGMs). We then used unsupervised machine learning to identify specific depressive symptoms and thresholds of improvement that were predictive of antidepressant response by 4 weeks for a patient to achieve remission, response, or nonresponse by 8 weeks. Four depressive symptoms (depressed mood, guilt feelings and delusion, work and activities and psychic anxiety) and specific thresholds of change in each at 4 weeks predicted eventual outcome at 8 weeks to SSRI therapy with an average accuracy of 77% (p = 5.5E-08). The same four symptoms and prognostic thresholds derived from patients treated with SSRIs correctly predicted outcomes in 72% (p = 1.25E-05) of 1996 patients treated with other antidepressants in both inpatient and outpatient settings in independent publicly-available datasets. These predictive accuracies were higher than the accuracy of 53% for predicting SSRI response achieved using approaches that (i) incorporated only baseline clinical and sociodemographic factors, or (ii) used 4-week nonresponse status to predict likely outcomes at 8 weeks. The present findings suggest that PGMs providing interpretable predictions have the potential to enhance clinical treatment of depression and reduce the time burden associated with trials of ineffective antidepressants. Prospective trials examining this approach are forthcoming.

3.
Brain Sci ; 10(12)2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255604

RESUMO

Depression is a debilitating disorder with high prevalence and socioeconomic cost, but the brain-physiological processes that are altered during depressive states are not well understood. Here, we build on recent findings in macaques that indicate a direct causal relationship between pupil dilation and anterior cingulate cortex mediated arousal during anticipation of reward. We translated these findings to human subjects with concomitant pupillometry/fMRI in a sample of unmedicated participants diagnosed with major depression and healthy controls. We could show that the upregulation and maintenance of arousal in anticipation of reward was disrupted in patients in a symptom-load dependent manner. We could further show that the failure to maintain reward anticipatory arousal showed state-marker properties, as it tracked the load and impact of depressive symptoms independent of prior diagnosis status. Further, group differences of anticipatory arousal and continuous correlations with symptom load were not traceable only at the level of pupillometric responses, but were mirrored also at the neural level within salience network hubs. The upregulation and maintenance of arousal during reward anticipation is a novel translational and well-traceable process that could prove a promising gateway to a physiologically informed patient stratification and targeted interventions.

4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 213, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A major research finding in the field of Biological Psychiatry is that symptom-based categories of mental disorders map poorly onto dysfunctions in brain circuits or neurobiological pathways. Many of the identified (neuro) biological dysfunctions are "transdiagnostic", meaning that they do not reflect diagnostic boundaries but are shared by different ICD/DSM diagnoses. The compromised biological validity of the current classification system for mental disorders impedes rather than supports the development of treatments that not only target symptoms but also the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. The Biological Classification of Mental Disorders (BeCOME) study aims to identify biology-based classes of mental disorders that improve the translation of novel biomedical findings into tailored clinical applications. METHODS: BeCOME intends to include at least 1000 individuals with a broad spectrum of affective, anxiety and stress-related mental disorders as well as 500 individuals unaffected by mental disorders. After a screening visit, all participants undergo in-depth phenotyping procedures and omics assessments on two consecutive days. Several validated paradigms (e.g., fear conditioning, reward anticipation, imaging stress test, social reward learning task) are applied to stimulate a response in a basic system of human functioning (e.g., acute threat response, reward processing, stress response or social reward learning) that plays a key role in the development of affective, anxiety and stress-related mental disorders. The response to this stimulation is then read out across multiple levels. Assessments comprise genetic, molecular, cellular, physiological, neuroimaging, neurocognitive, psychophysiological and psychometric measurements. The multilevel information collected in BeCOME will be used to identify data-driven biologically-informed categories of mental disorders using cluster analytical techniques. DISCUSSION: The novelty of BeCOME lies in the dynamic in-depth phenotyping and omics characterization of individuals with mental disorders from the depression and anxiety spectrum of varying severity. We believe that such biology-based subclasses of mental disorders will serve as better treatment targets than purely symptom-based disease entities, and help in tailoring the right treatment to the individual patient suffering from a mental disorder. BeCOME has the potential to contribute to a novel taxonomy of mental disorders that integrates the underlying pathomechanisms into diagnoses. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered on June 12, 2019 on ClinicalTrials.gov (TRN: NCT03984084).

5.
Behav Res Ther ; 129: 103610, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302820

RESUMO

Fear conditioning and extinction serve as a dominant model for the development and maintenance of pathological anxiety, particularly for phasic fear to specific stimuli or situations. The validity of this model would be supported by differences in the physiological or subjective fear response between patients with fear-related disorders and healthy controls, whereas the model's validity would be questioned by a lack of such differences. We derived pupillometry, skin conductance response and startle electromyography as well as unconditioned stimulus expectancy in a two-day fear acquisition, immediate extinction and recall task and compared an unmedicated group of patients (n = 73) with phobias or panic disorder and a group of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, n = 21) to a group of carefully screened healthy controls (n = 35). Bayesian statistics showed no convincing evidence for a difference in physiological and subjective responses between the groups during fear acquisition, extinction learning or recall. Only the PTSD subgroup had altered startle reactions during extinction learning. Our data do not provide evidence for general differences in associative fear or extinction learning in fear-related pathologies and thereby question the diagnostic validity of the associative fear learning model of these disorders.

6.
Ann Behav Med ; 54(8): 611-618, 2020 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depressed patients have an increased risk of myocardial infarction, for which acute stress is a frequent trigger. Prothrombotic changes could be one involved mechanism that can be modulated by psychological coping. PURPOSE: We examined the effects of remitted major depression and situation-specific coping strategies on stress-induced coagulation activation. METHODS: Forty patients with remitted depression and 23 healthy controls underwent the Trier Social Stress Test, rating applied coping strategies thereafter. Blood was sampled at baseline and 15 and 45 min poststress to measure fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor (VWF) and D-dimer. Coagulation activation over time was quantified as area under the curve (AUC) with respect to baseline activity. Standardized z-scores of individual coagulation AUC measures were added up to a prothrombotic index. RESULTS: Stress provoked significant VWF (p = .024) and D-dimer (p = .002) responses. Remitted depressed patients used positive distraction coping more frequently than controls did (p = .030). Coagulation AUC measures were similar in both groups. In all participants, higher positive coping total (p = 0.009), driven by devaluation/defense (p = .022) and distraction (p = .004) coping, was associated with a lower prothrombotic index. In controls, but not in remitted depressed patients, higher positive coping total (p = .008), driven by higher devaluation/defense (p = .010) and distraction (p = .023) coping, was associated with lower VWF AUC. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the use of favorable coping strategies in a specific stress situation, remitted depressed patients may benefit less from a positive effect of positive situational coping on coagulation activation than controls. Such a mechanism could partially explain the increased risk of myocardial infarction in depressed individuals.

7.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; : 1-9, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755344

RESUMO

Objectives: Hypercoagulability is one mechanism to explain the increased risk of incident atherothrombotic disease in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We examined whether patients with remitted MDD show an enhanced procoagulant state.Methods: 63 individuals (median age 35 years, 59% women), 40 with a DSM-IV diagnosis of remitted MDD, made by a clinical interview, and 23 healthy controls provided blood samples for the measurement of fibrinogen, D-dimer, von Willebrand factor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Standardised z-scores of plasma levels of these haemostatic factors were added to form a procoagulant index (PCI) as the primary outcome variable. Self-ratings of residual depressive symptoms and trait anxiety were also obtained.Results: Compared with controls, remitted MDD patients had higher PCI (p = 0.013, Cohen's d = 0.69) and fibrinogen (p = 0.001, d = 0.91), controlling for age, sex, body mass index, smoking and C-reactive protein. There were no significant associations of the PCI and individual haemostatic molecules with age of MDD onset, time since the last MDD episode, the number of previous MDD episodes and residual depressive symptoms. Additional adjustment for anxiety symptoms did not change these results.Conclusions: Remitted MDD is associated with an enhanced procoagulant state. Hypercoagulability seems more a trait than a state characteristic of depression.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(3)2019 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678080

RESUMO

Adverse experiences and chronic stress are well-known risk factors for the development of major depression, and an impaired stress response regulation is frequently observed in acute depression. Impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signalling plays an important role in these alterations, and a restoration of GR signalling appears to be a prerequisite of successful antidepressant treatment. Variants in genes of the stress response regulation contribute to the vulnerability to depression in traumatized subjects. Consistent findings point to an important role of FKBP5, the gene expressing FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51), which is a strong inhibitor of the GR, and thus, an important regulator of the stress response. We investigated the role of FKBP5 and FKB51 expression with respect to stress response regulation and antidepressant treatment outcome in depressed patients. This study included 297 inpatients, who participated in the Munich Antidepressant Response Signature (MARS) project and were treated for acute depression. In this open-label study, patients received antidepressant treatment according to the attending doctor's choice. In addition to the FKBP5 genotype, changes in blood FKBP51 expression during antidepressant treatment were analyzed using RT-PCR and ZeptoMARKTM reverse phase protein microarray (RPPM). Stress response regulation was evaluated in a subgroup of patients using the combined dexamethasone (dex)/corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) test. As expected, increased FKBP51 expression was associated with an impaired stress response regulation at baseline and after six weeks was accompanied by an elevated cortisol response to the combined dex/CRH test. Further, we demonstrated an active involvement of FKBP51 in antidepressant treatment outcome. While patients responding to antidepressant treatment had a pronounced reduction of FKBP5 gene and FKBP51 protein expression, increasing expression levels were observed in nonresponders. This effect was moderated by the genotype of the FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1360780, with carriers of the minor allele showing the most pronounced association. Our findings demonstrate that FKBP5 and, specifically, its expression product FKBP51 are important modulators of antidepressant treatment outcome, pointing to a new, promising target for future antidepressant drug development.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/genética , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Biomarcadores , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 94: 134-142, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29775876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic experiences during childhood are considered a major risk factor for depression in adulthood. Childhood trauma may induce physiological dysregulation with long-term effects of increased allostatic load until adulthood, which may lead to depression. Thus, our aim was to investigate whether allostatic load - which represents a multi-system measure of physiological dysregulation - mediates the association between childhood trauma and adult depression. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 324 depressed inpatients participating in the Munich Antidepressant Response Signature (MARS) project and 261 mentally healthy control participants. The mediation analysis using a case-control approach included childhood trauma, i.e., physical and sexual abuse, as predictor variables and an allostatic load index comprised of 12 stress-related biomarkers as mediator. Age and sex were included as covariates. RESULTS: Mediation analyses revealed that the influence of physical abuse, but not sexual abuse, during childhood on depression in adulthood was mediated by allostatic load. This effect was moderated by age: particularly young (18-42 years) and middle-aged (43-54 years) adults with a history of physical abuse during childhood exhibited high allostatic load, which in turn was associated with increased rates of depression, but this was not the case for older participants (55-81 years). CONCLUSIONS: Results support the theoretical assumption of allostatic load mediating the effect of physical abuse during childhood on depression in adulthood. This predominantly holds for younger participants, while depression in older participants was independent of physical abuse and allostatic load. The effect of sexual abuse on depression, however, was not mediated by allostatic load. Identifying allostatic load biomarkers prospectively in the developmental course of depression is an important target for future research.


Assuntos
Alostase/fisiologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
10.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 61, 2018 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792225

RESUMO

Upon publication of the original article [1] it was highlighted by the authors that a transposition error affected Additional file 1, causing the misplacement of several columns and rendering the table difficult to read. This transposition does not influence any of the results nor analyses presented in the paper and has since been formally noted in this correction article; the corrected file is available here as an Additional File. The publisher apologizes for this error.

11.
Pharmacogenomics ; 17(18): 2039-2069, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27918249

RESUMO

P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the gene product of ABCB1, is a drug transporter at the blood-brain barrier and could be a limiting factor for entrance of antidepressants into the brain, the target site of antidepressant action. Animal studies showed that brain concentrations of many antidepressants depend on P-gp. In humans, ABCB1 genotyping in the treatment of depression rests on the assumption that genetic variations in ABCB1 explain individual differences in antidepressant response via their effects on P-gp expression at the blood-brain barrier. High P-gp expression is hypothesized to lead to lower and often insufficient brain concentrations of P-gp substrate antidepressants. In this review, we summarize 32 studies investigating the question of whether ABCB1 polymorphisms predict clinical efficacy and/or tolerability of antidepressants in humans and evaluate the clinical application status of ABCB1 genotyping in depression treatment.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Depressão/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
J Psychiatr Res ; 73: 86-95, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26704739

RESUMO

P-glycoprotein, encoded by the ABCB1 gene, functions as an ATP-driven efflux pump in the blood-brain barrier, extruding its substrates and thereby limiting their passage into the brain. ABCB1 polymorphisms predicted antidepressant drug response: Minor allele carriers of SNPs rs2032583 and rs2235015 had higher remission rates than major allele homozygotes. The aim of the current study was to evaluate an ABCB1 genotype-dependent efficacy of a quick dose escalation strategy. Depressed inpatients (n = 73) treated with antidepressants that are P-glycoprotein substrates were randomly assigned to a standard or high dose condition for 28 days. HAM-D scores, adverse effects and plasma antidepressant concentration were measured weekly and tested among two intronic SNPs rs2032583 and rs2235015. A treatment as usual control sample (n = 128) was retrospectively matched to the study group by gender, age, and diagnosis. There was a significant interaction of genotype x plasma antidepressant concentration: Minor allele carriers of rs2032583 [F(1,65) = 7.221, p = 0.009] and rs2235015 [F(1,65) = 4.939, p = 0.030] whose plasma drug concentration were within recommended range had a greater symptom reduction at study endpoint which exceeded the therapeutic benefit of the treatment as usual group [for rs2032583: F(1,163) = 4.366, p = 0.038]. Minor allele carriers of rs2032583 with high plasma drug levels had more sleep-related side effects than major allele homozygotes with high plasma drug levels. The treatment of MDD can be optimized by ABCB1 genotyping combined with monitoring of plasma drug concentrations: For minor allele carriers of rs2032583 and rs2235015, plasma antidepressant levels should not exceed the recommended range in order to obtain optimal treatment outcome.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/sangue , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Análise de Variância , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Depressão/sangue , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacogenética , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Genome Biol ; 16: 266, 2015 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26673150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic psychological stress is associated with accelerated aging and increased risk for aging-related diseases, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. RESULTS: We examined the effect of lifetime stressors on a DNA methylation-based age predictor, epigenetic clock. After controlling for blood cell-type composition and lifestyle parameters, cumulative lifetime stress, but not childhood maltreatment or current stress alone, predicted accelerated epigenetic aging in an urban, African American cohort (n = 392). This effect was primarily driven by personal life stressors, was more pronounced with advancing age, and was blunted in individuals with higher childhood abuse exposure. Hypothesizing that these epigenetic effects could be mediated by glucocorticoid signaling, we found that a high number (n = 85) of epigenetic clock CpG sites were located within glucocorticoid response elements. We further examined the functional effects of glucocorticoids on epigenetic clock CpGs in an independent sample with genome-wide DNA methylation (n = 124) and gene expression data (n = 297) before and after exposure to the glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone. Dexamethasone induced dynamic changes in methylation in 31.2 % (110/353) of these CpGs and transcription in 81.7 % (139/170) of genes neighboring epigenetic clock CpGs. Disease enrichment analysis of these dexamethasone-regulated genes showed enriched association for aging-related diseases, including coronary artery disease, arteriosclerosis, and leukemias. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative lifetime stress may accelerate epigenetic aging, an effect that could be driven by glucocorticoid-induced epigenetic changes. These findings contribute to our understanding of mechanisms linking chronic stress with accelerated aging and heightened disease risk.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Epigênese Genética , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/agonistas , Elementos de Resposta , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , População Urbana
14.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 50(6): 851-66, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25982479

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The "Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology (EDSP)" study is a prospective-longitudinal study program in a community sample (Munich, Germany) of adolescents and young adults. The program was launched in 1994 to study the prevalence and incidence of psychopathological syndromes and mental disorders, to describe the natural course and to identify vulnerability and risk factors for onset and progression as well as psychosocial consequences. This paper reviews methods and core outcomes of this study program. METHODS: The EDSP is based on an age-stratified random community sample of originally N = 3021 subjects aged 14-24 years at baseline, followed up over 10 years with up to 3 follow-up waves. The program includes a family genetic supplement and nested cohorts with lab assessments including blood samples for genetic analyses. Psychopathology was assessed with the DSM-IV/M-CIDI; embedded dimensional scales and instruments assessed vulnerability and risk factors. RESULTS: Beyond the provision of age-specific prevalence and incidence rates for a wide range of mental disorders, analyses of their patterns of onset, course and interrelationships, the program identified common and diagnosis-specific distal and proximal vulnerability and risk factors including critical interactions. CONCLUSIONS: The EDSP study advanced our knowledge on the developmental pathways and trajectories, symptom progression and unfolding of disorder comorbidity, highlighting the dynamic nature of many disorders and their determinants. The results have been instrumental for defining more appropriate diagnostic thresholds, led to the derivation of symptom progression models and were helpful to identify promising targets for prevention and intervention.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 168B(4): 274-83, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25847751

RESUMO

The efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a gene product of the ABCB1 gene, plays a pivotal role in the transfer of various molecules across the blood-brain barrier. P-gp protects the brain by selectively extruding its substrates, including certain antidepressive drugs, thereby limiting their uptake into the brain. Uhr et al. [2008] first showed that ABCB1 variants predicted the remission to antidepressants with P-gp substrate properties in patients suffering from major depression (MD). Other studies investigating the influence of ABCB1 polymorphisms on antidepressant treatment response produced inconclusive results. In this meta-analysis, we systematically summarized 16 pharmacogenetic studies focused on the association of ABCB1 variants and antidepressant treatment outcome in patients with MD (overall n = 2695). We investigated the association of treatment outcome and six ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): rs2032583, rs2235015, rs2235040, rs1045642, rs2032582, rs1128503. We stratified for admission status, ethnicity, and prescription of concomitant medication. SNP rs2032583 showed a nominally significant association across all studies (P = 0.035, SNP was studied in a total of 2,037 patients) and a significant Bonferroni-corrected association among inpatients (P = 1.5 × 10(-05) , n = 485). Also SNP rs2235015 was significantly associated with antidepressant treatment outcome withstanding Bonferroni correction (P = 3.0 × 10(-04) ) among inpatients in a smaller subsample (n = 195). There were no significant associations of the other SNPs tested with antidepressant treatment outcome. Future pharmacogenetic association studies should focus on the role of the ABCB1 SNP rs2032583 in antidepressant outcome prediction.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Tamanho da Amostra
16.
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol ; 18(4)2014 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25522420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in the FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) gene have been shown to influence glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity, stress response regulation, and depression risk in traumatized subjects, with most consistent findings reported for the functional variant rs1360780. In the present study, we investigated whether the FKBP5 polymorphism rs1360780 and lifetime history of major depression are associated with DNA methylation and FKBP5 gene expression after psychosocial stress. METHODS: A total of 116 individuals with a positive (n = 61) and negative (n = 55) lifetime history of major depression participated in the Trier Social Stress Test. We assessed plasma cortisol concentrations, FKBP5 mRNA expression, and CpG methylation of FKBP5 intron 7 in peripheral blood cells. RESULTS: Genotype-dependent plasma cortisol response to psychosocial stress exposure was observed in healthy controls, with the highest and longest-lasting cortisol increase in subjects with the TT genotype of the FKBP5 polymorphism rs1360780, and healthy controls carrying the T risk allele responded with a blunted FKBP5 mRNA expression after psychosocial stress. No genotype effects could be found in remitted depression. CONCLUSIONS: The FKBP5 rs1360780 polymorphism is associated with plasma cortisol and FKBP5 mRNA expression after psychosocial stress in healthy controls but not in remitted depression. Preliminary results of the DNA methylation analysis suggest that epigenetic modifications could be involved.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/sangue , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/sangue , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/genética , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Adulto , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Íntrons , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Mensageiro/sangue , Percepção Social
17.
Biol Psychol ; 103: 267-75, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25263610

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to examine the modulating effects of coping style on the response to psychosocial stress in remitted major depression (MD) and healthy controls. Thirty-three participants with a lifetime history of MD, who were in remission, and 32 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited from a longitudinal-epidemiological study, in which the presence or absence of mental disorders was prospectively ascertained. Participants (aged 30-41 years) underwent two consecutive Trier Social Stress Tests (TSSTs). Subjects with a lifetime history of MD showed larger plasma ACTH and cortisol concentrations in response to both TSSTs, confirming a disturbed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Moreover, the MD group reported less positive, adaptive coping strategies and more negative, maladaptive strategies than the control group. The amount of negative coping predicted the size of the plasma cortisol response in the combined group. Our results demonstrate the importance of psychological coping strategies for the investigation of HPA axis response in depression.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Adulto , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
18.
Depress Anxiety ; 31(10): 843-50, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24390875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurosteroids are synthesized both in brain and peripheral steroidogenic tissue from cholesterol or steroidal precursors. Neurosteroids have been shown to be implicated in neural proliferation, differentiation, and activity. Preclinical and clinical studies also suggest a modulatory role of neurosteroids in anxiety-related phenotypes. However, little is known about the contribution of genetic variants in genes relevant for the neurosteroidogenesis to anxiety disorders. METHODS: We performed an association analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five genes related to the neurosteroidal pathway with emphasis on progesterone and allopregnanolone biosynthesis (steroid-5-alpha-reductase 1A (SRD5A1), aldo-keto reductase family 1 C1-C3 (AKR1C1-AKR1C3) and translocator protein 18 kDA (TSPO) with panic disorder (PD) and dimensional anxiety in two German PD samples (cases N = 522, controls N = 1,115). RESULTS: Case-control analysis for PD and SNPs in the five selected genes was negative in the combined sample. However, we detected a significant association of anticipatory anxiety with two intronic SNPs (rs3930965, rs41314625) located in the gene AKR1C1 surviving correction for multiple testing in PD patients. Stratification analysis for gender revealed a female-specific effect of the associations of both SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a modulatory effect of AKR1C1 activity on anxiety levels, most likely through changes in progesterone and allopregnanolone levels within and outside the brain. In summary, this is the first evidence for the gender-specific implication of the AKR1C1 gene in the expression of anticipatory anxiety in PD. Further analyses to unravel the functional role of the SNPs detected here and replication analyses are needed to validate our results.


Assuntos
20-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/genética , Ansiedade/genética , Transtorno de Pânico/genética , Pregnanolona/metabolismo , Progesterona/metabolismo , 3-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/genética , 3-Oxo-5-alfa-Esteroide 4-Desidrogenase/genética , Adulto , Membro C3 da Família 1 de alfa-Ceto Redutase , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Hidroxiprostaglandina Desidrogenases/genética , Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno de Pânico/metabolismo , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de GABA/genética , Fatores Sexuais
19.
CNS Spectr ; 19(2): 165-75, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23880209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gene product of the ABCB1 gene, the P-glycoprotein, functions as a custodian molecule in the blood-brain barrier and regulates the access of most antidepressants into the brain. Previous studies showed that ABCB1 polymorphisms predicted the response to antidepressants that are substrates of the P-gp, while the response to nonsubstrates was not influenced by ABCB1 polymorphisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical application of ABCB1 genotyping in antidepressant pharmacotherapy. METHODS: Data came from 58 depressed inpatients participating in the Munich Antidepressant Response Signature (MARS) project, whose ABCB1 gene test results were implemented into the clinical decision making process. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) scores, remission rates, and duration of hospital stay were documented with dose and kind of antidepressant treatment. RESULTS: Patients who received ABCB1 genotyping had higher remission rates [χ2(1) = 6.596, p = 0.005, 1-sided] and lower Hamilton sores [t(111) = 2.091, p = 0.0195, 1-sided] at the time of discharge from hospital as compared to patients without ABCB1 testing. Among major allele homozygotes for ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2032583 and rs2235015 (TT/GG genotype), an increase in dose was associated with a shorter duration of hospital stay [rho(28) = -0.441, p = 0.009, 1-sided], whereas other treatment strategies (eg, switching to a nonsubstrate) showed no significant associations with better treatment outcome. Discussion The implementation of ABCB1 genotyping as a diagnostic tool influenced clinical decisions and led to an improvement of treatment outcome. Patients carrying the TT/GG genotype seemed to benefit from an increase in P-gp substrate dose. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that antidepressant treatment of depression can be optimized by the clinical application of ABCB1 genotyping.


Assuntos
Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/genética , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/genética , Farmacogenética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
PLoS One ; 8(7): e68645, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23874702

RESUMO

SLC6A15 is a neuron-specific neutral amino acid transporter that belongs to the solute carrier 6 gene family. This gene family is responsible for presynaptic re-uptake of the majority of neurotransmitters. Convergent data from human studies, animal models and pharmacological investigations suggest a possible role of SLC6A15 in major depressive disorder. In this work, we explored potential functional variants in this gene that could influence the activity of the amino acid transporter and thus downstream neuronal function and possibly the risk for stress-related psychiatric disorders. DNA from 400 depressed patients and 400 controls was screened for genetic variants using a pooled targeted re-sequencing approach. Results were verified by individual re-genotyping and validated non-synonymous coding variants were tested in an independent sample (N = 1934). Nine variants altering the amino acid sequence were then assessed for their functional effects by measuring SLC6A15 transporter activity in a cellular uptake assay. In total, we identified 405 genetic variants, including twelve non-synonymous variants. While none of the non-synonymous coding variants showed significant differences in case-control associations, two rare non-synonymous variants were associated with a significantly increased maximal (3)H proline uptake as compared to the wildtype sequence. Our data suggest that genetic variants in the SLC6A15 locus change the activity of the amino acid transporter and might thus influence its neuronal function and the risk for stress-related psychiatric disorders. As statistically significant association for rare variants might only be achieved in extremely large samples (N >70,000) functional exploration may shed light on putatively disease-relevant variants.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Adulto , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
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