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2.
Mol Carcinog ; 59(1): 87-103, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691359

RESUMO

Hypereosinophilia (HE) is caused by a variety of disorders, ranging from parasite infections to autoimmune diseases and cancer. Only a small proportion of HE cases are clonal malignancies, and one of these, the group of eosinophilia-associated tyrosine kinase fusion-driven neoplasms, is sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, while most subtypes lack specific treatment. Eosinophil functions are highly dependent on actin polymerization, promoting priming, shape change, and infiltration of inflamed tissues. Therefore, we investigated the role of the actin-binding protein lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1 (LCP1) in malignant and nonmalignant eosinophil differentiation. We use the protein kinase C-ß (PKCß) selective inhibitor enzastaurin (Enza) to dephosphorylate and inactivate LCP1 in FIP1L1-platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA)-positive Eol-1 cells, and this was associated with reduced proliferation, metabolic activity, and colony formation as well as enhanced apoptosis and impaired migration. While Enza did not alter FIP1L1-PDGFRA-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), STAT5, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, it inhibited STAT1Tyr701 and AKTSer473 (but not AKTThr308 ) phosphorylation, and short hairpin RNA knockdown experiments confirmed that this process was mediated by LCP1 and associated mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) activity loss. Homeobox protein HoxB8 immortalized murine bone marrow cells showed impaired eosinophilic differentiation upon Enza treatment or LCP1 knockdown. Furthermore, Enza treatment of primary HE samples reduced eosinophil differentiation and survival. In conclusion, our data show that HE involves active LCP1, which interacts with mTOR and triggers mTORC2 activity, and that the PKCß inhibitor Enza as well as targeting of LCP1 may provide a novel treatment approach to hypereosinophilic disorders.

3.
Leukemia ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728053

RESUMO

Classical Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic malignancies including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The JAK2V617F mutation plays a central role in these disorders and can be found in 90% of PV and ~50-60% of ET and PMF. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a master transcriptional regulator of the response to decreased oxygen levels. We demonstrate the impact of pharmacological inhibition and shRNA-mediated knockdown (KD) of HIF-1α in JAK2V617F-positive cells. Inhibition of HIF-1 binding to hypoxia response elements (HREs) with echinomycin, verified by ChIP, impaired growth and survival by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in Jak2V617F-positive 32D cells, but not Jak2WT controls. Echinomycin selectively abrogated clonogenic growth of JAK2V617F cells and decreased growth, survival, and colony formation of bone marrow and peripheral blood mononuclear cells and iPS cell-derived progenitor cells from JAK2V617F-positive patients, while cells from healthy donors were unaffected. We identified HIF-1 target genes involved in the Warburg effect as a possible underlying mechanism, with increased expression of Pdk1, Glut1, and others. That was underlined by transcriptome analysis of primary patient samples. Collectively, our data show that HIF-1 is a new potential therapeutic target in JAK2V617F-positive MPN.

4.
Ann Hematol ; 98(12): 2703-2709, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748924

RESUMO

Philadelphia negative (Ph-neg) myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are a heterogenous group of clonal stem cell disorders. Approved treatment options include hydroxyurea, anagrelide, and ruxolitinib, which are not curative. The concept of synthetic lethality may become an additional therapeutic strategy in these diseases. In our study, we show that DNA repair is altered in classical Ph-neg MPN, as analyzed by gene expression analysis of 11 genes involved in the homologous recombination repair pathway (HRR), the non-homologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ), and the single-strand break repair pathway (SSB). Altogether, peripheral blood-derived cells from 57 patients with classical Ph-neg MPN and 13 healthy controls were analyzed. LIG3 as an essential part of the SSB was significantly lower expressed compared to controls in all three entities (essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and myelofibrosis (MF)). In addition, while genes of other DNA-repair pathways showed-possibly compensatory-increased expression in ET (HRR, NHEJ) and PV (NHEJ), MF samples displayed downregulation of all genes involved in NHEJ. With regard to the JAK2 mutational status (analyzed in ET and MF only), no upregulation of the HRR was detected. Though further studies are needed, based on these findings, we conclude that synthetic lethality may become a promising strategy in treating patients with Ph-neg MPN.

5.
Blood ; 134(Supplement_1): 13, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724019

RESUMO

DISCLOSURES: Krämer: Daiichi-Sankyo: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Bayer: Research Funding; BMS: Research Funding; Roche: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Hänel:Roche: Honoraria; Amgen: Honoraria; Celgene: Other: advisory board; Novartis: Honoraria; Takeda: Other: advisory board. Jost:Daiichi: Honoraria; Sanofi: Honoraria; Gilead: Other: travel grants; Jazz Pharmaceuticals: Honoraria. Brümmendorf:Merck: Consultancy; Janssen: Consultancy; Novartis: Consultancy, Research Funding; Pfizer: Consultancy, Research Funding; University Hospital of the RWTH Aachen: Employment; Ariad: Consultancy. Krause:Siemens: Research Funding; Takeda: Honoraria; MSD: Honoraria; Gilead: Other: travel; Celgene Corporation: Other: Travel. Scholl:Novartis: Other: Project funding; Pfizer: Other: Advisory boards; Gilead: Other: Project funding; Daiichi Sankyo: Other: Advisory boards; AbbVie: Other: Advisory boards. Hochhaus:Pfizer: Research Funding; Novartis: Research Funding; BMS: Research Funding; Incyte: Research Funding; MSD: Research Funding. Kiani:Novartis: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau. Middeke:Sanofi: Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Roche: Speakers Bureau; AbbVie: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; Gilead: Consultancy; Janssen: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; MSD: Consultancy. Thiede:AgenDix GmbH: Employment, Equity Ownership; Novartis: Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Bayer: Research Funding; Daiichi-Sankyo: Speakers Bureau. Stoelzel:JAZZ Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy; Neovii: Other: Travel funding; Shire: Consultancy, Other: Travel funding. Platzbecker:Celgene: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Abbvie: Consultancy, Honoraria; Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding.

6.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647584

RESUMO

Assessment of telomere length (TL) in peripheral blood leukocytes is part of the diagnostic algorithm applied to patients with acquired bone marrow failure syndromes (BMFSs) and dyskeratosis congenita (DKC). Monochrome multiplex-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (MM-qPCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (flow-FISH) are methodologies available for TL screening. Dependent on TL expressed in relation to percentiles of healthy controls, further genetic testing for inherited mutations in telomere maintenance genes is recommended. However, the correct threshold to trigger this genetic workup is still under debate. Here, we prospectively compared MM-qPCR and flow-FISH regarding their capacity for accurate identification of DKC patients. All patients (n = 105) underwent genetic testing by next-generation sequencing and in 16 patients, mutations in DKC-relevant genes were identified. Whole leukocyte TL of patients measured by MM-qPCR was found to be moderately correlated with lymphocyte TL measured by flow-FISH (r² = 0.34; P < 0.0001). The sensitivity of both methods was high, but the specificity of MM-qPCR (29%) was significantly lower compared with flow-FISH (58%). These results suggest that MM-qPCR of peripheral blood cells is inferior to flow-FISH for clinical routine screening for suspected DKC in adult patients with BMFS due to lower specificity and a higher rate of false-positive results.

7.
Oncoimmunology ; 8(9): e1638210, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428530

RESUMO

Changes in the immune system induced by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have been shown to positively correlate with therapy responses in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, only a few longitudinal studies exist and no randomized comparisons between two TKIs have been reported. Therefore, we prospectively analyzed the immune system of newly diagnosed CML patients treated with imatinib (n = 20) or bosutinib (n = 13), that participated in the randomized BFORE trial (NCT02130557). Comprehensive immunophenotyping, plasma protein profiling, and functional assays to determine activation levels of T and NK cells were performed at diagnosis, 3, and 12 months after therapy start. All results were correlated with clinical parameters such as Sokal risk and BCR-ABL load measured according to IS%. At diagnosis, low Sokal risk CML patients had a higher frequency of cytotoxic cells (CD8 + T and NK cells), increased cytotoxic potential of NK cells and lower frequency of naïve and central memory CD4 + T cells. Further, soluble plasma protein profile divided patients into two distinct clusters with different disease burden at diagnosis. During treatment, BCR-ABL IS% correlated with immunological parameters such as plasma proteins, together with different memory subsets of CD4+ and CD8 + T cells. Interestingly, the proportion and cytotoxic potential of NK cells together with several soluble proteins increased during imatinib treatment. In contrast, no major immunological changes were observed during bosutinib treatment. In conclusion, imatinib and bosutinib were shown to have differential effects on the immune system in this randomized clinical trial. Increased number and function of NK cells were especially observed during imatinib therapy.

9.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 658, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expression of Bcr-Abl in hematopoietic stem cells is sufficient to cause chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) induce molecular remission in the majority of CML patients. However, the disease driving stem cell population is not fully targeted by TKI therapy, and leukemic stem cells (LSC) capable of re-inducing the disease can persist. Single-cell RNA-sequencing technology recently identified an enriched inflammatory gene signature with TNFα and TGFß being activated in TKI persisting quiescent LSC. Here, we studied the effects of human TNFα antibody infliximab (IFX), which has been shown to induce anti-inflammatory effects in mice, combined with TKI treatment on LSC function. METHODS: We first performed GSEA-pathway analysis using our microarray data of murine LSK cells (lin-; Sca-1+; c-kit+) from the SCLtTA/Bcr-Abl CML transgenic mouse model. Bcr-Abl positive cell lines were generated by retroviral transduction. Clonogenic potential was assessed by CFU (colony forming unit). CML mice were treated with nilotinib or nilotinib plus infliximab, and serial transplantation experiments were performed. RESULTS: Likewise to human CML, TNFα signaling was specifically active in murine CML stem cells, and ectopic expression of Bcr-Abl in murine and human progenitor cell lines induced TNFα expression. In vitro exposure to human (IFX) or murine (MP6-XT22) TNFα antibody reduced clonogenic growth of CML cells. Interestingly, TNFα antibody treatment enhanced TKI-induced effects on immature cells in vitro. Additionally, in transplant and serial transplant experiments, using our transgenic CML mouse model, we could subsequently show that IFX therapy boosted TKI-induced effects and further reduced the proportion of malignant stem cells in vivo. CONCLUSION: TNFα signaling is induced in CML stem cells, and anti-inflammatory therapy enhances TKI-induced decline of LSC, confirming that successful targeting of persisting CML stem cells can be enhanced by addressing their malignant microenvironment simultaneously.

10.
Ann Hematol ; 98(7): 1547-1559, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115593

RESUMO

To date, instruments to measure quality of life (QoL) specifically for patients with acquired aplastic anaemia (AA) and paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) are lacking altogether. As a consequence, this issue is either underevaluated or alternatively, instruments originally designed for cancer patients are being used. We therefore started to systematically develop a AA/PNH-specific QoL (QLQ-AA/PNH) instrument in these ultra-rare diseases according to European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) guidelines. While phases I and II of the process have previously been published, we now report on the resulting instrument (phase III of this process). As part of the phase III of the evaluation process, we approached patients through physicians, patient support groups, and patient conferences. After participants completed the preliminary questionnaire and reported socio-demographic data, they were interviewed in person or via phone with a debriefing interview to find out whether the items were relevant, easy to understand, and acceptable to patients and whether there was anything missing in the questionnaire. We hypothesised what items could be combined into a scale and calculated Cronbach's alpha to define its preliminary internal consistency. After definition of a priori criteria to keep or delete items, a group of six experts met in person, discussed the results, and decided on in- or exclusion. A total of 48 patients were enrolled, 21 of those suffered from AA (44%), 13 from PNH (27%), and 14 from AA/PNH syndrome (29%). The median time to complete the 69 items was 10 min (range 5-20), mean time 11 min. The compliance criterion (> 95% completion) was fulfilled by 57 items. Twenty-three items were mentioned as especially relevant by ≥ 2% of the patients. Cronbach's alpha of the hypothesised scales ranged from 0.63 (social support) to 0.92 (fear of progression and illness intrusiveness). Finally, 47 items were kept; 16 were deleted, and 5 were changed, while 1 item expanded. This resulted in 54 items in total. As no issues were mentioned to lacking by a minimum of five patients, no items were added to the questionnaire. After completion, the AA/PNH-QoL tool (QLQ-AA/PNH) was translated according to EORTC guidelines into English, French, and Italian. For patients with PNH and AA until now, the standard assessment for QoL was to use the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) or the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue Instrument (FACIT-Fatigue). We herewith present a new instrument aimed to be better tailored to the needs of PNH and AA patients. The anticipated fourth development phase will be performed for psychometric validation; however, we already explored the internal consistency of the hypothesised scales and found the results to be very good. Hence, the new QLQ-AA/PNH with 54 items can be used in trials and clinical studies from now on, according to EORTC strategy even if the scoring algorithm at this point is preliminary and the QLQ-AA/PNH might change slightly after phase IV. This is important, as there are no other disease-specific instruments available for AA/PNH patients right now.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Cytokine ; 120: 192-201, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100684

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease of complex and still poorly understood etiology. Loss of upper and lower motoneurons results in death within few years after diagnosis. Recent studies have proposed neuroprotective and disease-slowing effects of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment in ALS mouse models as well as humans. In this study, six ALS patients were monitored up to 3.5 years during continuous high-dose G-CSF administration. Repetitive analyses were performed including blood count parameters, CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) and colony forming cell (CFC) counts, serum cytokine levels and leukocyte telomere length. We demonstrate that continuous G-CSF therapy was well tolerated and safe resulting in only mild adverse events during the observation period. However, no mobilization of CD34+ HSPC was detected as compared to baseline values. CFC mobilization was equally low and even a decrease of myeloid precursors was observed in some patients. Assessment of telomere length within ALS patients' leukocytes revealed that G-CSF did not significantly shorten telomeres, while those of ALS patients were shorter compared to age-matched healthy controls, irrespective of G-CSF treatment. During G-CSF stimulation, TNF-alpha, CRP, IL-16, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, Tie-2 and VEGF were significantly increased in serum whereas MCP-1 levels decreased. In conclusion, our data show that continuous G-CSF treatment fails to increase circulating CD34+ HSPC in ALS patients. Cytokine profiles revealed G-CSF-mediated immunomodulatory and proteolytic effects. Interestingly, despite intense G-CSF stimulation, telomere length was not significantly shortened.

12.
J Hematol Oncol ; 12(1): 36, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interferon alpha (IFNa) monotherapy is recommended as the standard therapy in polycythemia vera (PV) but not in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Here, we investigated the mechanisms of IFNa efficacy in JAK2V617F- vs. BCR-ABL-positive cells. METHODS: Gene expression microarrays and RT-qPCR of PV vs. CML patient PBMCs and CD34+ cells and of the murine cell line 32D expressing JAK2V617F or BCR-ABL were used to analyze and compare interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. Furthermore, using CRISPR/Cas9n technology, targeted disruption of STAT1 or STAT2, respectively, was performed in 32D-BCR-ABL and 32D-JAK2V617F cells to evaluate the role of these transcription factors for IFNa efficacy. The knockout cell lines were reconstituted with STAT1, STAT2, STAT1Y701F, or STAT2Y689F to analyze the importance of wild-type and phosphomutant STATs for the IFNa response. ChIP-seq and ChIP were performed to correlate histone marks with ISG expression. RESULTS: Microarray analysis and RT-qPCR revealed significant upregulation of ISGs in 32D-JAK2V617F but downregulation in 32D-BCR-ABL cells, and these effects were reversed by tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. Similar expression patterns were confirmed in human cell lines, primary PV and CML patient PBMCs and CD34+ cells, demonstrating that these effects are operational in patients. IFNa treatment increased Stat1, Stat2, and Irf9 mRNA as well as pY-STAT1 in all cell lines; however, viability was specifically decreased in 32D-JAK2V617F. STAT1 or STAT2 knockout and reconstitution with wild-type or phospho-deficient STAT mutants demonstrated the necessity of STAT2 for IFNa-induced STAT1 phosphorylation in BCR-ABL- but not in JAK2V617F-expressing cells. STAT1 was essential for IFNa activity in both BCR-ABL- and JAK2V617F-positive cells. Furthermore, ChIP experiments demonstrate higher repressive and lower active chromatin marks at the promoters of ISGs in BCR-ABL-expressing cells. CONCLUSIONS: JAK2V617F but not BCR-ABL sensitizes MPN cells to interferon, and this effect was dependent on STAT1. Moreover, STAT2 is a survival factor in BCR-ABL- and JAK2V617F-positive cells but an IFNa-sensitizing factor solely in 32D-JAK2V617F cells by upregulation of STAT1 expression.

13.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(6): 1589-1599, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the phase 3 BFORE trial (NCT02130557), treatment with bosutinib resulted in a significantly higher major molecular response rate at 12 months versus imatinib in the modified intent-to-treat (mITT) population of patients with newly diagnosed chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP CML). Assessment of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) was an exploratory objective. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed CP CML were randomized 1:1 to receive once-daily bosutinib 400 mg or imatinib 400 mg as first-line therapy. Patients completed the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Leukemia (FACT-Leu) and EuroQoL-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaires at baseline, every 3 months for the first 24 months of treatment, every 6 months thereafter, and at treatment completion. We report PRO results at month 12 in the mITT population (bosutinib: n = 246; imatinib: n = 241). RESULTS: Mean FACT-Leu combined and subscale scores were similar at baseline in the bosutinib and imatinib arms; at month 12, all scores demonstrated improvement or maintenance of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in both treatment arms. Repeated-measures mixed-effects models showed no significant difference between bosutinib and imatinib for any FACT-Leu score. Functional health status, as measured by EQ-5D, also demonstrated improvement or maintenance with bosutinib and imatinib at month 12. CONCLUSIONS: Similar improvements in PROs compared with baseline were seen after 12 months of treatment with first-line bosutinib or imatinib in the BFORE trial. Newly diagnosed patients with CP CML receiving bosutinib or imatinib can preserve or improve HRQoL during treatment, although clinical efficacy was superior with bosutinib.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/administração & dosagem , Mesilato de Imatinib/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide de Fase Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Nitrilos/administração & dosagem , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/fisiopatologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/psicologia , Leucemia Mieloide de Fase Crônica/fisiopatologia , Leucemia Mieloide de Fase Crônica/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Leukemia ; 33(8): 1964-1977, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842608

RESUMO

Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy effectively blocks oncogenic Bcr-Abl signaling and induces molecular remission in the majority of CML patients. However, the disease-driving stem cell population is not fully targeted by TKI therapy in the majority of patients, and leukemic stem cells (LSCs) capable of re-inducing the disease can persist. In TKI-resistant CML, STAT3 inhibition was previously shown to reduce malignant cell survival. Here, we show therapy-resistant cell-extrinsic STAT3 activation in TKI-sensitive CML cells, using cell lines, HoxB8-immortalized murine BM cells, and primary human stem cells. Moreover, we identified JAK1 but not JAK2 as the STAT3-activating kinase by applying JAK1/2 selective inhibitors and genetic inactivation. Employing an IL-6-blocking peptide, we identified IL-6 as a mediator of STAT3 activation. Combined inhibition of Bcr-Abl and JAK1 further reduced CFUs from murine CML BM, human CML MNCs, as well as CD34+ CML cells, and similarly decreased LT-HSCs in a transgenic CML mouse model. In line with these observations, proliferation of human CML CD34+ cells was strongly reduced upon combined Bcr-Abl and JAK1 inhibition. Remarkably, the combinatory therapy significantly induced apoptosis even in quiescent LSCs. Our findings suggest JAK1 as a potential therapeutic target for curative CML therapies.


Assuntos
Janus Quinase 1/fisiologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/fisiologia , Humanos , Janus Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos
15.
Ann Hematol ; 98(6): 1393-1401, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903275

RESUMO

We evaluated pazopanib (800 mg orally QD) in patients not eligible for intensive treatment with relapsed/refractory AML or at initial diagnosis. Patients receiving pazopanib for > 14 days were analyzed for safety, tolerability, and efficacy. Co-primary endpoints were cumulative response rate and reduction of bone marrow microvessel density. Twenty patients (median age 76 years, range 52-86) were treated. Fifteen had relapsed/refractory and five had newly diagnosed AML. Median ECOG performance status was 1 (range 1-3). Four patients had adverse, 15 intermediate, and 1 patient favorable cytogenetic/molecular risk (ELN 2010 criteria). The safety profile of pazopanib was as reported. The most common adverse events of any grade were gastrointestinal. Two patients achieved PR (blast reduction > 50%), 14 stable disease (SD), and 4 progressive disease. Median PFS was 65 days (95% CI 29-105). After the end of the study, 1 CRi and 1 CRp occurred on demethylating agents, and 1 CR upon alloSCT. In these patients, SD and improved general condition on pazopanib allowed therapy escalation. Median OS for the overall study population was 191 days (95% CI 87-435) and 1-year survival was 35%. There was no significant change in microvessel density. Clinical trial information: NCT01361334.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Medula Óssea/irrigação sanguínea , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Microvasos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Recidiva , Terapia de Salvação , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Radiology ; 290(2): 349-356, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30398433

RESUMO

Purpose To determine the relationship between target lesion selection with use of Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1 and classification of therapeutic response in patients with metastatic cancer undergoing systemic cytotoxic and/or targeted therapies. Materials and Methods This prospective multireader study was conducted between July 2015 and July 2017. Three hundred sixteen consecutive participants with metastatic cancer underwent 932 CT examinations to monitor systemic treatment. CT studies were independently read by three radiologists. Readers identified a maximum of five lesions total (and a maximum of two lesions per organ). Dedicated oncology tumor response software was used. The Fleiss κ statistic was used to analyze interreader agreement in the assignment of individual response classes (complete response, partial response, progressive disease, or stable disease) and in the differentiation between progressive and nonprogressive disease. Results Readers selected the same set of target lesions in 128 of the 316 participants (41%) and selected a different set in 188 (59%). When target lesion selection was concordant, agreement was high (assignment of treatment response category: κ = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91, 1.0; differentiation between progressive and nonprogressive disease: κ = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.0). When target lesion selection was discordant, agreement was significantly reduced (assignment of treatment response category: κ = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.62; differentiation between progressive and nonprogressive disease: κ = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.70). With concordant target lesion selection, readers agreed regarding diagnosis of progression in 97.7% of participants (95% CI: 95.4%, 100.0%); with discordant target lesion selection, readers agreed in only 55.3% (95% CI: 47.9%, 62.6%) (P < .01). Conclusion In patients with metastatic cancer undergoing systemic treatment, different cancer sites may appear similarly suitable and thus likely to be selected as target lesions but may yield inconsistent or even conflicting results with Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1. This indicates that the current, limited set of target lesions in RECIST 1.1 may not reflect overall tumor load or response to therapy. © RSNA, 2018 See also the editorial by Sosna in this issue.


Assuntos
Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Neoplasias , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
18.
Leuk Res ; 76: 15-23, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476680

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia is an aggressive disease that arises from clonal expansion of malignant hematopoietic precursor cells of the bone marrow. Deletions on the long arm of chromosome 9 (del(9q)) are observed in 2% of acute myeloid leukemia patients. Our deletion analysis in a cohort of 31 del(9q) acute myeloid leukemia patients further supports the importance of a minimally deleted region composed of seven genes potentially involved in leukemogenesis: GKAP1, KIF27, C9ORF64, HNRNPK, RMI1, SLC28A3 and NTRK2. Importantly, among them HNRNPK, encoding heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K is proposed to function in leukemogenesis. We show that expression of HNRNPK and the other genes of the minimally deleted region is significantly reduced in patients with del(9q) compared with normal karyotype acute myeloid leukemia. Also, two mRNAs interacting with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K, namely CDKN1A and CEBPA are significantly downregulated. While the deletion size is not correlated with outcome, associated genetic aberrations are important. Patients with an additional t(8;21) show a good prognosis. RUNX1-RUNX1T1, which emerges from the t(8;21) leads to transcriptional down-regulation of CEBPA. Acute myeloid leukemia patients with mutations in CEBPA have a good prognosis as well. Interestingly, in del(9q) patients with CEBPA mutation mRNA levels of HNRNPK and the other genes located in the minimally deleted region is restored to normal karyotype level. Our data indicate that a link between CEBPA and the genes of the minimally deleted region, among them HNRNPK contributes to leukemogenesis in acute myeloid leukemia with del(9q).


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Cariótipo Anormal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genes MDR , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação
19.
Blood ; 133(6): 550-565, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530751

RESUMO

Antileukemia immunity plays an important role in disease control and maintenance of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-free remission in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Thus, antigen-specific immunotherapy holds promise for strengthening immune control in CML but requires the identification of CML-associated targets. In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based approach to identify naturally presented HLA class I- and class II-restricted peptides in primary CML samples. Comparative HLA ligandome profiling using a comprehensive dataset of different hematological benign specimens and samples from CML patients in deep molecular remission delineated a panel of novel frequently presented CML-exclusive peptides. These nonmutated target antigens are of particular relevance because our extensive data-mining approach suggests the absence of naturally presented BCR-ABL- and ABL-BCR-derived HLA-restricted peptides and the lack of frequent tumor-exclusive presentation of known cancer/testis and leukemia-associated antigens. Functional characterization revealed spontaneous T-cell responses against the newly identified CML-associated peptides in CML patient samples and their ability to induce multifunctional and cytotoxic antigen-specific T cells de novo in samples from healthy volunteers and CML patients. Thus, these antigens are prime candidates for T-cell-based immunotherapeutic approaches that may prolong TKI-free survival and even mediate cure of CML patients.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/imunologia , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Epitopos de Linfócito T/metabolismo , Antígenos HLA/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/metabolismo , Ligantes
20.
Haematologica ; 104(5): 955-962, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514803

RESUMO

Standard first-line therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia is treatment with imatinib. In the randomized German Chronic Myeloid Leukemia-Study IV, more potent BCR-ABL inhibition with 800 mg ('high-dose') imatinib accelerated achievement of a deep molecular remission. However, whether and when a de-escalation of the dose intensity under high-dose imatinib can be safely performed without increasing the risk of losing deep molecular response is unknown. To gain insights into this clinically relevant question, we analyzed the outcome of imatinib dose reductions from 800 mg to 400 mg daily in the Chronic Myeloid Leukemia-Study IV. Of the 422 patients that were randomized to the 800 mg arm, 68 reduced imatinib to 400 mg after they had achieved at least a stable major molecular response. Of these 68 patients, 61 (90%) maintained major molecular remission on imatinib at 400 mg. Five of the seven patients who lost major molecular remission on the imatinib standard dose regained major molecular remission while still on 400 mg imatinib. Only two of 68 patients had to switch to more potent kinase inhibition to regain major molecular remission. Importantly, the lengths of the intervals between imatinib high-dose treatment before and after achieving major molecular remission were associated with the probabilities of maintaining major molecular remission with the standard dose of imatinib. Taken together, the data support the view that a deep molecular remission achieved with high-dose imatinib can be safely maintained with standard dose in most patients. Study protocol registered at clinicaltrials.gov 00055874.

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