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1.
Toxicol Lett ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640488

RESUMO

Di-n-butyl adipate (DnBA) is used as a plasticizer and in various consumer products (e.g. personal care products) replacing, in part, the endocrine disruptor di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). We provide quantitative in vivo data on human DnBA metabolism and excretion after oral dose (105-185 µg/kg bw) and dermal application to three volunteers each as a tool for exposure and risk assessment. Complete and consecutive urine samples were collected for two (oral) and four days (dermal), respectively, and analyzed for the metabolites mono-n-butyl adipate (MnBA), 3- and tentative 4-hydroxy-mono-n-butyl adipate (3OH-MnBA, 4OH-MnBA), and 3-carboxy-mono-n-propyl adipate (3cx-MnPrA), as well as the hydrolysis product adipic acid (AA) using stable isotope dilution quantification. Metabolites were excreted within 24 h after oral dose with one or two concentration maxima at 0.8-3.0 h (n = 3) and 4.8-6.3 h (n = 2). AA was the major but unspecific metabolite with urinary excretion fractions (FUEs) of 14-26%. Mean FUEs (range) of 3cx-MnPrA, MnBA, 3OH-MnBA, and tentative 4OH-MnBA were low, but consistent between volunteers (0.47% (0.35-0.63%), 0.079% (0.065-0.091%), 0.012% (0.006-0.016%), and 0.005% (0.002-0.009%), respectively). MnBA and 3OH-MnBA seem to be suitable, specific exposure biomarkers for DnBA, whereas 3cx-MnPrA and 4OH-MnBA seem to originate also from other, unknown sources not related to DnBA. Compared to the oral study, metabolite excretion in the dermal study was delayed and MnBA excretion was somewhat higher compared to the oxidized metabolites. Based on urinary concentrations and the above excretion fractions, calculated uptakes in the dermal study did not exceed the adipate ester ADI of 5 mg/(kg bw*day).

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e039079, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602699

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Calretinin and mesothelin are molecular markers for the detection of malignant mesothelioma at early stages. Our objective was the re-evaluation of factors influencing calretinin and mesothelin concentrations in plasma of cancer-free men in order to minimise false-positive tests when using commercial assays approved for clinical diagnostics. SETTING: This re-evaluation used data and archived blood samples of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study (HNRS) collected from 2011 to 2014. PARTICIPANTS: The present analysis comprised of 569 cancer-free men at the time of blood sampling (median age 70 years) from HNRS. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Mesothelin plasma concentration was determined using ELISA and CLEIA (chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay). Calretinin plasma concentration was assessed using ELISA. RESULTS: Compared with the previous determination of concentrations, we detected less false-positive tests using the commercial assays. In this analysis, we found nine false-positive calretinin tests using the ELISA (specificity 98.4%, 95% CI 97.0% to 99.2%) and 24 false-positive mesothelin tests using both ELISA and CLEIA (specificity 95.8%, 95% CI 93.8% to 97.2%). We confirmed renal dysfunction as major predictor of elevated marker concentrations. Mesothelin was additionally affected by bronchitis. Furthermore, elevated inflammation values and hypertension only affected the mesothelin concentration determined by ELISA. CONCLUSIONS: The newly available assays of calretinin and mesothelin approved for clinical diagnostics showed high specificities in the population-based cohort of elderly men without a malignant disease. The current evaluation provides a basis to consider influencing factors in order to further improve the diagnostic procedure.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study determined whether acute sensory irritative or (sub)chronic inflammatory effects of the eyes, nose or respiratory tract are observed in employees who are exposed to naphthalene at the workplace. METHODS: Thirtynine healthy and non-smoking male employees with either moderate (n = 22) or high (n = 17) exposure to naphthalene were compared to 22 male employees from the same plants with no or only rare exposure to naphthalene. (Sub)clinical endpoint measures included nasal endoscopy, smell sensitivity, self-reported work-related complaints and the intensity of naphthalene odor and irritation. In addition, cellular and soluble mediators in blood, nasal lavage fluid (NALF) and induced sputum (IS) were analysed. All measurements were carried out pre-shift on Monday and post-shift on Thursday. Personal air monitoring revealed naphthalene shift concentrations up to 11.6 mg/m3 with short-term peak concentrations up to 145.8 mg/m3 and 1- and 2-naphthol levels (sum) in post-shift urine up to 10.1 mg/L. RESULTS: Acute sensory irritating effects at the eyes and upper airways were reported to occur when directly handling naphthalene (e.g., sieving pure naphthalene). Generally, naphthalene odor was described as intense and unpleasant. Habituation effects or olfactory fatigue were not observed. Endoscopic examination revealed mild inflammatory effects at the nasal mucosa of exposed employees in terms of reddening and swelling and abnormal mucus production. No consistent pattern of cellular and soluble mediators in blood, NALF or IS was observed which would indicate a chronic or acute inflammatory effect of naphthalene in exposed workers. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that exposure to naphthalene induces acute sensory irritative effects in exposed workers. No (sub)chronic inflammatory effects on the nasal epithelium or the respiratory tract could be observed under the study conditions described here.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 428-439, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility is widely used, but for many genes, evidence of an association with breast cancer is weak, underlying risk estimates are imprecise, and reliable subtype-specific risk estimates are lacking. METHODS: We used a panel of 34 putative susceptibility genes to perform sequencing on samples from 60,466 women with breast cancer and 53,461 controls. In separate analyses for protein-truncating variants and rare missense variants in these genes, we estimated odds ratios for breast cancer overall and tumor subtypes. We evaluated missense-variant associations according to domain and classification of pathogenicity. RESULTS: Protein-truncating variants in 5 genes (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and PALB2) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.0001. Protein-truncating variants in 4 other genes (BARD1, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.05 and a Bayesian false-discovery probability of less than 0.05. For protein-truncating variants in 19 of the remaining 25 genes, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio for breast cancer overall was less than 2.0. For protein-truncating variants in ATM and CHEK2, odds ratios were higher for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease than for ER-negative disease; for protein-truncating variants in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D, odds ratios were higher for ER-negative disease than for ER-positive disease. Rare missense variants (in aggregate) in ATM, CHEK2, and TP53 were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.001. For BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53, missense variants (in aggregate) that would be classified as pathogenic according to standard criteria were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall, with the risk being similar to that of protein-truncating variants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study define the genes that are most clinically useful for inclusion on panels for the prediction of breast cancer risk, as well as provide estimates of the risks associated with protein-truncating variants, to guide genetic counseling. (Funded by European Union Horizon 2020 programs and others.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
6.
Arch Toxicol ; 95(3): 925-934, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475793

RESUMO

Hyperbaric 2% prilocaine is increasingly used for spinal anesthesia. It is the only local anesthetic metabolized to o-toluidine, a human bladder carcinogen. Increase of o-toluidine hemoglobin adducts, a marker of o-toluidine ability to modify the DNA structure, was described following subcutaneous injection. In this prospective cohort study we aimed to assess and quantify o-toluidine hemoglobin adducts and urinary o-toluidine after a single intrathecal dose of hyperbaric prilocaine.10 patients undergoing surgery received 50 mg of hyperbaric prilocaine intrathecally. Blood and urine samples were collected before injection and up to 24 h later (Hospital Braine l'Alleud-Waterloo, Braine l'Alleud, Belgium). Urinary o-toluidine and o-toluidine hemoglobin adducts were measured by tandem mass-spectrometry after gas-chromatographic separation (Institute of the Ruhr-Universität, Bochum Germany). The trial was registered to ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03642301; 22-08-2018)Intrathecal administration of 50 mg of hyperbaric prilocaine leads to a significant increase of o-toluidine hemoglobin adducts (0.1 ± 0.02-11.9 ± 1.9 ng/g Hb after 24 h, p = 0.001). Peak of urinary o-toluidine was observed after 8 h (0.1 ± 0.1-460.5 ± 352.8 µg/L, p = 0.001) and declined to 98 ± 66.8 µg/L after 24 h (mean ± SD)Single intrathecal administration of hyperbaric prilocaine leads to a systemic burden with o-toluidine and o-toluidine hemoglobin adducts. O-toluidine-induced modifications of DNA should be examined and intrathecal hyperbaric prilocaine should not be proposed to patients chronically exposed to o-toluidine.Clinical trial number and registry URL NCT03642301.

7.
Clin Chem ; 67(2): 363-373, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detection of asbestos-associated diseases like asbestosis or mesothelioma is still challenging. We sought to improve the diagnosis of benign asbestos-associated disease (BAAD) by detection of the protein cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (Cyr61) in human plasma. METHODS: Plasma Cyr61 was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma samples from males diagnosed with BAAD, but without a malignant disease (n = 101), and malignant mesothelioma (n = 21; 15 males, 6 females), as well as nonasbestos-exposed healthy control participants (n = 150; 58 males, 92 females) were analyzed. Clinical sensitivity and specificity of Cyr61 were determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis. RESULTS: The median plasma Cyr61 concentration for healthy control participants was 0.27 ng/mL. Cytoplasmic Cyr61 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy control participants was evenly distributed, as detected by immunofluorescent staining. The increase in plasma Cyr61 concentrations in the BAAD study group was statistically significant compared to the healthy control participants (P < 0.0001). For the detection of BAAD vs male healthy control participants, clinical sensitivity was 88% and clinical specificity 95% with an area under the curve of 0.924 at maximal Youden Index. For a predefined clinical specificity of 100%, the clinical sensitivity was 76%. For male mesothelioma patients vs male healthy control participants, the clinical sensitivity at maximal Youden Index was 95% with a clinical specificity of 100% (area under the curve, 0.997) and for a predefined clinical specificity of 100%, the clinical sensitivity was 93%. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, plasma Cyr61 protein concentrations showed to be a new biomarker for asbestos-associated diseases like BAAD and mesothelioma in men, which deserves further investigation in large-scale cohort studies.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 763: 144615, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383503

RESUMO

Exposure to environmental phenols such as bisphenol A, benzophenones, 2-phenylphenol, triclosan, and triclocarban is of concern, because of their endocrine disrupting properties and broad application in consumer products. The current body burden of the 3-17-year-old population in Germany to these substances was assessed in first-morning void urine samples (N = 515-516) collected within the population-representative German Environmental Survey for Children and Adolescents 2014-2017 (GerES V). Bisphenol A was the most prominent phenol analysed here, ubiquitously found in almost all samples with a geometric mean (GM) concentration of 1.905 µg/L (1.669 µg/gcreatinine) and a maximum (MAX) urinary concentration of 399 µg/L. Benzophenone-3 and benzophenone-1 were quantified in 35% and 41% of the samples. GM was below the limit of quantification (LOQ) for benzophenone-3 and 0.559 µg/L (0.489 µg/gcrea) for benzophenone-1, MAX concentrations were 845 µg/L and 202 µg/L, respectively. In 16% of the samples triclosan was found in quantifiable amounts resulting in a GM below LOQ and a MAX concentration of 801 µg/L. Benzophenone-8, 2-phenylphenol and triclocarban were quantified in none or only 1% of the samples. Benzophenone-1 and -3 concentrations were found to be associated with frequent application of personal care products. A comparison with the previous cycle of the survey, GerES IV (2003-2006), showed a decrease of urinary bisphenol A concentrations, mainly in young children. Despite this decrease, the concentration of bisphenol A exceeded the human biomonitoring (HBM) value HBM-I of 0.1 mg/L in 0.11% of the samples. For triclosan, all urinary concentrations were well below the HBM-I value of 2 mg/L. To minimise environmental health risks, it is therefore necessary to maintain a further declining trend for bisphenol A and continue monitoring the exposure to environmental phenols, as well as to monitor substitutes such as bisphenol F and S.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Triclosan , Adolescente , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Monitoramento Biológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Alemanha , Humanos , Fenóis
9.
Neurotoxicology ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301826

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exposure to manganese (Mn) on fine motor functions. A total of 48 welders and 30 unexposed workers as controls completed questionnaires, underwent blood examinations, and a motor test battery. The shift exposure of welders to respirable Mn was measured with personal samplers. For all subjects accumulations of Mn in the brain were assessed with T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Welders showed normal motor functions on the Movement Disorder Society-Sponsored Revision of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale part III. Furthermore welders performed excellent on a steadiness test, showing better results than controls. However, welders were slightly slower than controls in motor tests. There was no association between fine motor test results and the relaxation rates R1 in globus pallidus and substantia nigra as MRI-based biomarkers to quantify Mn deposition in the brain.

10.
Environ Res ; : 110502, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221310

RESUMO

Parabens are antimicrobial preservatives used in a wide range of consumer products such as personal care products, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and food. Consequently, the general population is ubiquitously exposed to these substances via dermal absorption, ingestion, and inhalation. Parabens promote estrogenic activity and are hence under assessment as endocrine disrupting substances. Urine samples from 3- to 17-year-old children and adolescents (N = 516) living in Germany were analysed for concentrations of nine parabens in the population representative German Environmental Survey for Children and Adolescents 2014-2017 (GerES V). Detection rates and urinary concentrations of the parabens decreased with increasing length of the alkyl chain. Methyl paraben was quantified in 97% of the samples with a geometric mean (GM) concentration of 7.724 µg/L (6.714 µg/gcreatinine), ethyl paraben was quantified in 69% (GM: 0.943 µg/L and 0.825 µg/gcrea), and n-propyl paraben in 31% (GM: 0.563 µg/L and 0.493 µg/gcrea). Concentrations of iso-propyl paraben, butyl paraben, iso-butyl paraben, and benzyl paraben were below the limit of quantification in most samples. Pentyl paraben and heptyl paraben were not detected in any of the samples. Paraben concentrations in urine were found to be associated with frequent usage of leave-on personal care products and cosmetics. Cumulative exposure to parabens (back-calculated daily intakes, expressed as hazard index) was found to be on a level raising concern in up to 14% of the population, mainly driven by n-propyl paraben, and depending on the level of conservativeness and point-of departures used for calculation.

11.
Neural Plast ; 2020: 9125913, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178262

RESUMO

Most of the occupational exposure limits (OELs) are based on local irritants. However, exposure to much lower concentrations of irritant substances can also lead to health complaints from workers. Exposure to irritants is often accompanied by strong unpleasant odors, and strong odors might have distracting effects and hence pose a safety risk. The findings obtained in human exposure studies with chemically sensitive, stressed, or anxious persons suggest that their ability to direct attention away from the odorous exposure and to focus on a cognitive task is reduced. In addition, after repeated odor exposure, these persons show signs of sensitization, i.e., difficulties in ignoring or getting used to the exposure. The question arises as to whether certain health conditions are accompanied by a change in sensitivity to odors and irritants, so that these persons are potentially more distracted by odors and irritants and therefore more challenged in working memory tasks than nonsusceptible persons. In our study, susceptible persons with sensory airway hyperreactivity ("capsaicin-sensitive") respond more strongly to mechanical skin stimuli than controls and show altered network connectivity. Capsaicin-sensitive subjects have a lower pain threshold and thus are more sensitive to mechanical skin stimuli. The intrinsic functional connectivity of their saliency network is higher, and the lower the GABAergic tone of the thalamus, the higher their pain sensitivity to mechanical stimuli. It seems that the increased communication between resting-state networks promotes a stronger perception of the sensory input signal. The results can be used to inform about actual risks (i.e., attention diversion and increased risk of accidents) and "pseudo" risks such as odor perception without a negative impact on one's well-being. This way, uncertainties that still prevail in the health assessment of odorous and sensory irritating chemicals could be reduced.

12.
Environ Int ; 146: 106221, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113467

RESUMO

N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and its substitute N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (NEP) are aprotic solvents used in many technical applications, but also in carpets, and consumer products such as cleaning agents, and cosmetics. NMP and NEP are classified as reproductive toxicants. As a substance of very high concern (SVHC), NMP is included in the European REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation of Chemicals) candidate listfor authorisation. NMP and NEP metabolites were measured in more than 2100 urine samples of 3- to 17-year-old children and adolescents, participating in the population-representative German Environmental Survey for Children and Adolescents 2014-2017 (GerESV). The two NMP metabolites 5-hydroxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNMP) and 2-hydroxy-N-methylsuccinimide (2-HMSI) could be detected and quantified in all urine samples, and the two NEP metabolites 5-hydroxy-N-ethylpyrrolidone (5-HNEP) and 2-hydroxy-N-ethylsuccinimide (2-HESI) in 32% and 87% of the urine samples. Geometric mean concentrations were 103.1 µg/L (88.21 µg/gcreatinine) for the sum of NMP metabolites and 11.86 µg/L (10.15 µg/gcreatinine) for the sum of NEP metabolites, thus remaining below the current health-based human biomonitoring values. For NMP, highest exposure was found in young children, but exposure pathways could not be revealed. Exposure to NEP was highest in adolescents and participants with low socio-economic status or migration background. Associations to usage of personal care products suggested the choice of products to have a distinct impact on NEP exposure. The presented data can be used by the German Human Biomonitoring Commission to derive new reference values (RV95) for NMP and NEP for children and adolescents in Germany. This will facilitate to recognise changing exposure levels in this population group in Germany.

13.
Occup Environ Med ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the risk of lung cancer associated with ever working as a painter, duration of employment and type of painter by histological subtype as well as joint effects with smoking, within the SYNERGY project. METHODS: Data were pooled from 16 participating case-control studies conducted internationally. Detailed individual occupational and smoking histories were available for 19 369 lung cancer cases (684 ever employed as painters) and 23 674 age-matched and sex-matched controls (532 painters). Multivariable unconditional logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, centre, cigarette pack-years, time-since-smoking cessation and lifetime work in other jobs that entailed exposure to lung carcinogens. RESULTS: Ever having worked as a painter was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in men (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.50). The association was strongest for construction and repair painters and the risk was elevated for all histological subtypes, although more evident for small cell and squamous cell lung cancer than for adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. There was evidence of interaction on the additive scale between smoking and employment as a painter (relative excess risk due to interaction >0). CONCLUSIONS: Our results by type/industry of painter may aid future identification of causative agents or exposure scenarios to develop evidence-based practices for reducing harmful exposures in painters.

14.
Arch Toxicol ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001223

RESUMO

Inhalation of ZnO particles can cause inflammation of the airways and metal fume fever. It is unclear if different sizes of the particles alter these effects. However, various studies report higher biological activity of other nano-sized particles compared to microparticles. No effects at all were observed after inhalation of micro- and nano-sized zinc oxide (ZnO) particle concentrations of 0.5 mg/m3. Studies with different particle sizes of ZnO at higher exposures are not available. Accordingly, we hypothesized that inhalation of nano-sized ZnO particles induces stronger health effects than the inhalation of the same airborne mass concentration of micro-sized ZnO particles. 16 healthy volunteers (eight men, eight women) were exposed to filtered air and ZnO particles (2.0 mg/m3) for 2 h (one session with nano- and one with micro-sized ZnO) including 1 h of cycling at moderate workload. Effect parameters were symptoms, body temperature, inflammatory markers in blood and in induced sputum. Induced sputum was obtained at baseline examination, 22 h after exposure and at the end of the final test. The effects were assessed before, immediately after, about 22 h after, as well as two and three days after each exposure. Neutrophils, monocytes and acute-phase proteins in blood increased 22 h after micro- and nano-sized ZnO exposure. Effects were generally stronger with micro-sized ZnO particles. Parameters in induced sputum showed partial increases on the next day, but the effect strengths were not clearly attributable to particle sizes. The hypothesis that nano-sized ZnO particles induce stronger health effects than micro-sized ZnO particles was not supported by our data. The stronger systemic inflammatory responses after inhalation of micro-sized ZnO particles can be explained by the higher deposition efficiency of micro-sized ZnO particles in the respiratory tract and a substance-specific mode of action, most likely caused by the formation of zinc ions.

15.
Dis Markers ; 2020: 4176376, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014186

RESUMO

Background: MYC (v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog) is one of the most frequently amplified genes in lung tumors. For the analysis of gene copy number variations, dPCR (digital PCR) is an appropriate tool. The aim of our study was the assessment of dPCR for the detection of MYC copy number variations (CNV) in lung tissue considering clinicopathological parameters. Material and Methods. MYC status was analyzed with dPCR as well as qPCR (quantitative PCR) using gDNA (genomic DNA) from tumor and adjacent nontumor tissue samples of lung cancer patients. The performance of MYC was estimated based on the AUC (area under curve). Results: The results of the MYC amplification correlated significantly between dPCR and qPCR (r S = 0.81, P < 0.0001). The MYC copy number revealed by dPCR showed statistically significant differences between tumor and adjacent nontumor tissues. For discrimination, a sensitivity of 43% and a specificity of 99% were calculated, representing 55 true-positive and one false-positive tests. No statistically significant differences could be observed for age, sex, and smoking status or the clinicopathological parameters (histological subtype, grade, and stage). Conclusion: The results of the study show that dPCR is an accurate and reliable method for the determination of MYC copy numbers. The application is characterized by high specificity and moderate sensitivity. MYC amplification is a common event in lung cancer patients, and it is indicated that the determination of the MYC status might be useful in clinical diagnostics.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(19)2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bladder cancer is a heterogeneous malignancy. Therefore, it is difficult to find single predictive markers. Moreover, most studies focus on either the immunohistochemical or molecular assessment of tumor tissues by next-generation sequencing (NGS) or PCR, while a combination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and PCR for tumor marker assessment might have the strongest impact to predict outcome and select optimal therapies in real-world application. We investigated the role of proliferation survivin/BIRC5 and macrophage infiltration (CD68, MAC387, CLEVER-1) on the basis of molecular subtypes of bladder cancer (KRT5, KRT20, ERBB2) to predict outcomes of adjuvant treated muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients with regard to progression-free survival (PFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used tissue microarrays (TMA) from n = 50 patients (38 males, 12 female) with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. All patients had been treated with radical cystectomy followed by adjuvant triple chemotherapy. Median follow-up time was 60.5 months. CD68, CLEVER-1, MAC387, and survivin protein were detected by immunostaining and subsequent visual inspection. BIRC5, KRT5, KRT20, ERBB2, and CD68 mRNAs were detected by standardized RT-qPCR after tissue dot RNA extraction using a novel stamp technology. All these markers were evaluated in three different centers of excellence. RESULTS: Nuclear staining rather than cytoplasmic staining of survivin predicted DSS as a single marker with high levels of survivin being associated with better PFS and DSS upon adjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.0138 and p = 0.001, respectively). These results were validated by the quantitation of BIRC5 mRNA by PCR (p = 0.0004 and p = 0.0508, respectively). Interestingly, nuclear staining of survivin protein was positively associated with BIRC5 mRNA, while cytoplasmic staining was inversely related, indicating that the translocation of survivin protein into the nucleus occurred at a discrete, higher level of its mRNA. Combining survivin/BIRC5 levels based on molecular subtype being assessed by KRT20 expression improved the predictive value, with tumors having low survivin/BIRC5 and KRT20 mRNA levels having the best survival (75% vs. 20% vs. 10% 5-year DSS, p = 0.0005), and these values were independent of grading, node status, and tumor stage in multivariate analysis (p = 0.0167). Macrophage infiltration dominated in basal tumors and was inversely related with the luminal subtype marker gene expression. The presence of macrophages in survivin-positive or ERBB2-positive tumors was associated with worse DSS. CONCLUSIONS: For muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients, the proliferative activity as determined by the nuclear staining of survivin or RT-qPCR on the basis of molecular subtype characteristics outperforms single marker detections and single technology approaches. Infiltration by macrophages detected by IHC or PCR is associated with worse outcome in defined subsets of tumors. The limitations of this study are the retrospective nature and the limited number of patients. However, the number of molecular markers has been restricted and based on predefined assumptions, which resulted in the dissection of muscle-invasive disease into tumor-biological axes of high prognostic relevance, which warrant further investigation and validation.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890819

RESUMO

Glyphosate is the highest volume herbicide used worldwide, and its main biodegradation product is aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), both are listed as priority substances in the Human Biomonitoring for Europe (HBM4EU) initiative which aims at improving policy by filling knowledge gaps by targeted research. The objective of the current study was to advance the sensitivity of an existing gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analytical method to measure environmental population exposures. A 50% lower limit of quantification of 0.05 µg/L was achieved for both analytes by slight modifications in sample work-up, and use of another isotope labelled internal standard. In a pilot study, 41 urine samples from the general German population were analysed, of which glyphosate and AMPA could be quantified in 66% and 90% of the samples respectively, which is sufficient to reliably describe distributions of urinary concentrations in the non-occupationally exposed population.

18.
Environ Res ; 189: 109913, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980007

RESUMO

Welders have an increased susceptibility to airway infections with non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), which implicates immune defects and might promote pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized that welding-fume exposure suppresses Th1-lymphocyte activity. Non-effector CD4+ T-cells from blood of 45 welders (n = 23 gas metal arc welders, GMAW; n = 16 tungsten inert gas welders, TIG; n = 6 others) and 25 non-welders were ex vivo activated towards Th1 via polyclonal T-cell receptor stimulation and IL-12 (first activation step) and then stimulated with NTHi extract or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (second activation step). IFNγ and IL-2 were measured by ELISA. In the first activation step, IFNγ was reduced in welders compared to non-welders and in the GMAW welders with higher concentrations of respirable particles compared to the lower exposed TIG welders. IFNγ was not influenced by tobacco smoking and correlated negatively with welding-fume exposure, respirable manganese, and iron. In the second activation step, NTHi and LPS induced additional IFNγ, which was reduced in current smokers compared to never smokers in welders as well as in non-welders. Analyzing both activation steps together, IFNγ production was lowest in smoking welders and highest in never smoking non-welders. IL-2 was not associated with any of these parameters. Welding-fume exposure might suppress Th1-based immune responses due to effects of particulate matter, which mainly consists of iron and manganese. For responses to NTHi this is strongest in smoking welders because welding fume suppresses T-cell activation towards Th1 and cigarette smoke suppresses the subsequent Th1-response to NTHi via LPS. Both effects are independent from IL-2-regulated T-cell proliferation. This might explain the increased susceptibility to infections and might promote COPD development.

19.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 33(6): 701-732, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939096

RESUMO

Street cleaning is an integral part of the solid waste management system. There are different ways to achieve clean streets depending on the availability of equipment, the type and magnitude of dirt, the surface conditions encountered or traffic conditions. In general, hand sweeping by an individual worker or a group, hose flushing, or machine sweeping or flushing are applied. In order to obtain information about the occurrence and relevance of occupational health hazards of street cleaners, the current international literature, as well as corresponding German regulations, were reviewed and evaluated. Street cleaning includes a variety of health hazards for employees. These can be subdivided into effects of occupational tasks and effects of working conditions such as weather or road traffic. The hazards result from physical, chemical and biological exposures, but may also be due to physiological and psychological burden or inadequate safety aspects. The most commonly reported work-related complaints are musculoskeletal and respiratory disorders, cuts, slips, and road traffic accidents. In developing countries, street cleaners seem to be still heavily exposed to dust and, in most cases, no suitable protective measures are available. Especially in industrialized countries there exist a number of standards and recommendations for waste workers that aim to reduce their occupational health impacts. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2020;33(6):701-32.

20.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 230: 113589, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836070

RESUMO

Metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHTP), a substitute for ortho-based phthalate plasticisers like di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), were analysed in 2112 first-morning void urine samples from children and adolescents aged 3-17 years, participating in the population representative German Environmental Survey on Children and Adolescents, GerES V 2014-2017. The major metabolite 5cx-MEPTP was detected in all urine samples with a geometric mean (GM) of 7.39 µg/L, with highest levels in the mg/L range. The GM for the other metabolites were 0.55 µg/L for 5OH-MEHTP, 0.54 µg/L for 5oxo-MEHTP and below the limit of quantification (LOQ) for 2cx-MMHTP. As already observed for other plasticisers and their substitutes, the youngest children (3-5 years) had 2-2.5-fold higher urinary DEHTP metabolite levels compared to 14-17 years old adolescents. High urinary levels of DEHTP metabolites were associated with high DEHTP concentrations in house dust. None of the samples analysed exceeded the toxicologically derived German human biomonitoring guidance value (HBM-I-Value) of 1.8 mg/L for 5cx-MEPTP. Comparison with DEHTP levels reported in other HBM studies worldwide confirmed a widespread exposure of children, adolescents and adults, with considerably higher exposures (2.6-7 fold) reported in the United States. In GerES V, exposure data for 12 different phthalates and the phthalate substitute DINCH were generated as well. Together with the data for DEHTP presented in this manuscript, GerES V allows a current and comprehensive overview on the concurrent exposure of German children and adolescents to common plasticisers. Further evaluation of aggregate exposure characteristics shall support efforts to reduce chemical hazard burden from plasticisers in Germany and beyond.

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