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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150649, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597557

RESUMO

The hydropeaking regime below hydropower facilities represents a serious threat to riverine fauna and may cause declines in populations living under its influence. However, the knowledge on direct fish responses to the threat of hydropeaking is limited. Here, we aimed to test whether the hydropeaking generated 12 km upstream may have a negative effect on the position of actively spawning rheophilic fish, asp, Leuciscus aspius. Two passive telemetry antenna arrays were used to record fish position on the spawning ground. We monitored the position of spawning fish (545, 764 and 852 individuals) in three one-month long spawning seasons in 2017-2019 and related the changes in detection probability on the two antenna arrays to flow conditions, temperature, time of a day and individual fish ID. The fish detection on the spawning ground was negatively affected by the flow change (both increase and decrease) in time. Moreover, the probability of fish detection was also influenced by water temperature, the time of the day and, as seen from the magnitude of individual random effect variability, the detection probability was rather individual-specific. Hydropeaking resulted in the change of spawning behaviour and likely caused interruption of spawning or shifting spawning outside the optimal area for egg development. We therefore advise to reduce the hydropeaking regime during the rheophilic fish spawning season under fisheries or conservation interests.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836420

RESUMO

The glycemic response to ingested glucose for the treatment of hypoglycemia following exercise in type 1 diabetes patients has never been studied. Therefore, we aimed to characterize glucose dynamics during a standardized bout of hypoglycemia-inducing exercise and the subsequent hypoglycemia treatment with the oral ingestion of glucose. Ten male patients with type 1 diabetes performed a standardized bout of cycling exercise using an electrically braked ergometer at a target heart rate (THR) of 50% of the individual heart rate reserve, determined using the Karvonen equation. Exercise was terminated when hypoglycemia was reached, followed by immediate hypoglycemia treatment with the oral ingestion of 20 g of glucose. Arterialized blood glucose (ABG) levels were monitored at 5 min intervals during exercise and for 60 min during recovery. During exercise, ABG decreased at a mean rate of 0.11 ± 0.03 mmol/L·min-1 (minimum: 0.07, maximum: 0.17 mmol/L·min-1). During recovery, ABG increased at a mean rate of 0.13 ± 0.05 mmol/L·min-1 (minimum: 0.06, maximum: 0.19 mmol/L·min-1). Moreover, 20 g of glucose maintained recovery from hypoglycemia throughout the 60 min postexercise observation window.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 2): 150799, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626626

RESUMO

Fog is an important atmospheric phenomenon highly relevant to ecosystems and/or the environment. Two essential prerequisites of fog formation are the presence of fog condensation nuclei and water in the atmosphere. The aim of our study was to examine in detail how fog occurrence is influenced by water areas in the immediate vicinity of the fog observation site. We have used as input data long-term observations on fog occurrence measured at 56 professional meteorological stations in Romania in 1981-2017 and GIS-derived information on water areas and on two topographical indices, TWI and TPI, in the neighbourhood of these stations. We formulated three alternative models of different complexity based on a semiparametric generalised additive logistic model for the probability of fog occurrence with potentially nonlinear, smooth effects modelled via penalised splines. A radius of 9 km appeared to be the most influential when considering the water area in a circle around the fog observation station. Based on our results, we concluded that (i) the water area in the vicinity of the station is a factor influencing fog occurrence, (ii) the water's effect differs according to water type (freshwater or seawater proximity), and (iii) GIS-derived topographical indices are informative for the explanation of fog occurrence and their inclusion enhanced the fit of the models substantially. Our findings, based on a reliable long-term data set of fog occurrence and recent GIS-derived data, explored by a relevant statistical approach will enhance further considerations related to fog formation and its environmental consequences.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419390

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This paper sought to evaluate the occurrence of decompression sickness (DCS) after the application of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) screening and risk stratification strategy. BACKGROUND: PFO is associated with an increased risk of DCS. Recently, transcatheter closure was reported to reduce DCS occurrence in divers with a high-grade shunt. However, to date, there are no data regarding the effectiveness of any PFO screening and risk stratification strategy for divers. METHODS: A total of 829 consecutive divers (35.4 ± 10.0 years, 81.5% men) were screened for PFO by means of transcranial color-coded sonography in the DIVE-PFO (Decompression Illness Prevention in Divers with a Patent Foramen Ovale) registry. Divers with a high-grade PFO were offered either catheter-based PFO closure (the closure group) or advised conservative diving (high grades). Divers with a low-grade shunt were advised conservative diving (low grades), whereas those with no PFO continued unrestricted diving (controls). A telephone follow-up was performed. To study the effect of the screening and risk stratification strategy, DCS occurrence before enrollment and during the follow-up was compared. RESULTS: Follow-up was available for 748 (90%) divers. Seven hundred and 2 divers continued diving and were included in the analysis (mean follow-up 6.5 ± 3.5 years). The DCS incidence decreased significantly in all groups, except the controls. During follow-up, there were no DCS events in the closure group; DCS incidence was similar to the controls in the low-grade group (HR: 3.965; 95% CI: 0.558-28.18; P = 0.169) but remained higher in the high-grade group (HR: 26.170; 95% CI: 5.797-118.16; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The screening and risk stratification strategy using transcranial color-coded sonography was associated with a decrease in DCS occurrence in divers with PFO. Catheter-based PFO closure was associated with a DCS occurrence similar to the controls; the conservative strategy had a similar effect in the low-grade group, but in the high-grade group the DCS incidence remained higher than in all other groups.

5.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett ; 42(4): 277-281, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436847

RESUMO

The ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective treatment for intractable epilepsy in children. Hypoglycemia can be one of its side-effects, which is considered to be present mainly during the introductory phase of KD. Continuous glucose monitoring in a 6-year old non-diabetic child treated with KD for more than 8 months revealed long periods of asymptomatic hypoglycemia (8.9% of the total time under 2.5 mmol/l, 10.6% of the total time in the range between 2.5-3.0, 29.1% in the range of 3.0-3.6 mmol/l). The episodes of serious hypoglycemia were associated with a fasting state. The amount of sacharides in KD was increased with substantial glycemic profile improvement.

6.
Obes Rev ; 22 Suppl 6: e13208, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402567

RESUMO

Childhood obesity is a serious global health problem. Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) reflect body fat distribution in children. The objectives of this study were to assess WC and WHtR in 7-year-old children and to determine body mass index (BMI), WC, and WHtR differences in children from 10 selected countries across Europe (Bulgaria, Czechia, Greece, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Norway, Spain, and Sweden) participating in the World Health Organization (WHO) Europe Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI). The 50th and 90th percentile of WC (according to COSI and "Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS" (IDEFICS) cutoff values) and WHtR above 0.5 were used as measures of abdominal obesity in a unique sample of 38,975 children aged 7.00-7.99 years. Southern European countries, including Greece and Spain, showed significantly higher BMI, WC, and WHtRin both genders (p < 0.0001) than Eastern and Northern Europe. The highest values for WC were observed in Greece (60.8 ± 7.36 cm boys; 60.3 ± 7.48 cm girls), North Macedonia (60.4 ± 7.91 cm boys; 59.0 ± 8.01 cm girls), and Spain (59.7 ± 6.96 cm boys; 58.9 ± 6.77 cm girls). WC and WHtRin may add an information about the occurrence of central obesity in children.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282761

RESUMO

Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a membrane-bound protease that is upregulated in a wide range of tumours and viewed as a marker of tumour-promoting stroma. Previously, we demonstrated increased FAP expression in glioblastomas and described its localisation in cancer and stromal cells. In this study, we show that FAP+ stromal cells are mostly localised in the vicinity of activated CD105+ endothelial cells and their quantity positively correlates with glioblastoma vascularisation. FAP+ mesenchymal cells derived from human glioblastomas are non-tumorigenic and mostly lack the cytogenetic aberrations characteristic of glioblastomas. Conditioned media from these cells induce angiogenic sprouting and chemotaxis of endothelial cells and promote migration and growth of glioma cells. In a chorioallantoic membrane assay, co-application of FAP+ mesenchymal cells with glioma cells was associated with enhanced abnormal angiogenesis, as evidenced by an increased number of erythrocytes in vessel-like structures and higher occurrence of haemorrhages. FAP+ mesenchymal cells express proangiogenic factors, but in comparison to normal pericytes exhibit decreased levels of antiangiogenic molecules and an increased Angiopoietin 2/1 ratio. Our results show that FAP+ mesenchymal cells promote angiogenesis and glioma cell migration and growth by paracrine communication and in this manner, they may thus contribute to glioblastoma progression.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 768: 144359, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736340

RESUMO

Fog is a very complex phenomenon, relevant to both atmospheric physics and chemistry, contributing to the atmospheric inputs of both nutrients and pollutants to the environment. Fog occurrence is affected by numerous factors. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of terrain on fog occurrence. Namely, we studied in detail how altitude, slope and landform influence the probability of fog occurrence using the generalized additive model. In particular, we investigated how different explanatory variables might modify (deform) the trend and the seasonal component of the probability of fog occurrence. We used long-term records of daily fog occurrence measured in 1981-2017 at 56 professional meteorological stations in Romania, reflecting different environments and geographical areas. The altitude of the sites under review ranged between 13 and 2504 m above sea level, the coverage of localities at different altitudes being highly uneven. Out of the terrain variables considered, the most decisive influence was found to be altitude. We have included information on slope and landform, which refined and bettered the basic model. Our model results indicated a significant decrease in the probability of fog occurrence over the examined period. The behaviour of fog differed according to the altitude, the most profound effects being observed for ground-level fog and fog above flat terrain. The probability of fog occurrence at different altitudes varied mostly in summer and autumn, whereas it was very similar in winter.

9.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 115: 104295, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412405

RESUMO

The bonding performance of dental adhesives is most frequently evaluated using the micro-tensile bond strength (µTBS) test. Despite lacking evidence, peripheral specimens are often discarded to avoid regional variability. This study, therefore, examined whether µTBS to central and peripheral dentin differed. Dentin surfaces of extracted human molars were bonded with various self-etch adhesives, built up with a resin composite, cut into beams, and stressed in tension. Failure mode was classified as adhesive, cohesive in dentin, or other using scanning electron microscopy. Since cohesive failures in dentin were frequent and could confound µTBS results, the data from central/peripheral dentin were analyzed using a Weibull competing risk (CR) model distinguishing failure modes, and its outcomes were compared to a conventional failure mode non-distinguishing Weibull model. Based on the strength data of cohesively failed specimens, the CR model also estimated the strength of dentin. For comparison, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of dentin was measured in both regions. The conventional model suggested that peripheral µTBS was higher than central µTBS. Conversely, the CR model disclosed no significant difference in µTBS between the regions but indicated a higher strength of peripheral dentin. This finding was confirmed by UTS measurements, and further supported by the significantly higher incidence of cohesive failures in central dentin. Therefore, peripheral specimens can be used in the µTBS test as well as central ones, but a CR model should be used for statistical analysis if cohesive failures in dentin are frequent, as the strength of peripheral dentin is higher.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Adesivos Dentinários , Resinas Compostas , Dentina , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Cimentos de Resina , Resistência à Tração
10.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 170: 108470, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998019

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study is to establish the prevalence of diabetes (DM) and prediabetes in the Czech population aged 25-64 years and to evaluate the relationships with various cardiometabolic, sociodemographic, and lifestyle risk factors. METHODS: This was an epidemiological study with a stratified, crosssectional, random sampling design. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, and anamnestic data were collected through interviewer-administered questionnaires, medical examination, and biochemical assays. RESULTS: Among the 1189 participants, 114 were diagnosed with DM (9.6%), 330 with prediabetes (27.8%) and 745 were non-diabetes/non-prediabetes individuals (62.7%). Logistic regression analysis showed that overweight, general and abdominal obesity, hypertension, and lower level of HDL (increased risk) significantly increased the risk of both prediabetes and DM, while living in the cities diminished risk of DM. Among lifestyle variables the significant increased risk of prediabetes and DM was found for smokers and ex-smokers. In other lifestyle variables (marijuana lifetime prevalence, physical activity and frequency of alcohol drinking) the significantly higher or lower risk for prediabetes or DM was not found. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows a high prevalence of DM and prediabetes in the Czech population of age between 25 and 64, providing data on their association with several risk factors.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Estudos Transversais , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Dent Mater ; 36(12): 1508-1515, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948331

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A competing risk (CR) model distinguishing adhesive, cohesive and mixed failures as competing events was used for the analysis of micro-tensile bond strength (µTBS) data and compared with a conventional failure mode non-distinguishing survival model. METHODS: Fifty human molars were bonded using five universal adhesives (n = 10) and subdivided according to aging conditions (24-h water storage, thermocycling). After µTBS to dentin was tested, a fractographic analysis was performed using scanning electron microscopy. Survival analyses of the µTBS data were performed using both a failure mode distinguishing Weibull CR model, and a conventional failure mode non-distinguishing Weibull model. Weibull shape (m) and scale (σθ) parameters were calculated for both models using the maximum likelihood estimation method, and strength at 10 % probability of failure, σ0.10, was estimated. Groups were compared using 95 % confidence intervals. RESULTS: CR-model estimates of σθ and σ0.10 for adhesive failures were higher than those of the conventional model, more markedly in groups with lower percentages of adhesive failures. CR-model strength estimates for cohesive failures were similar in all groups regardless of their bond strengths and failure mode distributions. SIGNIFICANCE: Merging all bond-strength data into one dataset irrespective of the failure mode may result in a severe underestimation of bond strength, especially in groups with low incidence of adhesive failures. Bond-strength data analysis using a CR model could provide more accurate estimates of bond strength, and strength estimates for cohesive failures which were apparently independent of bond strength could serve as an internal validity indicator of the CR model.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Adesivos Dentinários , Resinas Compostas , Análise de Dados , Cimentos Dentários , Dentina , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Cimentos de Resina , Resistência à Tração
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 141038, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745851

RESUMO

Ambient or ground-level ozone (O3), a key player in atmospheric chemistry, has been studied extensively throughout the world in recent decades due to its harmful effects on human health and the environment. The aim of this study is to examine in detail the time patterns of O3 in the Czech Republic, a Central European country with a long-term history of ambient air pollution. We have examined the interplay between annual trends and within-a-year seasonality in daily O3 concentrations at twelve stations representing different environments, geographical regions and altitudes in the Czech Republic in 1993-2018. We base our analysis on a generalised additive model (GAM) framework as a modern regression approach suitable for addressing non-linear trend shapes in a formalised and unified way. In particular, we use penalised splines. The inconsistent behaviour of the stations prior to 1998, two local maxima around 2003 and 2006 and a steady increase in O3 at all sites from 2014 to the present are the main features of our study. A seasonality O3 pattern with a clear maximum in May-June is similar for all stations. In parallel with the O3 concentration changes over the years, the deformation of seasonality profiles over a long period of time occurs, resulting in a shift of the peak O3 concentrations towards later days in the year. Our statistical modelling offers a detailed view of both long-term trend and seasonality components separately. Additionally, in a model with trend*seasonality interaction, we are able to study the gradual deformation of the seasonality profile over the years. Capsule: Our analysis of daily mean O3 concentrations at twelve Czech sites in 1993-2018 revealed a steady increase in O3 from 2014 and deformation of the seasonality O3 profiles over the year.

13.
Front Physiol ; 11: 860, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792981

RESUMO

Introduction: Physical fitness benefits health. However, there is a research gap on how physical fitness, particularly aerobic endurance capacity and muscle power, is influenced by residential altitude, blood parameters, weight, and other cofactors in a population living at low to moderate altitudes (300-2100 masl). Materials and Methods: We explored how endurance and muscle power performance changes with residential altitude, Body Mass Index (BMI), hemoglobin and creatinine levels among 108,677 Swiss men aged 18-22 years (covering >90% of Swiss birth cohorts) conscripted to the Swiss Armed Forces between 2007 and 2012. The test battery included a blood test of about 65%, a physical evaluation of about 85%, and the BMI of all conscripts. Results: Residential altitude was significantly associated with endurance (p < 0.001) but not with muscle power performance (p = 0.858) after adjusting for all available cofactors. Higher BMI showed the greatest negative association with both endurance and muscle power performance. For muscle power performance, the association with creatinine levels was significant. Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and hemoglobin levels were stronger contributors in explaining endurance than muscle power performance. Conclusion: We found a significant association between low to moderate residential altitude and aerobic endurance capacity even after adjustment for hemoglobin, creatinine, BMI and sociodemographic factors. Non-assessed factors such as vitamin D levels, air pollution, and lifestyle aspects may explain the presented remaining association partially and could also be associated with residential altitude. Monitoring the health and fitness of young people and their determinants is important and of practical concern for disease prevention and public health implications.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 711: 135018, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000332

RESUMO

Fog is a very important and complex atmospheric phenomenon of the utmost importance for the environment and for human society. For practical reasons, fog occurrence is observed regularly at meteorological stations worldwide. Decreasing trends in fog frequency reported from numerous regions have been often associated with either decreasing pollution or climate change, including increasing temperature and changes in atmospheric circulation. We have examined the data on fog occurrence from twelve Czech sites representing different environments (urban, rural, mountain), geographical areas, and altitudes across the country. For our analysis we used long-term records from the time period of 1961-2018, covering both the ambient air's heavily polluted periods of the 1970s and 1980s and the cleaner period, following the adoption of new, more stringent legislation and effective countermeasures after the 1990s. We applied a generalised additive model (GAM) framework as a flexible, semiparametric regression approach to address nonlinear trend shapes in a formalised and unified way. In particular, we employed a penalised spline approach with cross-validated penalty coefficient estimation. Our study confirmed non-linear behaviour for both year-to-year trends and annual seasonality. Our results showed further that over the analysed, almost sixty-year period, fog occurrence has decreased significantly at all the examined sites, though the pattern of the long-term change differed among individual sites. Moreover, we have found significant seasonality in fog occurrence, though it is different at individual sites. Furthermore, apart from the overall annual fog probability change over the years, at some sites the fog's seasonal profile has also deformed substantially over the long term.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671517

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a sample of children who were exclusively or predominantly breastfed for at least 6 months compared to Czech references that were constructed based on a representative sample of children, regardless of their mode of feeding. Between 2008 and 2011, a longitudinal study on the growth of breastfed infants was carried out in the Czech Republic. Forty-three GP pediatricians addressed parents at 18-month preventive examinations and collected data on the families' socio-economic conditions and the infants' feeding conditions. The children were measured (length, weight, and head circumference), and anthropometric measurements from 10 previous preventive examinations were obtained from the health records. Out of the collected 1775 questionnaires, 960 children were selected according to the criteria of the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study. For the purpose of this study, 799 children who were exclusively or predominantly breastfed for at least 6 months were selected. We found that the proportions of children who were classified as overweight (>90th percentile) or obese (>97th percentile) at 6, 12, and 18-month examinations were far below the proportions of the Czech references. An update of the Czech references and growth charts is highly recommended by GP pediatricians for the valid assessment of growth and nutritional status, including a screening of overweight and obesity in primary preventive health care.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gráficos de Crescimento , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção
17.
Int J Environ Health Res ; 29(1): 82-93, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198758

RESUMO

The study investigated the associations between the prevalence of the childhood respiratory diseases and the long-term exposure to air pollution in the burdened area of Moravian-Silesian Region in the Czech Republic. The health data were collected during 2014 in 7,239 children 5, 9, 13 and 17 years of age. Exposure to PM10 and NO2 in the residence addresses was based on dispersion models and GIS based traffic-related indicators. PM10 levels were positively associated with both lifetime (OR 1.35; 95%CI 1.09-1.67) and current (OR 1.32; 95%CI 1.05-1.67) allergic rhinitis; current asthma was associated negatively. The associations between traffic indicator and respiratory health were not found. On the other hand, marked positive associations were found between the respiratory diseases and symptom severity structured into ordinal variables, and PM10 and NO2. Modelled long-term exposure to air pollution was associated with childhood allergic rhinitis and deterioration of the respiratory symptoms.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Emissões de Veículos
18.
Environ Entomol ; 48(1): 80-87, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517647

RESUMO

Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), an invasive non-native species in central Europe, can outcompete other aphidophagous species. The distribution and abundance of H. axyridis vary depending on different host plants, and its effects on native coccinellid communities may change accordingly. The distribution and abundance of coccinellids in central Europe (50°N, 14°E) were investigated from 2010 to 2016. Coccinellids were counted at regular intervals on cereals (Avena, Hordeum, and Triticum), herbaceous plants (Matricaria and Urtica) and trees (Acer, Betula, and Tilia). Additionally, the occurrence over time of each species on these plants was assessed and used as an index of persistence. Across all years, the adults and larvae of H. axyridis were the dominant species of coccinellid on trees. However, H. axyridis was less abundant on herbaceous plants and cereals than on trees. Populations of native coccinellids and H. axyridis co-occurred on trees and persisted for the same length of time, while native coccinellids persisted longer than H. axyridis on herbaceous plants and cereals. Compared to 1976-1986, in the 2010s, the abundance of native species decreased on all plants by 50-70%. The presence of H. axyridis could be considered as a factor driving changes in the assemblages of native coccinellids.


Assuntos
Besouros , Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , República Tcheca , Dinâmica Populacional
19.
Ann Hum Biol ; 45(4): 299-313, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seasons affect many social, economic, and biological outcomes, particularly in low-resource settings, and some studies suggest that birth season affects child growth. AIM: To study a predictor of stunting that has received limited attention: birth season. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study uses cross-sectional data collected during 2008 in a low-resource society of horticulturists-foragers in the Bolivian Amazon, Tsimane'. It estimates the associations between birth months and height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) for 562 girls and 546 boys separately, from birth until age 11 years or pre-puberty, which in this society occurs ∼13-14 years. RESULTS: Children born during the rainy season (February-May) were shorter, while children born during the end of the dry season and the start of the rainy season (August-November) were taller, both compared with their age-sex peers born during the rest of the year. The correlations of birth season with HAZ were stronger for boys than for girls. Controlling for birth season, there is some evidence of eventual partial catch-up growth, with the HAZ of girls or boys worsening until ∼ age 4-5 years, but improving thereafter. By age 6 years, many girls and boys had ceased to be stunted, irrespective of birth season. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that redressing stunting will require attention to conditions in utero, infancy and late childhood.


Assuntos
Estatura , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Bolívia/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Parto , Puberdade , Estações do Ano
20.
Diabetes Ther ; 9(5): 1897-1906, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094784

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to determine the level of metabolic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in the Czech and Slovak Republics. METHODS: A non-interventional prospective (observational) study was conducted from January 2015 until April 2016 in routine clinical practice settings at 141 centers in the Czech and Slovak Republics. Data were analyzed from a total of 425 patients with T1DM and 1034 patients with T2DM, proportionally corresponding to the number of patients in both countries. The primary objective of the study was to determine the percentage of patients with HbA1c < 7% (53 mmol/mol). RESULTS: Patients with T1DM: In this group of patients (55.8% males, mean age 45.9 ± 14.83 years, BMI 25.8 ± 4.21 kg/m², diabetes duration 12.1 ± 9.44 years), 29.9% reached HbA1c levels < 53 mmol/mol. Patients with T2DM: In this group of patients (50.3% male, mean age 63.9 ± 9.65 years, BMI 31.0 ± 5.19 kg/m², diabetes duration 12.4 ± 7.47 years, duration of insulin therapy 5.8 ± 4.71 years), 33.4% reached HbA1c levels < 53 mmol/mol. CONCLUSION: The overall percentage of patients with HbA1c < 53 mmol/mol in the T1DM group was 29.9% and in the T2DM group was 33.4%. Despite an increasing number of treatment options, most patients still fail to reach the recommended HbA1c targets. FUNDING: Sanofi, Czech Republic.

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