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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although 20 pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry, much of its heritability remains unexplained and the genes responsible largely unknown. METHODS: To discover novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and possible causal genes, we performed a pancreatic cancer transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) in Europeans using three approaches, FUSION, MetaXcan and SMulTiXcan. We integrated GWAS summary statistics from 9,040 pancreatic cancer cases and 12,496 controls, with gene expression prediction models built using transcriptome data from histologically normal pancreatic tissue samples (NCI Laboratory of Translational Genomics, LTG (n = 95) and Genotype-Tissue Expression, GTEx v7 (n = 174) datasets), and data from 48 different tissues (GTEx v7, n = 74-421 samples). RESULTS: We identified 25 genes whose genetically predicted expression was statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk (FDR < 0.05), including 14 candidate genes at 11 novel loci (1p36.12: CELA3B; 9q31.1: SMC2, SMC2-AS1; 10q23.31: RP11-80H5.9; 12q13.13: SMUG1; 14q32.33: BTBD6; 15q23: HEXA; 15q26.1: RCCD1; 17q12:, PNMT, CDK12, PGAP3; 17q22: SUPT4H1; 18q11.22: RP11-888D10.3; and 19p13.11: PGPEP1) and 11 at 6 known risk loci (5p15.33: TERT, CLPTM1L, ZDHHC11B; 7p14.1: INHBA; 9q34.2: ABO; 13q12.2: PDX1; 13q22.1: KLF5; and 16q23.1: WDR59, CFDP1, BCAR1, TMEM170A). The association for 12 of these genes (CELA3B, SMC2, and PNMT at novel risk loci, and TERT, CLPTM1L, INHBA, ABO, PDX1, KLF5, WDR59, CFDP1 and BCAR1 at known loci) remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSIONS: By integrating gene expression and genotype data, we identified novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and candidate functional genes that warrant further investigation.

2.
Neurooncol Adv ; 1(1): vdz031, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807733

RESUMO

Background: Epidemiological studies of adult glioma have identified genetic and environmental risk factors, but much remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to evaluate anthropometric, disease-related, and prediagnostic immune-related factors for relationship with glioma risk. Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study among the intervention arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) Screening Trial. One hundred and twenty-four glioma cases were identified and each matched to four controls. Baseline characteristics were collected at enrollment and were evaluated for association with glioma status. Serum specimens were collected at yearly intervals and were analyzed for immune-related factors including TGF-ß1, TNF-α, total IgE, and allergen-specific IgE. Immune factors were evaluated at baseline in a multivariate conditional logistic regression model, along with one additional model that incorporated the latest available measurement. Results: A family history of glioma among first-degree relatives was associated with increased glioma risk (OR = 4.41, P = .002). In multivariate modeling of immune factors at baseline, increased respiratory allergen-specific IgE was inversely associated with glioma risk (OR for allergen-specific IgE > 0.35 PAU/L: 0.59, P = .03). A logistic regression model that incorporated the latest available measurements found a similar association for allergen-specific IgE (P = .005) and showed that elevated TGF-ß1 was associated with increased glioma risk (P-value for trend <.0001). Conclusion: The results from this prospective prediagnostic study suggest that several immune-related factors are associated with glioma risk. The association observed for TGF-ß1 when sampling closer to the time of diagnosis may reflect the nascent brain tumor's feedback on immune function.

3.
Blood Adv ; 3(19): 2790-2799, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570490

RESUMO

An elevated level of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been associated with tumor bulk and poor prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but the tumor-specific molecular alterations in cfDNA with prognostic significance remain unclear. We investigated the association between 5-hydroxymethylcytosines (5hmC), a mark of active demethylation and gene activation, in cfDNA from blood plasma and prognosis in newly diagnosed DLBCL patients. We used 5hmC-Seal, a highly sensitive chemical labeling technique, to profile genome-wide 5hmC in plasma cfDNA from 48 DLBCL patients at the University of Chicago Medical Center between 2010 and 2013. Patients were followed through 31 December 2017. We found a distinct genomic distribution of 5hmC in cfDNA marking tissue-specific enhancers, consistent with their putative roles in gene regulation. The 5hmC profiles in cfDNA differed by cell of origin and were associated with clinical prognostic factors, including stage and the International Prognostic Index. We developed a 29 gene-based weighted prognostic score (wp-score) for predicting event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) by applying the elastic net regularization on the Cox proportional-hazards model. The wp-scores outperformed (eg, prognostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity) established prognostic factors in predicting EFS and OS. In multivariate Cox models, patients with high wp-scores had worse EFS (hazard ratio, 9.17; 95% confidence interval, 2.01-41.89; P = .004) compared with those in the low-risk group. Our findings suggest that the 5hmC signatures in cfDNA at the time of diagnosis are associated with clinical outcomes and may provide a novel minimally invasive prognostic approach for DLBCL.

4.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(8): 889-900, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165419

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To conduct a pooled analysis assessing the association of blood transfusion with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). METHODS: We used harmonized data from 13 case-control studies (10,805 cases, 14,026 controls) in the InterLymph Consortium. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for study design variables. RESULTS: Among non-Hispanic whites (NHW), history of any transfusion was inversely associated with NHL risk for men (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.65-0.83) but not women (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.83-1.03), pheterogeneity = 0.014. Transfusion history was not associated with risk in other racial/ethnic groups. There was no trend with the number of transfusions, time since first transfusion, age at first transfusion, or decade of first transfusion, and further adjustment for socioeconomic status, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, and HCV seropositivity did not alter the results. Associations for NHW men were stronger in hospital-based (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.45-0.70) but still apparent in population-based (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.72-0.98) studies. CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of a literature reporting mainly null and some positive associations, and the lack of a clear methodologic explanation for our inverse association restricted to NHW men, the current body of evidence suggests that there is no association of blood transfusion with risk of NHL.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
Cancer ; 125(18): 3234-3241, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nivolumab demonstrated durable responses and safety in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with Child-Pugh class A cirrhosis in the CheckMate 040 trial, with rates of hepatotoxicity that were similar to those of non-HCC populations. To the authors' knowledge, the safety and efficacy of nivolumab has not been established in patients with Child-Pugh class B (CPB) cirrhosis, a population with limited therapeutic options and a poor prognosis. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective case series of patients with advanced HCC and CPB cirrhosis who were treated with nivolumab and enrolled in the University of California at San Francisco Hepatobiliary Tissue Bank and Registry. Safety endpoints included rates of grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs) (graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [version 4.03]) and serious AEs, immune-related AEs (irAE), steroid requirement, and discontinuation. Efficacy endpoints included time on treatment, the objective response rate according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1, overall survival, and progression-free survival. RESULTS: A total of 18 patients were included, with 72% of them (13 of 18 patients) previously treated with sorafenib. The majority of patients (94%; 17 of 18 patients) experienced a grade ≥3 AE, with treatment-related grade ≥3 AEs reported in 28% of patients (5 of 18 patients). irAEs were reported to occur in approximately 50% of patients (9 of 18 patients), and 28% (5 of 18 patients) required steroids. Treatment-related AEs required discontinuation in 4 patients (22%). The median time on treatment was 2.3 months (95% CI, 1.9 months to upper bound not estimable). The objective response rate was 17% (3 of 18 patients), including 2 partial responses and 1 complete response. The median overall survival from the time of nivolumab initiation was 5.9 months (95% CI, 3 months to upper bound not estimable), with a median progression-free survival of 1.6 months (95% CI, 1.4-3.5 months). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CPB HCC experienced high rates of AEs, although the frequency of irAEs was similar to that of patients with Child-Pugh class A HCC in the CheckMate 040 trial. A subset of patients experienced prolonged tumor responses. Nivolumab warrants further study in patients with CPB HCC.

7.
Neuro Oncol ; 21(4): 451-461, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Twenty-five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with adult diffuse glioma risk. We hypothesized that the inclusion of these 25 SNPs with age at diagnosis and sex could estimate risk of glioma as well as identify glioma subtypes. METHODS: Case-control design and multinomial logistic regression were used to develop models to estimate the risk of glioma development while accounting for histologic and molecular subtypes. Case-case design and logistic regression were used to develop models to predict isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status. A total of 1273 glioma cases and 443 controls from Mayo Clinic were used in the discovery set, and 852 glioma cases and 231 controls from UCSF were used in the validation set. All samples were genotyped using a custom Illumina OncoArray. RESULTS: Patients in the highest 5% of the risk score had more than a 14-fold increase in relative risk of developing an IDH mutant glioma. Large differences in lifetime absolute risk were observed at the extremes of the risk score percentile. For both IDH mutant 1p/19q non-codeleted glioma and IDH mutant 1p/19q codeleted glioma, the lifetime risk increased from almost null to 2.3% and almost null to 1.7%, respectively. The SNP-based model that predicted IDH mutation status had a validation concordance index of 0.85. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that germline genotyping can provide new tools for the initial management of newly discovered brain lesions. Given the low lifetime risk of glioma, risk scores will not be useful for population screening; however, they may be useful in certain clinically defined high-risk groups.

8.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(6): 557-567, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify associations of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with cancer risk but usually only explain a fraction of the inherited variability. Pathway analysis of genetic variants is a powerful tool to identify networks of susceptibility genes. METHODS: We conducted a large agnostic pathway-based meta-analysis of GWAS data using the summary-based adaptive rank truncated product method to identify gene sets and pathways associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in 9040 cases and 12 496 controls. We performed expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and functional annotation of the top SNPs in genes contributing to the top associated pathways and gene sets. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified 14 pathways and gene sets associated with PDAC at a false discovery rate of less than 0.05. After Bonferroni correction (P ≤ 1.3 × 10-5), the strongest associations were detected in five pathways and gene sets, including maturity-onset diabetes of the young, regulation of beta-cell development, role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transactivation by G protein-coupled receptors in cardiac hypertrophy pathways, and the Nikolsky breast cancer chr17q11-q21 amplicon and Pujana ATM Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) network gene sets. We identified and validated rs876493 and three correlating SNPs (PGAP3) and rs3124737 (CASP7) from the Pujana ATM PCC gene set as eQTLs in two normal derived pancreas tissue datasets. CONCLUSION: Our agnostic pathway and gene set analysis integrated with functional annotation and eQTL analysis provides insight into genes and pathways that may be biologically relevant for risk of PDAC, including those not previously identified.

9.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4182, 2018 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305637

RESUMO

Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM)/lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) is a rare, chronic B-cell lymphoma with high heritability. We conduct a two-stage genome-wide association study of WM/LPL in 530 unrelated cases and 4362 controls of European ancestry and identify two high-risk loci associated with WM/LPL at 6p25.3 (rs116446171, near EXOC2 and IRF4; OR = 21.14, 95% CI: 14.40-31.03, P = 1.36 × 10-54) and 14q32.13 (rs117410836, near TCL1; OR = 4.90, 95% CI: 3.45-6.96, P = 8.75 × 10-19). Both risk alleles are observed at a low frequency among controls (~2-3%) and occur in excess in affected cases within families. In silico data suggest that rs116446171 may have functional importance, and in functional studies, we demonstrate increased reporter transcription and proliferation in cells transduced with the 6p25.3 risk allele. Although further studies are needed to fully elucidate underlying biological mechanisms, together these loci explain 4% of the familial risk and provide insights into genetic susceptibility to this malignancy.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 14/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/genética , Sequência de Bases , Proliferação de Células , Família , Genes Reporter , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Padrões de Herança/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
10.
Surgery ; 164(6): 1178-1184, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant overtreatment of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms can be attributed to low specificity of the current International Consensus Guidelines as well as nonconformity with the guidelines. We compare the ability of the 2012 and revised 2017 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms International Consensus Guidelines to predict high-grade dysplasia/invasive cancer and to determine the preoperative variables that predict resection of benign or low-grade dysplasia in tertiary care centers. METHODS: Clinical, radiographic, and pathologic data for resected intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms at 3 high-volume National Cancer Institute Cancer Centers were reviewed and the 2012 and 2017 consensus criteria were retrospectively applied. When International Consensus Guidelines were not met, clinical decision analysis was used to determine the primary indication for resection. Logistic regression identified variables associated with pathologic grade. RESULTS: Records for a total of 251 patients were reviewed, 129 of whom (52%) had low-grade dysplasia. The revised 2017 International Consensus Guidelines had high sensitivity (98.4%) and negative predicted value (96.1%), and all high-risk stigmata predicted high-grade dysplasia/invasive cancer; however, specificity remained low (14.8%). Nonconformity with International Consensus Guidelines was the most powerful predictor of low-grade dysplasia on final pathologic examination (9.5; 2.12-40.78). Independent predictors of low-grade dysplasia included age younger than 50 (2.46; 1.08-5.62), fine-needle aspiration without epithelial cells (2.6; 1.43-4.72), and normal duct diameter (3.07; 1.99-4.75). Diabetes developed in 30% of patients after resection. CONCLUSION: Management of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms remains clinically challenging. Low specificity of the International Consensus Guidelines and nonconformity with the guidelines continue to contribute to unnecessary pancreatic resections. Improved tools for disease classification as well as a better understanding of the natural history, biology, and rates of progression of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are needed to avoid surgical overtreatment of low-grade intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms.


Assuntos
Sobremedicalização , Neoplasias Intraductais Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas/patologia , Neoplasias Intraductais Pancreáticas/patologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Environ Health ; 17(1): 43, 2018 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was the predominant leukemia in a recent study of Chornobyl cleanup workers from Ukraine exposed to radiation (UR-CLL). Radiation risks of CLL significantly increased with increasing bone marrow radiation doses. Current analysis aimed to clarify whether the increased risks were due to radiation or to genetic mutations in the Ukrainian population. METHODS: A detailed characterization of the genomic landscape was performed in a unique sample of 16 UR-CLL patients and age- and sex-matched unexposed general population Ukrainian-CLL (UN-CLL) and Western-CLL (W-CLL) patients (n = 28 and 100, respectively). RESULTS: Mutations in telomere-maintenance pathway genes POT1 and ATM were more frequent in UR-CLL compared to UN-CLL and W-CLL (both p < 0.05). No significant enrichment in copy-number abnormalities at del13q14, del11q, del17p or trisomy12 was identified in UR-CLL compared to other groups. Type of work performed in the Chornobyl zone, age at exposure and at diagnosis, calendar time, and Rai stage were significant predictors of total genetic lesions (all p < 0.05). Tumor telomere length was significantly longer in UR-CLL than in UN-CLL (p = 0.009) and was associated with the POT1 mutation and survival. CONCLUSIONS: No significant enrichment in copy-number abnormalities at CLL-associated genes was identified in UR-CLL compared to other groups. The novel associations between radiation exposure, telomere maintenance and CLL prognosis identified in this unique case series provide suggestive, though limited data and merit further investigation.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Chernobyl , Genoma Humano/efeitos da radiação , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Exposição à Radiação , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genômica , Humanos , Incidência , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Prevalência , Doses de Radiação , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Carcinogenesis ; 39(8): 1056-1067, 2018 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800239

RESUMO

Diets with high inflammatory potential are suspected to increase risk for pancreatic cancer (PC). Using pooled analyses, we examined whether this association applies to populations from different geographic regions and population subgroups with varying risks for PC, including variation in ABO blood type. Data from six case-control studies (cases, n = 2414; controls, n = 4528) in the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) were analyzed, followed by replication in five nested case-control studies (cases, n = 1268; controls, n = 4215) from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan). Two polymorphisms in the ABO locus (rs505922 and rs8176746) were used to infer participants' blood types. Dietary questionnaire-derived nutrient/food intake was used to compute energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII®) scores to assess inflammatory potential of diet. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression. Higher E-DII scores, reflecting greater inflammatory potential of diet, were associated with increased PC risk in PanC4 [ORQ5 versus Q1=2.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.85-2.61, Ptrend < 0.0001; ORcontinuous = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.17-1.24], and PanScan (ORQ5 versus Q1 = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.92-1.66, Ptrend = 0.008; ORcontinuous = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02-1.15). As expected, genotype-derived non-O blood type was associated with increased PC risk in both the PanC4 and PanScan studies. Stratified analyses of associations between E-DII quintiles and PC by genotype-derived ABO blood type did not show interaction by blood type (Pinteraction = 0.10 in PanC4 and Pinteraction=0.13 in PanScan). The results show that consuming a pro-inflammatory diet and carrying non-O blood type are each individually, but not interactively, associated with increased PC risk.


Assuntos
Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo ABO/genética , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Cancer Res ; 78(14): 4086-4096, 2018 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735552

RESUMO

A growing number of loci within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region have been implicated in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) etiology. Here, we test a complementary hypothesis of "heterozygote advantage" regarding the role of HLA and NHL, whereby HLA diversity is beneficial and homozygous HLA loci are associated with increased disease risk. HLA alleles at class I and II loci were imputed from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using SNP2HLA for 3,617 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), 2,686 follicular lymphomas (FL), 2,878 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphomas (CLL/SLL), 741 marginal zone lymphomas (MZL), and 8,753 controls of European descent. Both DLBCL and MZL risk were elevated with homozygosity at class I HLA-B and -C loci (OR DLBCL = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.06-1.60; OR MZL = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.12-1.89) and class II HLA-DRB1 locus (OR DLBCL = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.24-3.55; OR MZL = 2.10, 95% CI = 0.99-4.45). Increased FL risk was observed with the overall increase in number of homozygous HLA class II loci (P trend < 0.0001, FDR = 0.0005). These results support a role for HLA zygosity in NHL etiology and suggests that distinct immune pathways may underly the etiology of the different NHL subtypes.Significance: HLA gene diversity reduces risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer Res; 78(14); 4086-96. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Linfoma não Hodgkin/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Blood ; 131(23): 2541-2551, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29674426

RESUMO

Inherited loci have been found to be associated with risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). A combined polygenic risk score (PRS) of representative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from these loci may improve risk prediction over individual SNPs. Herein, we evaluated the association of a PRS with CLL risk and its precursor, monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). We assessed its validity and discriminative ability in an independent sample and evaluated effect modification and confounding by family history (FH) of hematological cancers. For discovery, we pooled genotype data on 41 representative SNPs from 1499 CLL and 2459 controls from the InterLymph Consortium. For validation, we used data from 1267 controls from Mayo Clinic and 201 CLL, 95 MBL, and 144 controls with a FH of CLL from the Genetic Epidemiology of CLL Consortium. We used odds ratios (ORs) to estimate disease associations with PRS and c-statistics to assess discriminatory accuracy. In InterLymph, the continuous PRS was strongly associated with CLL risk (OR, 2.49; P = 4.4 × 10-94). We replicated these findings in the Genetic Epidemiology of CLL Consortium and Mayo controls (OR, 3.02; P = 7.8 × 10-30) and observed high discrimination (c-statistic = 0.78). When jointly modeled with FH, PRS retained its significance, along with FH status. Finally, we found a highly significant association of the continuous PRS with MBL risk (OR, 2.81; P = 9.8 × 10-16). In conclusion, our validated PRS was strongly associated with CLL risk, adding information beyond FH. The PRS provides a means of identifying those individuals at greater risk for CLL as well as those at increased risk of MBL, a condition that has potential clinical impact beyond CLL.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Linfocitose/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/patologia , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/etiologia , Linfocitose/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 556, 2018 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422604

RESUMO

In 2020, 146,063 deaths due to pancreatic cancer are estimated to occur in Europe and the United States combined. To identify common susceptibility alleles, we performed the largest pancreatic cancer GWAS to date, including 9040 patients and 12,496 controls of European ancestry from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan) and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). Here, we find significant evidence of a novel association at rs78417682 (7p12/TNS3, P = 4.35 × 10-8). Replication of 10 promising signals in up to 2737 patients and 4752 controls from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium yields new genome-wide significant loci: rs13303010 at 1p36.33 (NOC2L, P = 8.36 × 10-14), rs2941471 at 8q21.11 (HNF4G, P = 6.60 × 10-10), rs4795218 at 17q12 (HNF1B, P = 1.32 × 10-8), and rs1517037 at 18q21.32 (GRP, P = 3.28 × 10-8). rs78417682 is not statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer in PANDoRA. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis in three independent pancreatic data sets provides molecular support of NOC2L as a pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fator 1-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Tensinas/genética
16.
J Neurooncol ; 136(1): 33-39, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965162

RESUMO

Immune cells of myeloid origin, including microglia, macrophages, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells adopt immunosuppressive phenotypes that support gliomagenesis. Here, we tested an a priori hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to glioma-associated myeloid cell regulation and function are also associated with patient survival after glioma diagnosis. Subjects for this study were 992 glioma patients treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas between 1992 and 2008. Haplotype-tagging SNPs in 91 myeloid-associated genes were analyzed for association with survival by Cox regression. Individual SNP- and gene-based tests were performed separately in glioblastoma (WHO grade IV, n = 511) and lower-grade glioma (WHO grade II-III, n = 481) groups. After adjustment for multiple testing, no myeloid-associated gene variants were significantly associated with survival in glioblastoma. Two SNPs, rs147960238 in CD163 (p = 2.2 × 10-5) and rs17138945 in MET (p = 5.6 × 10-5) were significantly associated with survival of patients with lower-grade glioma. However, these associations were not confirmed in an independent analysis of 563 lower-grade glioma cases from the University of California at San Francisco Adult Glioma Study (p = 0.65 and p = 0.41, respectively). The results of this study do not support a role for inherited polymorphisms in myeloid-associated genes in affecting survival of patients diagnosed with glioblastoma or lower-grade glioma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cancer J ; 23(6): 310-314, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189325

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim was to provide a cohesive overview of epidemiological studies of periodontal disease, oral microbiome profiles, and pancreatic cancer risk. DESIGN: A PubMed search of articles published in English through July 2017 with additional review of bibliographies of identified articles. RESULTS: Risk estimates for periodontal disease associated with pancreatic cancer consistently ranged from 1.5 to 2, aligning with a meta-analysis summary relative risk of 1.74. Analyses of antibodies to pathogenic and/or commensal oral bacteria in prediagnostic blood provided evidence that some oral bacteria and oral microbial diversity may be related to pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the data present a plausible but complex relationship among pancreatic cancer, the oral microbiome, periodontal disease, and other risk factors that might be explained by systemic effects on immune and inflammatory processes. Larger comprehensive studies that examine serially collected epidemiological/clinical data and blood, tissue, and various microbial samples are needed to definitively determine how and whether oral health-related factors contribute to pancreatic cancer risk.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Saúde Bucal , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etiologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Humanos , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/etiologia , Vigilância da População , Programa de SEER , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia , Perda de Dente/etiologia
18.
Lupus Sci Med ; 4(1): e000187, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214033

RESUMO

Objective: Determinants of the increased risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in SLE are unclear. Using data from a recent lymphoma genome-wide association study (GWAS), we assessed whether certain lupus-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also associated with DLBCL. Methods: GWAS data on European Caucasians from the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) provided a total of 3857 DLBCL cases and 7666 general-population controls. Data were pooled in a random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Among the 28 SLE-related SNPs investigated, the two most convincingly associated with risk of DLBCL included the CD40 SLE risk allele rs4810485 on chromosome 20q13 (OR per risk allele=1.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.16, p=0.0134), and the HLA SLE risk allele rs1270942 on chromosome 6p21.33 (OR per risk allele=1.17, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.36, p=0.0362). Of additional possible interest were rs2205960 and rs12537284. The rs2205960 SNP, related to a cytokine of the tumour necrosis factor superfamily TNFSF4, was associated with an OR per risk allele of 1.07, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.16, p=0.0549. The OR for the rs12537284 (chromosome 7q32, IRF5 gene) risk allele was 1.08, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.18, p=0.0765. Conclusions: These data suggest several plausible genetic links between DLBCL and SLE.

19.
Acta Neuropathol ; 133(6): 1001-1016, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28255664

RESUMO

The "integrated diagnosis" for infiltrating gliomas in the 2016 revised World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system requires assessment of the tumor for IDH mutations and 1p/19q codeletion. Since TERT promoter mutations and ATRX alterations have been shown to be associated with prognosis, we analyzed whether these tumor markers provide additional prognostic information within each of the five WHO 2016 categories. We used data for 1206 patients from the UCSF Adult Glioma Study, the Mayo Clinic and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) with infiltrative glioma, grades II-IV for whom tumor status for IDH, 1p/19q codeletion, ATRX, and TERT had been determined. All cases were assigned to one of 5 groups following the WHO 2016 diagnostic criteria based on their morphologic features, and IDH and 1p/19q codeletion status. These groups are: (1) Oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted; (2) Astrocytoma, IDH-mutant; (3) Glioblastoma, IDH-mutant; (4) Glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype; and (5) Astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype. Within each group, we used univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models to assess associations of overall survival with patient age at diagnosis, grade, and ATRX alteration status and/or TERT promoter mutation status. Among Group 1 IDH-mutant 1p/19q-codeleted oligodendrogliomas, the TERT-WT group had significantly worse overall survival than the TERT-MUT group (HR: 2.72, 95% CI 1.05-7.04, p = 0.04). In both Group 2, IDH-mutant astrocytomas and Group 3, IDH-mutant glioblastomas, neither TERT mutations nor ATRX alterations were significantly associated with survival. Among Group 4, IDH-wildtype glioblastomas, ATRX alterations were associated with favorable outcomes (HR: 0.36, 95% CI 0.17-0.81, p = 0.01). Among Group 5, IDH-wildtype astrocytomas, the TERT-WT group had significantly better overall survival than the TERT-MUT group (HR: 0.48, 95% CI 0.27-0.87), p = 0.02). Thus, we present evidence that in certain WHO 2016 diagnostic groups, testing for TERT promoter mutations or ATRX alterations may provide additional useful prognostic information.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Glioma/genética , Telomerase/genética , Proteína Nuclear Ligada ao X/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Feminino , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14175, 2017 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28165464

RESUMO

Several chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) susceptibility loci have been reported; however, much of the heritable risk remains unidentified. Here we perform a meta-analysis of six genome-wide association studies, imputed using a merged reference panel of 1,000 Genomes and UK10K data, totalling 6,200 cases and 17,598 controls after replication. We identify nine risk loci at 1p36.11 (rs34676223, P=5.04 × 10-13), 1q42.13 (rs41271473, P=1.06 × 10-10), 4q24 (rs71597109, P=1.37 × 10-10), 4q35.1 (rs57214277, P=3.69 × 10-8), 6p21.31 (rs3800461, P=1.97 × 10-8), 11q23.2 (rs61904987, P=2.64 × 10-11), 18q21.1 (rs1036935, P=3.27 × 10-8), 19p13.3 (rs7254272, P=4.67 × 10-8) and 22q13.33 (rs140522, P=2.70 × 10-9). These new and established risk loci map to areas of active chromatin and show an over-representation of transcription factor binding for the key determinants of B-cell development and immune response.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Adulto , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
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