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1.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 15, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a complex disease in which both non-genetic and genetic factors interplay. To date, 40 GWAS hits have been associated with PC risk in individuals of European descent, explaining 4.1% of the phenotypic variance. METHODS: We complemented a new conventional PC GWAS (1D) with genome spatial autocorrelation analysis (2D) permitting to prioritize low frequency variants not detected by GWAS. These were further expanded via Hi-C map (3D) interactions to gain additional insight into the inherited basis of PC. In silico functional analysis of public genomic information allowed prioritization of potentially relevant candidate variants. RESULTS: We identified several new variants located in genes for which there is experimental evidence of their implication in the biology and function of pancreatic acinar cells. Among them is a novel independent variant in NR5A2 (rs3790840) with a meta-analysis p value = 5.91E-06 in 1D approach and a Local Moran's Index (LMI) = 7.76 in 2D approach. We also identified a multi-hit region in CASC8-a lncRNA associated with pancreatic carcinogenesis-with a lowest p value = 6.91E-05. Importantly, two new PC loci were identified both by 2D and 3D approaches: SIAH3 (LMI = 18.24), CTRB2/BCAR1 (LMI = 6.03), in addition to a chromatin interacting region in XBP1-a major regulator of the ER stress and unfolded protein responses in acinar cells-identified by 3D; all of them with a strong in silico functional support. CONCLUSIONS: This multi-step strategy, combined with an in-depth in silico functional analysis, offers a comprehensive approach to advance the study of PC genetic susceptibility and could be applied to other diseases.

2.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574088

RESUMO

Germline variation and smoking are independently associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We conducted genome-wide smoking interaction analysis of PDAC using genotype data from four previous genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry (7,937 cases and 11,774 controls). Examination of expression quantitative trait loci data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project followed by colocalization analysis was conducted to determine if there was support for common SNP(s) underlying the observed associations. Statistical tests were two sided and P-values < 5 x 10-8 were considered statistically significant. Genome-wide significant evidence of qualitative interaction was identified on chr2q21.3 in intron 5 of the transmembrane protein 163 (TMEM163) and upstream of the cyclin T2 (CCNT2). The most significant SNP using the Empirical Bayes method, in this region which included 45 significantly associated SNPs, was rs1818613 (per allele OR in never smokers 0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.93; former smokers 1.00, 95 CI 0.91-1.07; current smokers 1.25, 95%CI 1.12-1.40, interaction P-value=3.08x10-9). Examination of the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project data demonstrated an expression quantitative trait locus in this region for TMEM163 and CCNT2 in several tissue types. Colocalization analysis supported a shared SNP, rs842357, in high LD with rs1818613 (r2=0. 94) driving both the observed interaction and the expression quantitative trait loci signals. Future studies are needed to confirm and understand the differential biologic mechanisms by smoking status that contribute to our PDAC findings.

3.
mBio ; 11(6)2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173008

RESUMO

Inflammation triggered by innate immunity promotes carcinogenesis in cancer. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a hyperproliferative and inflammatory tumor caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, is the most common cancer in AIDS patients. KSHV infection sensitizes cells to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). We examined the role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic bacterium that can affect AIDS patients, in inflammation and cell proliferation of KSHV-transformed cells. P. aeruginosa stimulation increased cell proliferation and efficiency of colony formation in soft agar of KSHV-transformed rat primary mesenchymal precursor (KMM) cells but had no significant effect on the untransformed (MM) cells. P. aeruginosa stimulation also increased cell proliferation of KSHV-infected human B cells, BJAB, but not the uninfected cells. Mechanistically, P. aeruginosa stimulation resulted in increased inflammatory cytokines and activation of p38, ERK1/2, and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in KMM cells while having no obvious effect on MM cells. P. aeruginosa induction of inflammation and MAPKs was observed with and without inhibition of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway, while a flagellin-deleted mutant of P. aeruginosa required a functional TLR4 pathway to induce inflammation and MAPKs. Furthermore, treatment with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or flagellin alone was sufficient to induce inflammatory cytokines, activate MAPKs, and increase cell proliferation and efficiency of colony formation in soft agar of KMM cells. These results demonstrate that both LPS and flagellin are PAMPs that contribute to P. aeruginosa induction of inflammation in KSHV-transformed cells. Because AIDS-KS patients are susceptible to P. aeruginosa infection, our work highlights the preventive and therapeutic potential of targeting P. aeruginosa infection in these patients.IMPORTANCE Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), caused by infection with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is one of the most common cancers in AIDS patients. KS is a highly inflammatory tumor, but how KSHV infection induces inflammation remains unclear. We have previously shown that KSHV infection upregulates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), sensitizing cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Escherichia coli In the current study, we examined the role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic bacterium that can affect AIDS patients, in inflammation and cell proliferation of KSHV-transformed cells. P. aeruginosa stimulation increased cell proliferation, inflammatory cytokines, and activation of growth and survival pathways in KSHV-transformed cells through two pathogen-associated molecular patterns, LPS and flagellin. Because AIDS-KS patients are susceptible to P. aeruginosa infection, our work highlights the preventive and therapeutic potential of targeting P. aeruginosa infection in these patients.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2735-2739, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are associated with pancreatic cancer risk is uncertain. Mendelian randomization (MR) represents a study design using genetic instruments to better characterize the relationship between exposure and outcome. METHODS: We utilized data from genome-wide association studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, involving approximately 9,269 cases and 12,530 controls of European descent, to evaluate associations between pancreatic cancer risk and genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels. Conventional MR analyses were performed using individual-level and summary-level data. RESULTS: Using genetic instruments, we did not find evidence of associations between genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels and pancreatic cancer risk [estimates per one SD increase in each PUFA-specific weighted genetic score using summary statistics: linoleic acid odds ratio (OR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-1.02; arachidonic acid OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.99-1.01; and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.87-1.02]. The OR estimates remained virtually unchanged after adjustment for covariates, using individual-level data or summary statistics, or stratification by age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that variations of genetically determined plasma n-6 PUFA levels are not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. IMPACT: These results suggest that modifying n-6 PUFA levels through food sources or supplementation may not influence risk of pancreatic cancer.

5.
Br J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901135

RESUMO

There are well-established disparities in cancer incidence and outcomes by race/ethnicity that result from the interplay between structural, socioeconomic, socio-environmental, behavioural and biological factors. However, large research studies designed to investigate factors contributing to cancer aetiology and progression have mainly focused on populations of European origin. The limitations in clinicopathological and genetic data, as well as the reduced availability of biospecimens from diverse populations, contribute to the knowledge gap and have the potential to widen cancer health disparities. In this review, we summarise reported disparities and associated factors in the United States of America (USA) for the most common cancers (breast, prostate, lung and colon), and for a subset of other cancers that highlight the complexity of disparities (gastric, liver, pancreas and leukaemia). We focus on populations commonly identified and referred to as racial/ethnic minorities in the USA-African Americans/Blacks, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders and Hispanics/Latinos. We conclude that even though substantial progress has been made in understanding the factors underlying cancer health disparities, marked inequities persist. Additional efforts are needed to include participants from diverse populations in the research of cancer aetiology, biology and treatment. Furthermore, to eliminate cancer health disparities, it will be necessary to facilitate access to, and utilisation of, health services to all individuals, and to address structural inequities, including racism, that disproportionally affect racial/ethnic minorities in the USA.

6.
Genet Epidemiol ; 44(8): 880-892, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779232

RESUMO

It is of great scientific interest to identify interactions between genetic variants and environmental exposures that may modify the risk of complex diseases. However, larger sample sizes are usually required to detect gene-by-environment interaction (G × E) than required to detect genetic main association effects. To boost the statistical power and improve the understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms, we incorporate functional genomics information, specifically, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), into a data-adaptive G × E test, called aGEw. This test adaptively chooses the best eQTL weights from multiple tissues and provides an extra layer of weighting at the genetic variant level. Extensive simulations show that the aGEw test can control the Type 1 error rate, and the power is resilient to the inclusion of neutral variants and noninformative external weights. We applied the proposed aGEw test to the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (discovery cohort of 3,585 cases and 3,482 controls) and the PanScan II genome-wide association study data (replication cohort of 2,021 cases and 2,105 controls) with smoking as the exposure of interest. Two novel putative smoking-related pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes, TRIP10 and KDM3A, were identified. The aGEw test is implemented in an R package aGE.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1784-1791, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and diabetes are major modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Interactions between genetic variants and diabetes/obesity have not previously been comprehensively investigated in pancreatic cancer at the genome-wide level. METHODS: We conducted a gene-environment interaction (GxE) analysis including 8,255 cases and 11,900 controls from four pancreatic cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets (Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium I-III and Pancreatic Cancer Case Control Consortium). Obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) and diabetes (duration ≥3 years) were the environmental variables of interest. Approximately 870,000 SNPs (minor allele frequency ≥0.005, genotyped in at least one dataset) were analyzed. Case-control (CC), case-only (CO), and joint-effect test methods were used for SNP-level GxE analysis. As a complementary approach, gene-based GxE analysis was also performed. Age, sex, study site, and principal components accounting for population substructure were included as covariates. Meta-analysis was applied to combine individual GWAS summary statistics. RESULTS: No genome-wide significant interactions (departures from a log-additive odds model) with diabetes or obesity were detected at the SNP level by the CC or CO approaches. The joint-effect test detected numerous genome-wide significant GxE signals in the GWAS main effects top hit regions, but the significance diminished after adjusting for the GWAS top hits. In the gene-based analysis, a significant interaction of diabetes with variants in the FAM63A (family with sequence similarity 63 member A) gene (significance threshold P < 1.25 × 10-6) was observed in the meta-analysis (P GxE = 1.2 ×10-6, P Joint = 4.2 ×10-7). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis did not find significant GxE interactions at the SNP level but found one significant interaction with diabetes at the gene level. A larger sample size might unveil additional genetic factors via GxE scans. IMPACT: This study may contribute to discovering the mechanism of diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer.

8.
Neuro Oncol ; 22(11): 1602-1613, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Twenty-five germline variants are associated with adult diffuse glioma, and some of these variants have been shown to be associated with particular subtypes of glioma. We hypothesized that additional germline variants could be identified if a genome-wide association study (GWAS) were performed by molecular subtype. METHODS: A total of 1320 glioma cases and 1889 controls were used in the discovery set and 799 glioma cases and 808 controls in the validation set. Glioma cases were classified into molecular subtypes based on combinations of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutation, and 1p/19q codeletion. Logistic regression was applied to the discovery and validation sets to test for associations of variants with each of the subtypes. A meta-analysis was subsequently performed using a genome-wide P-value threshold of 5 × 10-8. RESULTS: Nine variants in or near D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D2HGDH) on chromosome 2 were genome-wide significant in IDH-mutated glioma (most significant was rs5839764, meta P = 2.82 × 10-10). Further stratifying by 1p/19q codeletion status, one variant in D2HGDH was genome-wide significant in IDH-mutated non-codeleted glioma (rs1106639, meta P = 4.96 × 10-8). Further stratifying by TERT mutation, one variant near FAM20C (family with sequence similarity 20, member C) on chromosome 7 was genome-wide significant in gliomas that have IDH mutation, TERT mutation, and 1p/19q codeletion (rs111976262, meta P = 9.56 × 10-9). Thirty-six variants in or near GMEB2 on chromosome 20 near regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 (RTEL1) were genome-wide significant in IDH wild-type glioma (most significant was rs4809313, meta P = 2.60 × 10-10). CONCLUSIONS: Performing a GWAS by molecular subtype identified 2 new regions and a candidate independent region near RTEL1, which were associated with specific glioma molecular subtypes.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 1074-1078, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipid traits have been inconsistently linked to risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We examined the association of genetically predicted lipid traits with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) using Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. METHODS: Genome-wide association study data from the InterLymph Consortium were available for 2,661 DLBCLs, 2,179 CLLs, 2,142 FLs, 824 MZLs, and 6,221 controls. SNPs associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with high-density lipoprotein (HDL, n = 164), low-density lipoprotein (LDL, n = 137), total cholesterol (TC, n = 161), and triglycerides (TG, n = 123) were used as instrumental variables (IV), explaining 14.6%, 27.7%, 16.8%, and 12.8% of phenotypic variation, respectively. Associations between each lipid trait and NHL subtype were calculated using the MR inverse variance-weighted method, estimating odds ratios (OR) per standard deviation and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: HDL was positively associated with DLBCL (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.30) and MZL (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.18), while TG was inversely associated with MZL risk (OR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99), all at nominal significance (P < 0.05). A positive trend was observed for HDL with FL risk (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.99-1.19; P = 0.087). No associations were noteworthy after adjusting for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence of a clear or strong association of these lipid traits with the most common NHL subtypes. While these IVs have been previously linked to other cancers, our findings do not support any causal associations with these NHL subtypes. IMPACT: Our results suggest that prior reported inverse associations of lipid traits are not likely to be causal and could represent reverse causality or confounding.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(10): 1003-1012, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although 20 pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry, much of its heritability remains unexplained and the genes responsible largely unknown. METHODS: To discover novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and possible causal genes, we performed a pancreatic cancer transcriptome-wide association study in Europeans using three approaches: FUSION, MetaXcan, and Summary-MulTiXcan. We integrated genome-wide association studies summary statistics from 9040 pancreatic cancer cases and 12 496 controls, with gene expression prediction models built using transcriptome data from histologically normal pancreatic tissue samples (NCI Laboratory of Translational Genomics [n = 95] and Genotype-Tissue Expression v7 [n = 174] datasets) and data from 48 different tissues (Genotype-Tissue Expression v7, n = 74-421 samples). RESULTS: We identified 25 genes whose genetically predicted expression was statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk (false discovery rate < .05), including 14 candidate genes at 11 novel loci (1p36.12: CELA3B; 9q31.1: SMC2, SMC2-AS1; 10q23.31: RP11-80H5.9; 12q13.13: SMUG1; 14q32.33: BTBD6; 15q23: HEXA; 15q26.1: RCCD1; 17q12: PNMT, CDK12, PGAP3; 17q22: SUPT4H1; 18q11.22: RP11-888D10.3; and 19p13.11: PGPEP1) and 11 at six known risk loci (5p15.33: TERT, CLPTM1L, ZDHHC11B; 7p14.1: INHBA; 9q34.2: ABO; 13q12.2: PDX1; 13q22.1: KLF5; and 16q23.1: WDR59, CFDP1, BCAR1, TMEM170A). The association for 12 of these genes (CELA3B, SMC2, and PNMT at novel risk loci and TERT, CLPTM1L, INHBA, ABO, PDX1, KLF5, WDR59, CFDP1, and BCAR1 at known loci) remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSIONS: By integrating gene expression and genotype data, we identified novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and candidate functional genes that warrant further investigation.

11.
Neurooncol Adv ; 1(1): vdz031, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807733

RESUMO

Background: Epidemiological studies of adult glioma have identified genetic and environmental risk factors, but much remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to evaluate anthropometric, disease-related, and prediagnostic immune-related factors for relationship with glioma risk. Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study among the intervention arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) Screening Trial. One hundred and twenty-four glioma cases were identified and each matched to four controls. Baseline characteristics were collected at enrollment and were evaluated for association with glioma status. Serum specimens were collected at yearly intervals and were analyzed for immune-related factors including TGF-ß1, TNF-α, total IgE, and allergen-specific IgE. Immune factors were evaluated at baseline in a multivariate conditional logistic regression model, along with one additional model that incorporated the latest available measurement. Results: A family history of glioma among first-degree relatives was associated with increased glioma risk (OR = 4.41, P = .002). In multivariate modeling of immune factors at baseline, increased respiratory allergen-specific IgE was inversely associated with glioma risk (OR for allergen-specific IgE > 0.35 PAU/L: 0.59, P = .03). A logistic regression model that incorporated the latest available measurements found a similar association for allergen-specific IgE (P = .005) and showed that elevated TGF-ß1 was associated with increased glioma risk (P-value for trend <.0001). Conclusion: The results from this prospective prediagnostic study suggest that several immune-related factors are associated with glioma risk. The association observed for TGF-ß1 when sampling closer to the time of diagnosis may reflect the nascent brain tumor's feedback on immune function.

12.
Blood Adv ; 3(19): 2790-2799, 2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570490

RESUMO

An elevated level of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been associated with tumor bulk and poor prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but the tumor-specific molecular alterations in cfDNA with prognostic significance remain unclear. We investigated the association between 5-hydroxymethylcytosines (5hmC), a mark of active demethylation and gene activation, in cfDNA from blood plasma and prognosis in newly diagnosed DLBCL patients. We used 5hmC-Seal, a highly sensitive chemical labeling technique, to profile genome-wide 5hmC in plasma cfDNA from 48 DLBCL patients at the University of Chicago Medical Center between 2010 and 2013. Patients were followed through 31 December 2017. We found a distinct genomic distribution of 5hmC in cfDNA marking tissue-specific enhancers, consistent with their putative roles in gene regulation. The 5hmC profiles in cfDNA differed by cell of origin and were associated with clinical prognostic factors, including stage and the International Prognostic Index. We developed a 29 gene-based weighted prognostic score (wp-score) for predicting event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) by applying the elastic net regularization on the Cox proportional-hazards model. The wp-scores outperformed (eg, prognostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity) established prognostic factors in predicting EFS and OS. In multivariate Cox models, patients with high wp-scores had worse EFS (hazard ratio, 9.17; 95% confidence interval, 2.01-41.89; P = .004) compared with those in the low-risk group. Our findings suggest that the 5hmC signatures in cfDNA at the time of diagnosis are associated with clinical outcomes and may provide a novel minimally invasive prognostic approach for DLBCL.


Assuntos
5-Metilcitosina/análogos & derivados , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/metabolismo , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , 5-Metilcitosina/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cancer ; 125(18): 3234-3241, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nivolumab demonstrated durable responses and safety in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with Child-Pugh class A cirrhosis in the CheckMate 040 trial, with rates of hepatotoxicity that were similar to those of non-HCC populations. To the authors' knowledge, the safety and efficacy of nivolumab has not been established in patients with Child-Pugh class B (CPB) cirrhosis, a population with limited therapeutic options and a poor prognosis. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective case series of patients with advanced HCC and CPB cirrhosis who were treated with nivolumab and enrolled in the University of California at San Francisco Hepatobiliary Tissue Bank and Registry. Safety endpoints included rates of grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs) (graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [version 4.03]) and serious AEs, immune-related AEs (irAE), steroid requirement, and discontinuation. Efficacy endpoints included time on treatment, the objective response rate according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1, overall survival, and progression-free survival. RESULTS: A total of 18 patients were included, with 72% of them (13 of 18 patients) previously treated with sorafenib. The majority of patients (94%; 17 of 18 patients) experienced a grade ≥3 AE, with treatment-related grade ≥3 AEs reported in 28% of patients (5 of 18 patients). irAEs were reported to occur in approximately 50% of patients (9 of 18 patients), and 28% (5 of 18 patients) required steroids. Treatment-related AEs required discontinuation in 4 patients (22%). The median time on treatment was 2.3 months (95% CI, 1.9 months to upper bound not estimable). The objective response rate was 17% (3 of 18 patients), including 2 partial responses and 1 complete response. The median overall survival from the time of nivolumab initiation was 5.9 months (95% CI, 3 months to upper bound not estimable), with a median progression-free survival of 1.6 months (95% CI, 1.4-3.5 months). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CPB HCC experienced high rates of AEs, although the frequency of irAEs was similar to that of patients with Child-Pugh class A HCC in the CheckMate 040 trial. A subset of patients experienced prolonged tumor responses. Nivolumab warrants further study in patients with CPB HCC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/complicações , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Erupção por Droga/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Musculoesquelética/induzido quimicamente , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Prurido/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(8): 889-900, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165419

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To conduct a pooled analysis assessing the association of blood transfusion with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). METHODS: We used harmonized data from 13 case-control studies (10,805 cases, 14,026 controls) in the InterLymph Consortium. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for study design variables. RESULTS: Among non-Hispanic whites (NHW), history of any transfusion was inversely associated with NHL risk for men (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.65-0.83) but not women (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.83-1.03), pheterogeneity = 0.014. Transfusion history was not associated with risk in other racial/ethnic groups. There was no trend with the number of transfusions, time since first transfusion, age at first transfusion, or decade of first transfusion, and further adjustment for socioeconomic status, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, and HCV seropositivity did not alter the results. Associations for NHW men were stronger in hospital-based (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.45-0.70) but still apparent in population-based (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.72-0.98) studies. CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of a literature reporting mainly null and some positive associations, and the lack of a clear methodologic explanation for our inverse association restricted to NHW men, the current body of evidence suggests that there is no association of blood transfusion with risk of NHL.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Neuro Oncol ; 21(4): 451-461, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Twenty-five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with adult diffuse glioma risk. We hypothesized that the inclusion of these 25 SNPs with age at diagnosis and sex could estimate risk of glioma as well as identify glioma subtypes. METHODS: Case-control design and multinomial logistic regression were used to develop models to estimate the risk of glioma development while accounting for histologic and molecular subtypes. Case-case design and logistic regression were used to develop models to predict isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status. A total of 1273 glioma cases and 443 controls from Mayo Clinic were used in the discovery set, and 852 glioma cases and 231 controls from UCSF were used in the validation set. All samples were genotyped using a custom Illumina OncoArray. RESULTS: Patients in the highest 5% of the risk score had more than a 14-fold increase in relative risk of developing an IDH mutant glioma. Large differences in lifetime absolute risk were observed at the extremes of the risk score percentile. For both IDH mutant 1p/19q non-codeleted glioma and IDH mutant 1p/19q codeleted glioma, the lifetime risk increased from almost null to 2.3% and almost null to 1.7%, respectively. The SNP-based model that predicted IDH mutation status had a validation concordance index of 0.85. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that germline genotyping can provide new tools for the initial management of newly discovered brain lesions. Given the low lifetime risk of glioma, risk scores will not be useful for population screening; however, they may be useful in certain clinically defined high-risk groups.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Glioma/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/classificação , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Glioma/classificação , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Front Oncol ; 9: 1539, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064237

RESUMO

Although the evidence is not consistent, epidemiologic studies have suggested that taller adult height may be associated with an increased risk of some non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes. Height is largely determined by genetic factors, but how these genetic factors may contribute to NHL risk is unknown. We investigated the relationship between genetic determinants of height and NHL risk using data from eight genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising 10,629 NHL cases, including 3,857 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 2,847 follicular lymphoma (FL), 3,100 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and 825 marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) cases, and 9,505 controls of European ancestry. We evaluated genetically predicted height by constructing polygenic risk scores using 833 height-associated SNPs. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for association between genetically determined height and the risk of four NHL subtypes in each GWAS and then used fixed-effect meta-analysis to combine subtype results across studies. We found suggestive evidence between taller genetically determined height and increased CLL risk (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00-1.17, p = 0.049), which was slightly stronger among women (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.31, p = 0.036). No significant associations were observed with DLBCL, FL, or MZL. Our findings suggest that there may be some shared genetic factors between CLL and height, but other endogenous or environmental factors may underlie reported epidemiologic height associations with other subtypes.

18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(6): 557-567, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify associations of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with cancer risk but usually only explain a fraction of the inherited variability. Pathway analysis of genetic variants is a powerful tool to identify networks of susceptibility genes. METHODS: We conducted a large agnostic pathway-based meta-analysis of GWAS data using the summary-based adaptive rank truncated product method to identify gene sets and pathways associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in 9040 cases and 12 496 controls. We performed expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and functional annotation of the top SNPs in genes contributing to the top associated pathways and gene sets. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified 14 pathways and gene sets associated with PDAC at a false discovery rate of less than 0.05. After Bonferroni correction (P ≤ 1.3 × 10-5), the strongest associations were detected in five pathways and gene sets, including maturity-onset diabetes of the young, regulation of beta-cell development, role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transactivation by G protein-coupled receptors in cardiac hypertrophy pathways, and the Nikolsky breast cancer chr17q11-q21 amplicon and Pujana ATM Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) network gene sets. We identified and validated rs876493 and three correlating SNPs (PGAP3) and rs3124737 (CASP7) from the Pujana ATM PCC gene set as eQTLs in two normal derived pancreas tissue datasets. CONCLUSION: Our agnostic pathway and gene set analysis integrated with functional annotation and eQTL analysis provides insight into genes and pathways that may be biologically relevant for risk of PDAC, including those not previously identified.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4182, 2018 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305637

RESUMO

Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM)/lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) is a rare, chronic B-cell lymphoma with high heritability. We conduct a two-stage genome-wide association study of WM/LPL in 530 unrelated cases and 4362 controls of European ancestry and identify two high-risk loci associated with WM/LPL at 6p25.3 (rs116446171, near EXOC2 and IRF4; OR = 21.14, 95% CI: 14.40-31.03, P = 1.36 × 10-54) and 14q32.13 (rs117410836, near TCL1; OR = 4.90, 95% CI: 3.45-6.96, P = 8.75 × 10-19). Both risk alleles are observed at a low frequency among controls (~2-3%) and occur in excess in affected cases within families. In silico data suggest that rs116446171 may have functional importance, and in functional studies, we demonstrate increased reporter transcription and proliferation in cells transduced with the 6p25.3 risk allele. Although further studies are needed to fully elucidate underlying biological mechanisms, together these loci explain 4% of the familial risk and provide insights into genetic susceptibility to this malignancy.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 14/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/genética , Sequência de Bases , Proliferação de Células , Família , Genes Reporter , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Padrões de Herança/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
20.
Surgery ; 164(6): 1178-1184, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant overtreatment of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms can be attributed to low specificity of the current International Consensus Guidelines as well as nonconformity with the guidelines. We compare the ability of the 2012 and revised 2017 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms International Consensus Guidelines to predict high-grade dysplasia/invasive cancer and to determine the preoperative variables that predict resection of benign or low-grade dysplasia in tertiary care centers. METHODS: Clinical, radiographic, and pathologic data for resected intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms at 3 high-volume National Cancer Institute Cancer Centers were reviewed and the 2012 and 2017 consensus criteria were retrospectively applied. When International Consensus Guidelines were not met, clinical decision analysis was used to determine the primary indication for resection. Logistic regression identified variables associated with pathologic grade. RESULTS: Records for a total of 251 patients were reviewed, 129 of whom (52%) had low-grade dysplasia. The revised 2017 International Consensus Guidelines had high sensitivity (98.4%) and negative predicted value (96.1%), and all high-risk stigmata predicted high-grade dysplasia/invasive cancer; however, specificity remained low (14.8%). Nonconformity with International Consensus Guidelines was the most powerful predictor of low-grade dysplasia on final pathologic examination (9.5; 2.12-40.78). Independent predictors of low-grade dysplasia included age younger than 50 (2.46; 1.08-5.62), fine-needle aspiration without epithelial cells (2.6; 1.43-4.72), and normal duct diameter (3.07; 1.99-4.75). Diabetes developed in 30% of patients after resection. CONCLUSION: Management of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms remains clinically challenging. Low specificity of the International Consensus Guidelines and nonconformity with the guidelines continue to contribute to unnecessary pancreatic resections. Improved tools for disease classification as well as a better understanding of the natural history, biology, and rates of progression of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are needed to avoid surgical overtreatment of low-grade intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms.


Assuntos
Sobremedicalização , Neoplasias Intraductais Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas/patologia , Neoplasias Intraductais Pancreáticas/patologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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