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1.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 138, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be associated with breast cancer risk, but previous studies of the association are equivocal and limited by incomplete blinding of BPE assessment. In this study, we evaluated the association between BPE and breast cancer based on fully blinded assessments of BPE in the unaffected breast. METHODS: The Imaging and Epidemiology (IMAGINE) study is a multicenter breast cancer case-control study of women receiving diagnostic, screening, or follow-up breast MRI, recruited from three comprehensive cancer centers in the USA. Cases had a first diagnosis of unilateral breast cancer and controls had no history of or current breast cancer. A single board-certified breast radiologist with 12 years' experience, blinded to case-control status and clinical information, assessed the unaffected breast for BPE without view of the affected breast of cases (or the corresponding breast laterality of controls). The association between BPE and breast cancer was estimated by multivariable logistic regression separately for premenopausal and postmenopausal women. RESULTS: The analytic dataset included 835 cases and 963 controls. Adjusting for fibroglandular tissue (breast density), age, race/ethnicity, BMI, parity, family history of breast cancer, BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations, and other confounders, moderate/marked BPE (vs minimal/mild BPE) was associated with breast cancer among premenopausal women [odds ratio (OR) 1.49, 95% CI 1.05-2.11; p = 0.02]. Among postmenopausal women, mild/moderate/marked vs minimal BPE had a similar, but statistically non-significant, association with breast cancer (OR 1.45, 95% CI 0.92-2.27; p = 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: BPE is associated with breast cancer in premenopausal women, and possibly postmenopausal women, after adjustment for breast density and confounders. Our results suggest that BPE should be evaluated alongside breast density for inclusion in models predicting breast cancer risk.

2.
JCO Oncol Pract ; : OP2000454, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095694

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The learning health care system (LHS) was designed to enable real-time learning and research by harnessing data generated during patients' clinical encounters. This novel approach begets ethical questions regarding the oversight of users and uses of patient data. Understanding patients' perspectives is vitally important. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted democratic deliberation sessions focused on CancerLinQ, a real-world LHS. Experts presented educational content, and then small group discussions were held to elicit viewpoints. The deliberations centered around whether policies should permit or deny certain users and uses of secondary data. De-identified transcripts of the discussions were examined by using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Analysis identified two thematic clusters: expectations and concerns, which seemed to inform LHS governance recommendations. Participants expected to benefit from the LHS through the advancement of medical knowledge, which they hoped would improve treatments and the quality of their care. They were concerned that profit-driven users might manipulate the data in ways that could burden or exploit patients, hinder medical decisions, or compromise patient-provider communication. It was recommended that restricted access, user fees, and penalties should be imposed to prevent users, especially for-profit entities, from misusing data. Another suggestion was that patients should be notified of potential ethical issues and included on diverse, unbiased governing boards. CONCLUSION: If patients are to trust and support LHS endeavors, their concerns about for-profit users must be addressed. The ethical implementation of such systems should consist of patient representation on governing boards, transparency, and strict oversight of for-profit users.

3.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128063

RESUMO

Earlier pubertal development is only partially explained by childhood body mass index (BMI); the role of other factors like childhood infections is less understood. Using data from the LEGACY Girls Study (2011 - 2016), we prospectively examined the associations between childhood viral infections (Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV1), HSV2 and pubertal timing. We measured exposures based on seropositivity in pre-menarcheal girls (n=490). Breast and pubic hair development were classified based on mother-reported Tanner Stage (TS: TS2+ compared with TS1), adjusting for age, BMI, and sociodemographic factors. The average age at first blood draw was 9.8 years (Stdev=1.9 years). The prevalences were 31% CMV+, 37% EBV+, 14% HSV1+, 0.4% HSV2+, and 16% for both CMV+/EBV+. CMV+ infection without co-infection was associated with developing breasts an average of 7 months earlier (Hazard Ratio (HR)=2.12, 95% CI 1.32, 3.40). CMV+ infection without co-infection and HSV1+ and/or HSV2+ infection were associated with developing pubic hair 9 months later (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24, 0.71, HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.22, 0.81, respectively). Infection was not associated with menarche. If replicated in larger cohorts with blood collection prior to any breast development, this study supports that childhood infections may play a role in altering pubertal timing.

4.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057572

RESUMO

Stressful environments have been associated with earlier menarche. We hypothesized that anxiety, and possibly other internalizing symptoms, are also associated with earlier puberty in girls. The LEGACY Girls Study (2011-2016) includes 1040 girls aged 6 to 13 years at recruitment with growth and development assessed every 6 months. Pre-pubertal maternal reports of daughter's internalizing symptoms were available for breast onset (N=447), pubic hair onset (N=456), and menarche (N=681). Using Cox Proportional Hazard Regression, we estimated prospective hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relationship between one standard deviation of the percentiles of pre-pubertal anxiety, depression, and somatization symptoms and the timing of each pubertal outcome. Multivariable models included age, race/ethnicity, study center, maternal education, body mass index percentile, and breast cancer family history. Additional models included maternal self-reported anxiety. One standard deviation increase of maternally-reported anxiety in girls at baseline was associated with earlier subsequent onset of breast (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.09-1.36) and pubic hair (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01-1.30) development, but not menarche (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.83-1.07). The association of anxiety with earlier breast development persisted after adjustment for maternal anxiety. Increased anxiety in young girls may indicate risk for earlier pubertal onset.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with breast cancer have a 4%-16% lifetime risk of a second primary cancer. Whether mutations in genes other than BRCA1/2 are enriched in patients with breast and another primary cancer over those with a single breast cancer (S-BC) is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified pathogenic germline mutations in 17 cancer susceptibility genes in patients with BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer in 2 different cohorts: cohort 1, high-risk breast cancer program (multiple primary breast cancer [MP-BC], n = 551; S-BC, n = 449) and cohort 2, familial breast cancer research study (MP-BC, n = 340; S-BC, n = 1,464). Mutation rates in these 2 cohorts were compared with a control data set (Exome Aggregation Consortium [ExAC]). RESULTS: Overall, pathogenic mutation rates for autosomal, dominantly inherited genes were higher in patients with MP-BC versus S-BC in both cohorts (8.5% v 4.9% [P = .02] and 7.1% v 4.2% [P = .03]). There were differences in individual gene mutation rates between cohorts. In both cohorts, younger age at first breast cancer was associated with higher mutation rates; the age of non-breast cancers was unrelated to mutation rate. TP53 and MSH6 mutations were significantly enriched in patients with MP-BC but not S-BC, whereas ATM and PALB2 mutations were significantly enriched in both groups compared with ExAC. CONCLUSION: Mutation rates are at least 7% in all patients with BRCA1/2 mutation-negative MP-BC, regardless of age at diagnosis of breast cancer, with mutation rates up to 25% in patients with a first breast cancer diagnosed at age < 30 years. Our results suggest that all patients with breast cancer with a second primary cancer, regardless of age of onset, should undergo multigene panel testing.

6.
Genet Med ; 22(10): 1653-1666, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665703

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. METHODS: Retrospective cohort data on 18,935 BRCA1 and 12,339 BRCA2 female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort. RESULTS: The ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25-1.33], P = 3×10-72). For BRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27-1.36], P = 7×10-50). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk for BRCA1 (HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25-1.40], P = 3×10-22) and BRCA2 (HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30-1.60], P = 4×10-12) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar. CONCLUSION: Population-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks for BRCA1/2 carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.

7.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 222, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exome and genome sequencing are routinely used in clinical care and research. These technologies allow for the detection of pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in clinically actionable genes. However, fueled in part by a lack of empirical evidence, controversy surrounds the provision of genetic results for adult-onset conditions to minors and their parents. We have designed a mixed-methods, longitudinal cohort study to collect empirical evidence to advance this debate. METHODS: Pediatric participants in the Geisinger MyCode® Community Health Initiative with available exome sequence data will have their variant files assessed for pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in 60 genes designated as actionable by MyCode. Eight of these genes are associated with adult-onset conditions (Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (HBOC), Lynch syndrome, MUTYH-associated polyposis, HFE-Associated Hereditary Hemochromatosis), while the remaining genes have pediatric onset. Prior to clinical confirmation of results, pediatric MyCode participants and their parents/legal guardians will be categorized into three study groups: 1) those with an apparent pathogenic/likely pathogenic variant in a gene associated with adult-onset disease, 2) those with an apparent pathogenic/likely pathogenic variant in a gene associated with pediatric-onset disease or with risk reduction interventions that begin in childhood, and 3) those with no apparent genomic result who are sex- and age-matched to Groups 1 and 2. Validated and published quantitative measures, semi-structured interviews, and a review of electronic health record data conducted over a 12-month period following disclosure of results will allow for comparison of psychosocial and behavioral outcomes among parents of minors (ages 0-17) and adolescents (ages 11-17) in each group. DISCUSSION: These data will provide guidance about the risks and benefits of informing minors and their family members about clinically actionable, adult-onset genetic conditions and, in turn, help to ensure these patients receive care that promotes physical and psychosocial health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03832985. Registered 6 February 2019.

8.
Genet Med ; 22(8): 1401-1406, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376981

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To better understand the longitudinal risks and benefits of telephone disclosure of genetic test results in the era of multigene panel testing. METHODS: Adults who were proceeding with germline cancer genetic testing were randomized to telephone disclosure (TD) with a genetic counselor or in-person disclosure (IPD) (i.e., usual care) of test results. All participants who received TD were recommended to return to meet with a physician to discuss medical management recommendations. RESULTS: Four hundred seventy-three participants were randomized to TD and 497 to IPD. There were no differences between arms for any cognitive, affective, or behavioral outcomes at 6 and 12 months. Only 50% of participants in the TD arm returned for the medical follow-up appointment. Returning was associated with site (p < 0.0001), being female (p = 0.047), and not having a true negative result (p < 0.002). Mammography was lower at 12 months among those who had TD and did not return for medical follow-up (70%) compared with those who had TD and returned (86%) and those who had IPD (87%, adjusted p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Telephone disclosure of genetic test results is a reasonable alternative to in-person disclosure, but attention to medical follow-up may remain important for optimizing appropriate use of genetic results.

9.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 16(9): e977-e990, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352881

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The expansion of learning health care systems (LHSs) promises to bolster research and quality improvement endeavors. Stewards of patient data have a duty to respect the preferences of the patients from whom, and for whom, these data are being collected and consolidated. METHODS: We conducted democratic deliberations with a diverse sample of 217 patients treated at 4 sites to assess views about LHSs, using the example of CancerLinQ, a real-world LHS, to stimulate discussion. In small group discussions, participants deliberated about different policies for how to provide information and to seek consent regarding the inclusion of patient data. These discussions were recorded, transcribed, and de-identified for thematic analysis. RESULTS: Of participants, 67% were female, 61% were non-Hispanic Whites, and the mean age was 60 years. Patients' opinions about sharing their data illuminated 2 spectra: trust/distrust and individualism/collectivism. Positions on these spectra influenced the weight placed on 3 priorities: promoting societal altruism, ensuring respect for persons, and protecting themselves. In turn, consideration of these priorities seemed to inform preferences regarding patient choices and system transparency. Most advocated for a policy whereby patients would receive notification and have the opportunity to opt out of including their medical records in the LHS. Participants reasoned that such a policy would balance personal protections and societal welfare. CONCLUSION: System transparency and patient choice are vital if patients are to feel respected and to trust LHS endeavors. Those responsible for LHS implementation should ensure that all patients receive an explanation of their options, together with standardized, understandable, comprehensive materials.

10.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 19: 1534735420922610, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448019

RESUMO

Background: Women diagnosed as having a high risk for breast cancer (HR-BC) often seek different health behaviors (HBs) such as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), diet, and exercise to improve their health and cancer outcome. Methods: Women already enrolled in a multimodality screening study for patients at HR-BC (gene mutation carrier or >20% cumulative lifetime risk) were given a questionnaire to evaluate their use of CAM therapies, diet, and exercise before and after a diagnosis of HR-BC. Patients were also asked to complete the Short-Form 36, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory. Results: A total of 134 (67%) subjects completed the survey from the original cohort. General characteristics included a median age of 46 years (range = 24-73 years), majority were White (91%), BRCA1/2 gene mutation carrier (49%), and prior diagnosis of breast and/or ovarian cancer (30%). Almost all of the patients reported a lifetime prevalence of any HB (97%) and CAM utilization (91%). Subjects also had a high lifetime utilization of exercise (83%), herbs and supplements(72%), and diet programs (58%). All of these HBs declined in utilization after diagnosis of HR-BC by as much as 30%. After diagnosis of a HR-BC, a personal history of breast and/or ovarian cancer was significantly correlated with increased use of CAM (odds ratio [OR] = 5.9, P < .01), herbs and supplements (OR = 4.3, P < .01), and diet program (OR = 4.4, P < .01) in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: HBs such as CAM, diet, and exercise are highly prevalent among women with HR-BC, and the utilization of HB decreases significantly after diagnosis of HR-BC.

11.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(1): 181-188, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246378

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline mutations in TP53, have an over 50% risk of developing breast cancer by age 70. Patients with LFS are at risk for radiation-induced malignancies; however, only small case series have prior investigated radiation risks in the treatment of breast cancer. We therefore aimed to investigate the risk of malignancy in breast cancer patients with LFS following adjuvant radiotherapy. METHODS: A single-institution retrospective chart review was conducted for female breast cancer patients with confirmed germline TP53 mutation. The frequency of radiation-induced malignancies in LFS patients was compared to non-LFS breast cancer cases reported in the Penn Medicine Cancer Registry via statistical analyses. RESULTS: We identified 51 female LFS breast cancer patients with 74 primary diagnoses. Fifty-seven% had a history of breast cancer only, and 25% had breast cancer as their presenting diagnosis of LFS. LFS-associated breast cancers were predominantly invasive ductal carcinoma (48%) and HER2+ (58%). Twenty patients underwent adjuvant radiotherapy with a median follow-up of 12.5 (2-20) years. Of 18 patients who received radiation in a curative setting, one (6%) patient developed thyroid cancer, and one (6%) patient developed sarcoma in the radiation field. This risk for radiation-induced malignancy associated with LFS was higher for both sarcoma and thyroid cancer in comparison with the control cohort. CONCLUSIONS: We found a lower risk of radiation-induced secondary malignancies in LFS breast cancer patients than previously reported in the literature (33% risk of radiation-induced sarcoma). These findings suggest that LFS may not be an absolute contraindication for radiotherapy in breast cancer. The potential risk for locoregional recurrence without radiotherapy must be weighed against the long-term risk for radiation-induced malignancies in consideration of adjuvant radiotherapy for LFS breast cancer patients.

12.
Clin Genet ; 97(4): 601-609, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022897

RESUMO

Although multigene panel testing (MGPT) is increasingly utilized in clinical practice, there remain limited data on patient-reported outcomes. BRCA 1/2 negative patients were contacted and offered MGPT. Patients completed pre- and posttest counseling, and surveys assessing cognitive, affective and behavioral outcomes at baseline, postdisclosure and 6 and 12 months. Of 317 eligible BRCA1/2 negative patients who discussed the study with research staff, 249 (79%) enrolled. Decliners were more likely to be older, non-White, and recruited by mail or email. Ninety-five percent of enrolled patients proceeded with MGPT. There were no significant changes in anxiety, depression, cancer specific distress or uncertainty postdisclosure. There were significant but small increases in knowledge, cancer-specific distress and depression at 6-12 months. Uncertainty declined over time. Those with a VUS had significant decreases in uncertainty but also small increases in cancer specific distress at 6 and 12 months. Among those with a positive result, medical management recommendations changed in 26% of cases and 2.6% of all tested. Most BRCA1/2 negative patients have favorable psychosocial outcomes after receipt of MGPT results, although small increases in depression and cancer-specific worry may exist and may vary by result. Medical management changed in few patients.

14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(2): e014708, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959034

RESUMO

Background We examined the longitudinal associations between changes in cardiovascular biomarkers and cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD) in patients with breast cancer treated with cardotoxic cancer therapy. Methods and Results Repeated measures of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), myeloperoxidase, placental growth factor, and growth differentiation factor 15 were assessed longitudinally in a prospective cohort of 323 patients treated with anthracyclines and/or trastuzumab followed over a maximum of 3.7 years with serial echocardiograms. CTRCD was defined as a ≥10% decline in left ventricular ejection fraction to a value <50%. Associations between changes in biomarkers and left ventricular ejection fraction were evaluated in repeated-measures linear regression models. Cox regression models assessed the associations between biomarkers and CTRCD. Early increases in all biomarkers occurred with anthracycline-based regimens. hs-cTnT levels >14 ng/L at anthracycline completion were associated with a 2-fold increased CTRCD risk (hazard ratio, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.00-4.06). There was a modest association between changes in NT-proBNP and left ventricular ejection fraction in the overall cohort; this was most pronounced with sequential anthracycline and trastuzumab (1.1% left ventricular ejection fraction decline [95% CI, -1.8 to -0.4] with each NT-proBNP doubling). Increases in NT-proBNP were also associated with CTRCD (hazard ratio per doubling, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.32-1.84). Increases in myeloperoxidase were associated with CTRCD in patients who received sequential anthracycline and trastuzumab (hazard ratio per doubling, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.04-1.58). Conclusions Cardiovascular biomarkers may play an important role in CTRCD risk prediction in patients with breast cancer who receive cardiotoxic cancer therapy, particularly in those treated with sequential anthracycline and trastuzumab therapy. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01173341.

15.
Cancer Res ; 80(3): 624-638, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723001

RESUMO

Pathogenic sequence variants (PSV) in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) are associated with increased risk and severity of prostate cancer. We evaluated whether PSVs in BRCA1/2 were associated with risk of overall prostate cancer or high grade (Gleason 8+) prostate cancer using an international sample of 65 BRCA1 and 171 BRCA2 male PSV carriers with prostate cancer, and 3,388 BRCA1 and 2,880 BRCA2 male PSV carriers without prostate cancer. PSVs in the 3' region of BRCA2 (c.7914+) were significantly associated with elevated risk of prostate cancer compared with reference bin c.1001-c.7913 [HR = 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-2.52; P = 0.001], as well as elevated risk of Gleason 8+ prostate cancer (HR = 3.11; 95% CI, 1.63-5.95; P = 0.001). c.756-c.1000 was also associated with elevated prostate cancer risk (HR = 2.83; 95% CI, 1.71-4.68; P = 0.00004) and elevated risk of Gleason 8+ prostate cancer (HR = 4.95; 95% CI, 2.12-11.54; P = 0.0002). No genotype-phenotype associations were detected for PSVs in BRCA1. These results demonstrate that specific BRCA2 PSVs may be associated with elevated risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: Aggressive prostate cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers may vary according to the specific BRCA2 mutation inherited by the at-risk individual.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica/métodos , Mutação , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Associação Genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(34): 3203-3211, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577472

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We sought to generate informed and considered opinions regarding acceptable secondary uses of deidentified health information and consent models for oncology learning health care systems. METHODS: Day-long democratic deliberation sessions included 217 patients with cancer at four geographically and sociodemographically diverse sites. Patients completed three surveys (at baseline, immediately after deliberation, and 1-month follow-up). RESULTS: Participants were 67.3% female, 21.7% black, and 6.0% Hispanic. The most notable changes in perceptions after deliberation related to use of deidentified medical-record data by insurance companies. After discussion, 72.3% of participants felt comfortable if the purpose was to make sure patients receive recommended care (v 79.5% at baseline; P = .03); 24.9% felt comfortable if the purpose was to determine eligibility for coverage or reimbursement (v 50.9% at baseline; P < .001). The most notable change about secondary research use related to believing it was important that doctors ask patients at least once whether researchers can use deidentified medical-records data for future research. The proportion endorsing high importance decreased from baseline (82.2%) to 68.7% immediately after discussion (P < .001), and remained decreased at 73.1% (P = .01) at follow-up. At follow-up, non-Hispanic whites were more likely to consider it highly important to be able to conduct medical research with deidentified electronic health records (96.8% v 87.7%; P = .01) and less likely to consider it highly important for doctors to get a patient's permission each time deidentified medical record information is used for research (23.2% v 51.6%; P < .001). CONCLUSION: This research confirms that most patients wish to be asked before deidentified medical records are used for research. Policies designed to realize the potential benefits of learning health care systems can, and should be, grounded in informed and considered public opinion.


Assuntos
Anonimização de Dados , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Sistema de Aprendizagem em Saúde , Oncologia , Preferência do Paciente , Pacientes/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Formulação de Políticas , Estados Unidos
18.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(9): e898, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While there is increasing interest in sharing genetic research results with participants, how best to communicate the risks, benefits and limitations of research results remains unclear. METHODS: Participants who received genetic research results answered open and closed-ended questions about their experiences receiving results and interest in and advantages and disadvantages of a web-based alternative to genetic counseling. RESULTS: 107 BRCA1/2 negative women with a personal or family history of breast cancer consented to receive genetic research results and 82% completed survey items about their experience. Most participants reported there was nothing they disliked (74%) or would change (85%) about their predisclosure or disclosure session (78% and 89%). They most frequently reported liking the genetic counselor and learning new information. Only 24% and 26% would not be willing to complete predisclosure counseling or disclosure of results by a web-based alternative, respectively. The most frequently reported advantages included convenience and reduced time. Disadvantages included not being able to ask questions, the risk of misunderstanding and the impersonal nature of the encounter. CONCLUSION: Most participants receiving genetic research results report high satisfaction with telephone genetic counseling, but some may be willing to consider self-directed web alternatives for both predisclosure genetic education and return of results.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Aconselhamento Genético , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Satisfação do Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.


Assuntos
Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
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