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1.
Malar J ; 20(1): 169, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) is associated with increased post-treatment gametocyte carriage. The effect of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) with SP and AQ on gametocyte carriage was assessed in asymptomatic P. falciparum infected children. METHODS: The study was carried out in eastern Gambia. Asymptomatic P. falciparum malaria infected children aged 24-59 months old who were eligible to receive SMC (SMC group) and children 5-8 years that were not eligible to receive SMC (comparison group) were recruited. Gametocytaemia was determined by molecular methods before and after SMC administration. Gametocyte carriage between the groups was compared using the chi-squared test and within-person using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: During the 2017 and 2018 malaria transmission seasons, 65 and 75 children were recruited in the SMC and comparison groups, respectively. Before SMC administration, gametocyte prevalence was 10.7% (7/65) in the SMC group and 13.3% (10/75) in the comparison group (p = 0.64). At day 13 (IQR 12, 13) after SMC administration, this was 9.4% (5/53) in children who received at least the first dose of SMC treatment and 12.7% (9/71) for those in the comparison group (p = 0.57). Similarly, there was no difference in prevalence of gametocytes between children that adhered to all 3-day doses of SMC treatment 15.6% (5/32) and those in the comparison group (p = 0.68). In the SMC group, within-group gametocyte carriage was similar before and after SMC administration in children that received at least the first dose of SMC treatment (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.14-2.51; p = 0.48) and in those that adhered to all 3-day doses of SMC treatment (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.20-4.95; p = 1.0). CONCLUSION: In this study with relative low gametocyte prevalence prior to SMC treatment, no evidence was observed that SMC treatment increased gametocyte carriage in asymptomatic P. falciparum malaria infected children.

2.
Malar J ; 20(1): 171, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) wear out and are disposed, some household members are prioritized to use remaining ITNs. This study assessed how nets are allocated within households to individuals of different age categories as ITNs are lost or damaged and as new ITNs are obtained. The study also explored how ITN allocation affects ITN durability. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey and ITN durability study was conducted among 2,875 households across Tanzania to determine the proportion of nets that remain protective (serviceable) 22 months after net distribution aiming for universal coverage. Allocation of study nets within houses, and re-allocation of ITNs when new universal replacement campaign (URC) nets arrived in study households in Musoma District, was also assessed. RESULTS: Some 57.0% (95% CI 53.9-60.1%) of households had sufficient ITNs for every household member, while 84.4% (95% CI 82.4-86.4%) of the population had access to an ITN within their household (assuming 1 net covers every 2 members). In households with sufficient nets, 77.5% of members slept under ITNs. In households without sufficient nets, pregnant women (54.6%), children < 5 years (45.8%) and adults (42.1%) were prioritized, with fewer school-age children 5-14 years (35.9%), youths 15-24 years (28.1%) and seniors > 65 years (32.6%) sleeping under ITNs. Crowding ([Formula: see text] 3 people sleeping under nets) was twice as common among people residing in houses without sufficient nets for all age groups, apart from children < 5. Nets were less likely to be serviceable if: [Formula: see text] 3 people slept under them (OR 0.50 (95% CI 0.40-0.63)), or if nets were used by school-age children (OR 0.72 (95% CI 0.56-0.93)), or if the net product was Olyset®. One month after the URC, only 23.6% (95% CI 16.7-30.6%) of the population had access to a URC ITN in Musoma district. Householders in Musoma district continued the use of old ITNs even with the arrival of new URC nets. CONCLUSION: Users determined the useful life of ITNs and prioritized pregnant women and children < 5 to serviceable ITNs. When household net access declines, users adjust by crowding under remaining nets, which further reduces ITN lifespan. School-age children that commonly harbour gametocytes that mediate malaria transmission are compelled to sleep under unserviceable nets, crowd under nets or remain uncovered. However, they were accommodated by the arrival of new nets. More frequent ITN delivery through the school net programme in combination with mass distribution campaigns is essential to maximize ITN effectiveness.

3.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(4): 317-323, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections with Gram-positive bacteria, including acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), are common in children. We describe a single-dose pharmacokinetics and safety study of tedizolid phosphate, a new oxazolidinone under investigation for the treatment of ABSSSIs in children, in hospitalized participants 2 to <12 years of age. METHODS: This open-label, multicenter, phase 1 trial (NCT02750761) enrolled hospitalized children 2 to <12 years of age receiving treatment for a confirmed/suspected Gram-positive bacterial infection. Participants were stratified by age (2 to <6 years and 6 to <12 years) to receive a single oral or intravenous dose of tedizolid phosphate. Evaluations included safety and pharmacokinetics of tedizolid phosphate and its active metabolite, tedizolid. Palatability of the oral suspension was also evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-two participants were enrolled and received 3-6 mg/kg of study medication. For both routes of administration, tedizolid phosphate was rapidly converted to tedizolid; median time to maximum tedizolid plasma concentration was 1-2 hours after initiation of the 1-hour intravenous infusion and 2-3 hours after oral dosing. The tedizolid mean terminal half-life was 5-6 hours and 6-7 hours for the intravenous and oral administration groups, respectively. The oral tedizolid phosphate suspension demonstrated high bioavailability comparable to that of the parenteral administration. A single dose of intravenous or oral tedizolid phosphate was well tolerated; no unexpected safety findings were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacokinetic and safety observations provide the information necessary for the continued development of tedizolid phosphate for the treatment of Gram-positive infections in children, particularly ABSSSIs.

4.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(4): 356-358, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710980

RESUMO

Metagenomic next-generation sequencing is a promising tool for detecting pathogens that are difficult to isolate by traditional modalities, particularly in the diagnosis of complex infections in immunocompromised children. We describe a child with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and chronic abdominal pain diagnosed with a multiorganism infection (Helicobacter cinaedi, Campylobacter coli and Parainfluenza) identified by various diagnostic tools, including plasma metagenomic next-generation sequencing.

5.
Nature ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706364

RESUMO

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is uncontrolled in many parts of the world; control is compounded in some areas by the higher transmission potential of the B.1.1.7 variant1, which has now been reported in 94 countries. It is unclear whether the response of the virus to vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 on the basis of the prototypic strain will be affected by the mutations found in B.1.1.7. Here we assess the immune responses of individuals after vaccination with the mRNA-based vaccine BNT162b22. We measured neutralizing antibody responses after the first and second immunizations using pseudoviruses that expressed the wild-type spike protein or a mutated spike protein that contained the eight amino acid changes found in the B.1.1.7 variant. The sera from individuals who received the vaccine exhibited a broad range of neutralizing titres against the wild-type pseudoviruses that were modestly reduced against the B.1.1.7 variant. This reduction was also evident in sera from some patients who had recovered from COVID-19. Decreased neutralization of the B.1.1.7 variant was also observed for monoclonal antibodies that target the N-terminal domain (9 out of 10) and the receptor-binding motif (5 out of 31), but not for monoclonal antibodies that recognize the receptor-binding domain that bind outside the receptor-binding motif. Introduction of the mutation that encodes the E484K substitution in the B.1.1.7 background to reflect a newly emerged variant of concern (VOC 202102/02) led to a more-substantial loss of neutralizing activity by vaccine-elicited antibodies and monoclonal antibodies (19 out of 31) compared with the loss of neutralizing activity conferred by the mutations in B.1.1.7 alone. The emergence of the E484K substitution in a B.1.1.7 background represents a threat to the efficacy of the BNT162b2 vaccine.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764403

RESUMO

In an effort to expedite the publication of articles related to the COVID-19 pandemic, AJHP is posting these manuscripts online as soon as possible after acceptance. Accepted manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and copyedited, but are posted online before technical formatting and author proofing. These manuscripts are not the final version of record and will be replaced with the final article (formatted per AJHP style and proofed by the authors) at a later time.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526481

RESUMO

Augmented renal clearance (ARC) can occur in critically ill pediatric patients receiving aminoglycosides such as gentamicin and tobramycin, yet optimal dosing strategies for ARC are undefined. We evaluated the probability of achieving efficacious or toxic exposures in pediatrics. Parallel population modeling of concentration strategies were pursued using Pmetrics v1.5.2 (nonparametric) and Monolix v2019R2 (parametric). Bayesian exposures were used to classify ARC based on total clearance (CL). The effects of serum creatinine (SCR), creatinine clearance (CRCL), total body weight (TBW), postnatal age (PNA), and ARC were explored as covariates. The probabilities of target attainment (PTA) (i.e., maximum concentration [C max]/MIC, area under the concentration-time curve [AUC]/MIC) and of toxic exposure (PTE) (i.e., minimum concentration [C min] > 2 µg/ml) were calculated according to PNA and ARC. A total of 123 patients (1 to 21 years old, 56% female) contributed 304 concentrations. A two-compartment model was superior to a one-compartment model in both approaches. Bayesian posterior predicted concentrations from the nonparametric base model fit the data well (R 2 = 0.96) and classified 34 patients as having ARC (28%). Both the nonparametric and parametric approaches resulted in allometrically scaling of TBW on volume (V) and clearance (CL). ARC modified CL and central V. CRCL and a maturation function modified CL. ARC was associated with a 1.49- versus 1.66-fold increase in CL and a 1.56- versus 1.66-fold increase in the central V (nonparametric versus parametric). A high dose of 12 mg/kg of body weight/day was required to achieve adequate PTA when MICs were 1 to 2 µg/ml; ARC lowered achievable MICs. When PNA was <2 years, PTE was increased. Aminoglycoside monotherapy should be avoided in critically ill pediatric patients with ARC when MICs exceed 1 µg/ml, as optimal exposures are unachievable with standard dosing.

8.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; : 1-10, 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554692

RESUMO

Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), remains a significant pathogen in children. Despite evidence of decreasing prevalence, MRSA bacteremia has been closely associated with complications, including certain infections (i.e. musculoskeletal and endovascular) linked to increased treatment failures. Areas covered: This expert review summarized recent published literature on the role of treatment, dosing and administration of antibiotics used to combat serious S. aureus infections in children. The pertinent antibiotics presented were vancomycin, oxazolidinones, semi-synthetic glycopeptides, daptomycin, tigecycline, novel cephalosporins, fosfomycin and lefamulin. Vancomycin has been the most commonly used antibiotic in empiric therapy for serious MRSA infection, with new key recommendations emphasizing a different approach to dosing and therapeutic monitoring. For other antibiotics, data remain limited or clinical trials are underway. Expert opinion: MRSA remains a significant pathogen in the pediatric population. As numerous therapeutic agents are available, many agents have limited data on usage in pediatric patients. Future studies require pharmacokinetic, safety and efficacy studies in pediatric patients to ensure appropriate therapeutic treatment and outcomes. Phage therapy has been used to treat deep-seated MRSA infections and is an emerging investigational treatment option.

9.
Nature ; 592(7853): 277-282, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545711

RESUMO

The spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical for virus infection through the engagement of the human ACE2 protein1 and is a major antibody target. Here we show that chronic infection with SARS-CoV-2 leads to viral evolution and reduced sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies in an immunosuppressed individual treated with convalescent plasma, by generating whole-genome ultra-deep sequences for 23 time points that span 101 days and using in vitro techniques to characterize the mutations revealed by sequencing. There was little change in the overall structure of the viral population after two courses of remdesivir during the first 57 days. However, after convalescent plasma therapy, we observed large, dynamic shifts in the viral population, with the emergence of a dominant viral strain that contained a substitution (D796H) in the S2 subunit and a deletion (ΔH69/ΔV70) in the S1 N-terminal domain of the spike protein. As passively transferred serum antibodies diminished, viruses with the escape genotype were reduced in frequency, before returning during a final, unsuccessful course of convalescent plasma treatment. In vitro, the spike double mutant bearing both ΔH69/ΔV70 and D796H conferred modestly decreased sensitivity to convalescent plasma, while maintaining infectivity levels that were similar to the wild-type virus.The spike substitution mutant D796H appeared to be the main contributor to the decreased susceptibility to neutralizing antibodies, but this mutation resulted in an infectivity defect. The spike deletion mutant ΔH69/ΔV70 had a twofold higher level of infectivity than wild-type SARS-CoV-2, possibly compensating for the reduced infectivity of the D796H mutation. These data reveal strong selection on SARS-CoV-2 during convalescent plasma therapy, which is associated with the emergence of viral variants that show evidence of reduced susceptibility to neutralizing antibodies in immunosuppressed individuals.

11.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(3): 238-244, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tedizolid phosphate is an oxazolidinone prodrug approved in 2014 for treatment of adults with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs); however, efficacy has not previously been evaluated in children. This study compared the safety and efficacy of tedizolid (administered as tedizolid phosphate) with active antibacterial comparators for the treatment of ABSSSIs in adolescents. METHODS: This was a randomized, assessor-blind, global phase 3 study of tedizolid versus active comparators for the treatment of Gram-positive ABSSSIs in adolescents (12 to <18 years of age; NCT02276482). Enrolled participants were stratified by region and randomized 3:1 to receive tedizolid phosphate 200 mg (oral and/or intravenous) once daily for 6 days or active comparator, selected by investigator from an allowed list per local standard of care, for 10 days. The primary endpoint was safety; blinded investigator's assessment of clinical success at the test-of-cure visit (18-25 days after the first dose) was a secondary efficacy endpoint. Statistical comparisons between treatment groups were not performed. RESULTS: Of the 121 participants enrolled, 120 were treated (tedizolid, n = 91; comparator, n = 29). Treatment-emergent adverse events were balanced between treatment groups (tedizolid, 14.3%; comparator, 10.3%). Overall, 3 participants (3.3%) in the tedizolid group and 1 (3.4%) in the comparator group experienced a single drug-related TEAE. Clinical success rates were high in both treatment groups: 96.7% and 93.1% at the test-of-cure visit for the tedizolid and comparator groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Tedizolid demonstrated safety and efficacy similar to comparators for the treatment of ABSSSIs in adolescents.

12.
Med Leg J ; 89(1): 54-57, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496206

RESUMO

In 1999, the Irish Government commissioned a report into the abuse of children who were in the care of facilities managed and run under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Church in the Irish Republic in the 1940s and 1950s. It reported in 2009. A Redress Board was set up to investigate and compensate claimants who were abused physically and mentally as children when living in these facilities. The Board sat for 16 years. In total, 16,650 applications were processed with awards worth €970 million. Of these, 1069 applications were withdrawn, refused or had a nil award. This report on work of the Commission and the Board derives from the histories given and the expert assessment of 19 claimants for compensation. Their ages ranged between 47 and 72 years at the time of the expert's assessment.

13.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1818): 20190807, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357055

RESUMO

Vector-borne diseases threaten the health of populations around the world. While key interventions continue to provide protection from vectors, there remains a need to develop and test new vector control tools. Cluster-randomized trials, in which the intervention or control is randomly allocated to clusters, are commonly selected for such evaluations, but their design must carefully consider cluster size and cluster separation, as well as the movement of people and vectors, to ensure sufficient statistical power and avoid contamination of results. Island settings present an opportunity to conduct these studies. Here, we explore the benefits and challenges of conducting intervention studies on islands and introduce the Bijagós archipelago of Guinea-Bissau as a potential study site for interventions intended to control vector-borne diseases. This article is part of the theme issue 'Novel control strategies for mosquito-borne diseases'.

14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6385, 2020 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318491

RESUMO

The response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been hampered by lack of an effective severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antiviral therapy. Here we report the use of remdesivir in a patient with COVID-19 and the prototypic genetic antibody deficiency X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA). Despite evidence of complement activation and a robust T cell response, the patient developed persistent SARS-CoV-2 pneumonitis, without progressing to multi-organ involvement. This unusual clinical course is consistent with a contribution of antibodies to both viral clearance and progression to severe disease. In the absence of these confounders, we take an experimental medicine approach to examine the in vivo utility of remdesivir. Over two independent courses of treatment, we observe a temporally correlated clinical and virological response, leading to clinical resolution and viral clearance, with no evidence of acquired drug resistance. We therefore provide evidence for the antiviral efficacy of remdesivir in vivo, and its potential benefit in selected patients.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , /efeitos dos fármacos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Febre/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , /fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(11): e20904, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With a decline in malaria burden, innovative interventions and tools are required to reduce malaria transmission further. Mass drug administration (MDA) of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been identified as a potential tool to further reduce malaria transmission, where coverage of vector control interventions is already high. However, the impact is limited in time. Combining an ACT with an endectocide treatment that is able to reduce vector survival, such as ivermectin (IVM), could increase the impact of MDA and offer a new tool to reduce malaria transmission. OBJECTIVE: The study objective is to evaluate the impact of MDA with IVM plus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) on malaria transmission in an area with high coverage of malaria control interventions. METHODS: The study is a cluster randomized trial in the Upper River Region of The Gambia and included 32 villages (16 control and 16 intervention). A buffer zone of ~2 km was created around all intervention clusters. MDA with IVM plus DP was implemented in all intervention villages and the buffer zones; control villages received standard malaria interventions according to the Gambian National Malaria Control Program plans. RESULTS: The MDA campaigns were carried out from August to October 2018 for the first year and from July to September 2019 for the second year. Statistical analysis will commence once the database is completed, cleaned, and locked. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first cluster randomized clinical trial of MDA with IVM plus DP. The results will provide evidence on the impact of MDA with IVM plus DP on malaria transmission. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03576313; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03576313. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/20904.

17.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052351

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the urgent need for effective preventive vaccination to reduce burden and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in humans. Intranasal vaccination is an attractive strategy to prevent COVID-19 as the nasal mucosa represents the first-line barrier to SARS-CoV-2 entry before viral spread to the lung. Although SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development is rapidly progressing, the current intramuscular vaccines are designed to elicit systemic immunity without conferring mucosal immunity. Here, we show that AdCOVID, an intranasal adenovirus type 5 (Ad5)-vectored vaccine encoding the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, elicits a strong and focused immune response against RBD through the induction of mucosal IgA, serum neutralizing antibodies and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with a Th1-like cytokine expression profile. Therefore, AdCOVID, which promotes concomitant systemic and local mucosal immunity, represents a promising COVID-19 vaccine candidate.

18.
Wellcome Open Res ; 5: 140, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33088923

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is compromising our ability to successfully treat infections. There are few data on gram-negative AMR prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa especially from the outpatient setting. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of and underlying molecular mechanisms for AMR in gram-negative bacilli causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Zimbabwe. Risk factors for AMR and how AMR impacts on clinical outcomes will also be investigated. Adults presenting with UTI symptoms at primary health clinics in Harare will be included. A questionnaire will be administered, and urine samples will be collected for culture. Participants with positive urine cultures will be followed up at 7-14 days post-enrolment. All participants will also be followed by telephone at 28 days to determine clinical outcomes. Bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing will be performed on positive cultures. The results from this study will be used to inform policy and development of treatment recommendations. Whole genome sequencing results will provide a better understanding of the prevalent resistance genes in Zimbabwe, of the spread of successful clones, and potentially will contribute to developing strategies to tackle AMR.

19.
Cell Rep Med ; 1(6): 100099, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905045

RESUMO

Rapid COVID-19 diagnosis in the hospital is essential, although this is complicated by 30%-50% of nose/throat swabs being negative by SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). Furthermore, the D614G spike mutant dominates the pandemic and it is unclear how serological tests designed to detect anti-spike antibodies perform against this variant. We assess the diagnostic accuracy of combined rapid antibody point of care (POC) and nucleic acid assays for suspected COVID-19 disease due to either wild-type or the D614G spike mutant SARS-CoV-2. The overall detection rate for COVID-19 is 79.2% (95% CI 57.8-92.9) by rapid NAAT alone. The combined point of care antibody test and rapid NAAT is not affected by D614G and results in very high sensitivity for COVID-19 diagnosis with very high specificity.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964934

RESUMO

Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) often manifests as gonococcal arthritis and may carry significant morbidity. However, diagnosis remains elusive due to limited sensitivity of available diagnostic tests. We used metagenomic next-generation sequencing to detect Neisseria gonorrhoeae from culture-negative joint aspirates of 2 patients with clinically diagnosed DGI.

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