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Environ Pollut ; 245: 331-342, 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447476


Ghana is one of the top pesticide users and highest persistent organic pollutant (POP) emitters in sub-saharan Africa. Despite recent increases in published data, there is limited information on how POP concentrations have changed, post ratification of the Stockholm Convention. As a result, this review aims to address these knowledge gaps by collating available data that reported POPs in Ghanaian environmental matrices, identify spatial and temporal trends, and establish potential health risks. It is worth noting that Ghana has not developed its own regulatory standards for POPs, but adapts United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards. Results obtained showed concentrations in excess of USEPA regulatory standards for per- and poly-fluoroalkyl sulphonates (PFASs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) in water, polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs) in e-waste soils, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in aquatic organisms and dairy products. The published studies do not cover major regions nationwide. The inconsistency in methods and analytes measured, along with data scarcity in some regions, makes it challenging to identify temporal trends. However, the data did indicate decreasing concentrations of some legacy POPs in soil/sediment and aquatic organisms, with increasing concentrations of some POPs in water, fish, fruits and vegetables. Studies that performed health risks assessments were limited although the data indicated risks to e-waste workers, some farmers and vulnerable sub-populations. This review identified potential human health risks from POPs in the Ghanaian environment and the need for more consistent and widespread monitoring program.

Radiol Technol ; 83(5): 447-61, 2012 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22596024


Radiologic technologists and ancillary staff who work with or near ionizing radiation face possible short- and long-term effects of occupational radiation exposure. Further, radiologic technologists must minimize unnecessary exposure that risks the patient's safety, while achieving the best possible image or outcome. This article reviews occupational dose limits, dose calculation, devices used to measure exposure, and safety best practices that can help technologists keep radiation exposure "as low as reasonably achievable" for them and their patients. The article also discusses the appropriate use of mounted and mobile equipment, personal protective equipment, and safety features on imaging equipment to minimize unnecessary radiation exposure.

Corpo Clínico , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Proteção Radiológica/métodos , Gestão da Segurança/métodos , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estados Unidos