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2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(4): e203144, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315067

RESUMO

Importance: In hospitals outside of the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) system, 1 in 10 percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) for stable coronary artery disease is considered rarely appropriate by the appropriate use criteria, with variation across hospitals. The appropriateness of PCIs in VA hospitals has not been documented. Objective: To characterize the appropriateness of PCIs in VA hospitals. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included patients with stable coronary artery disease undergoing elective PCI from November 1, 2013, to October 31, 2015, within the VA Clinical Assessment, Reporting, and Tracking Program, an operational program that includes 59 VA hospitals. Data were analyzed from March 1, 2019, to August 8, 2019. Exposures: Elective PCI at a VA hospital. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of PCIs classified as appropriate, may be appropriate, or rarely appropriate; extent of hospital-level variation in rarely appropriate PCIs using criteria issued by cardiovascular professional societies in 2012. The extent of hospital-level variation in rates of rarely appropriate PCI was characterized using hospital proportions and random-effect logistic regression. Results: Among 2611 patients undergoing elective PCI (mean [SD] age, 66.3 [7.6] years; 2577 [98.7%] men) at 59 hospitals, a total of 778 PCIs (29.8%) were classified as appropriate, 1561 PCIs (59.8%) were classified as may be appropriate, and 272 PCIs (10.4%) were classified as rarely appropriate. Rarely appropriate PCIs were more commonly performed in patients who had low-risk stress test findings (220 patients [89.1%]), who were taking no (100 patients [36.8%]) or 1 (167 patients [61.4%]) antianginal medication, or who had 1 coronary artery stenosis (185 patients [68.0%]). The unadjusted hospital-level rates of rarely appropriate PCIs ranged from 0% to 28.6%, with a median (interquartile range) of 9.7% (6.3%-13.9%). Random-effect models yielded an estimated median (interquartile range) rate of rarely appropriate PCI of 10.4% (8.7%-12.3%). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that in VA practice, most PCIs for stable coronary artery disease were classified as appropriate or may be appropriate. However, 1 in 10 PCIs was classified as rarely appropriate, with variation across VA hospitals. Efforts to improve patient selection are needed.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to describe changes in demographic variables, process of care measures, and outcomes of patients treated in a regional ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) program over the last 15 years. METHODS: We describe demographic variables, process of care measures, and outcomes of patients treated in the program in various 5-year time periods: 2003-2007 (n = 1,821), 2008-2012 (n = 1,968), and 2013-2018 (n = 2,223). The primary outcome measures were in-hospital and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: Among 6,012 STEMI patients treated from 2003 to 2018 we observed a significant increase in mean age at presentation (62 ± 14 to 64 ± 13 years) and diabetes (14-22%, p < .01). The proportion of patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) and cardiac arrest (CA) pre-PCI increased significantly from 9.5% to 11.1% and 8.5% to 12.7% (p < .05), respectively. The median door-to-balloon (D2B) times decreased from 98 to 93 min and total ischemic time decreased from 202 to 185 min (all p < .05). Despite increased patient complexity, the proportion of nontransfer and transfer patients achieving D2B times consistent with guideline recommendations remained unchanged (for nontransfer patients 79-82%, p = .45 and for transfer patients 65-64%, p = .34). Among all STEMI patients, in-hospital mortality increased during the study period from 4.9 to 6.9% (p = .007) but remained stable (<2%) when CA and CS patients were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: Over the last 15 years, short-term STEMI mortality has increased despite improvements in care delivery metrics. Patients with CA and/or CS now represent 10% of STEMI patients and are responsible for 80% of deaths. Therefore, efforts to improve STEMI mortality, and metrics for assessing STEMI programs, should focus on these patients.

8.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186653

RESUMO

Importance: Determining the right dosage of aspirin for the secondary prevention treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remains an unanswered and critical question. Objective: To report the rationale and design for a randomized clinical trial to determine the optimal dosage of aspirin to be used for secondary prevention of ASCVD, using an innovative research method. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pragmatic, open-label, patient-centered, randomized clinical trial is being conducted in 15 000 patients within the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet), a distributed research network of partners including clinical research networks, health plan research networks, and patient-powered research networks across the United States. Patients with established ASCVD treated in routine clinical practice within the network are eligible. Patient recruitment began in April 2016. Enrollment was completed in June 2019. Final follow-up is expected to be completed by June 2020. Interventions: Participants are randomized on a web platform in a 1:1 fashion to either 81 mg or 325 mg of aspirin daily. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary efficacy end point is the composite of all-cause mortality, hospitalization for nonfatal myocardial infarction, or hospitalization for a nonfatal stroke. The primary safety end point is hospitalization for major bleeding associated with a blood-product transfusion. End points are captured through regular queries of the health systems' common data model within the structure of PCORnet's distributed data environment. Conclusions and Relevance: As a pragmatic study and the first interventional trial conducted within the PCORnet electronic data infrastructure, this trial is testing several unique and innovative operational approaches that have the potential to disrupt and transform the conduct of future patient-centered randomized clinical trials by evaluating treatments integrated in clinical practice while at the same time determining the optimal dosage of aspirin for secondary prevention of ASCVD. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02697916.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(4): e014200, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063126

RESUMO

Background Women have higher utilization of "do not attempt resuscitation" (DNAR) orders during treatment for critical illness. Occurrence of sex differences in the establishment of DNAR orders after resuscitation from in-hospital cardiac arrest is unknown. Whether differences in DNAR use by sex lead to disparities in survival remains unclear. Methods and Results We identified 71 820 patients with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after in-hospital cardiac arrest from the Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry. Multivariable models evaluated the association between de novo DNAR (anytime after ROSC, within 12 hours of ROSC, or within 72 hours of ROSC) by sex and the association between sex and survival to discharge accounting for DNAR. All models accounted for clustering of patients within hospital and adjusted for demographic and cardiac arrest characteristics. The cohort included 30 454 (42.4%) women, who were slightly more likely than male participants to establish DNAR orders anytime after ROSC (45.0% versus 43.5%; adjusted relative risk: 1.15 [95% CI, 1.10-1.20]; P<0.0001). Of those with DNAR orders, women were more likely to be DNAR status within the first 12 hours (51.8% versus 46.5%; adjusted relative risk: 1.40 [95% CI, 1.30-1.52]; P<0.0001) and within 72 hours after ROSC (75.9% versus 70.9%; adjusted relative risk: 1.35 [95% CI, 1.26-1.45]; P<0.0001). However, no difference in survival to hospital discharge between women and men (34.5% versus 36.7%; adjusted relative risk: 1.00 [95% CI, 0.99-1.02]; P=0.74) was appreciated. Conclusions In patients successfully resuscitated from in-hospital cardiac arrest, there was no survival difference between men and women while accounting for DNAR. However, women had a higher rate of DNAR status early after resuscitation (<12 and <72 hours) in comparison to men.

11.
Clin Cardiol ; 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2013 ACC/AHA (American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association) cholesterol guidelines provided an evidence-based rationale for the allocation of lipid-lowering therapy based on risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Adoption of these guidelines was initially suboptimal but whether this has improved over time remains unclear. HYPOTHESIS: Prevalence of guideline-based statin therapy will increase over time. METHODS: Electronic health record data were used to create two cross-sectional data sets of patients (age 40-75) served in 2013 and 2017 by a large health system. Data sets included demographics, clinical risk factors, lipid values, diagnostic codes, and active medication orders during each period. Prevalence of indications for statin therapy according to the ACC/AHA guidelines and statin prescriptions were compared between each time period. RESULTS: In 2013, of the 219 376 adults, 57.7% of patients met statin eligibility criteria, of which 61.3% were prescribed any statin and 19.0% a high intensity statin. Among those eligible, statin use was highest in those with established ASCVD (83.9%) and lowest in those with elevated ASCVD risk >7.5% (39.3%). In 2017, of the 256 074 adults, 62.3% were statin eligible, of which 62.3% were prescribed a statin and 24.3% a high intensity statin. In 2017, 66.4% of statin eligible men were prescribed a statin compared to 57.4% of statin eligible women (P < 0.001). The use of ezetimibe (3.6% in 2013, 2.4% in 2017) and protein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (<0.1% and 0.1%) was infrequent. CONCLUSION: In a large health system, guideline-based statin use has remained suboptimal. Improved strategies are needed to increase statin utilization in appropriate patients.

12.
Heart ; 106(6): 407-408, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932284
13.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(3): 354-361, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812224

RESUMO

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) admissions are common and costly. The association between comprehensive ACS care pathways, outcomes, and costs are lacking. From 434,172 low-risk, uncomplicated ACS patients eligible for early discharge (STEMI 35%, UA/NSTEMI 65%) from the Premier database, we identified ACS care pathways, by stratifying low-risk, uncomplicated STEMI and UA/NSTEMI patients by access site for PCI (trans-radial intervention [TRI] vs transfemoral intervention [TFI]) and by length of stay (LOS). Associations with costs and outcomes (death, bleeding, acute kidney injury, and myocardial infarction at 1-year) were tested using hierarchical, mixed-effects regression, and projections of cost savings with change in care pathways were obtained using modeling. In low-risk uncomplicated STEMI patients, compared with TFI and LOS ≥3 days, a strategy of TRI with LOS <3 days and TFI with LOS <3 days were associated with cost savings of $6,206 and $4,802, respectively. Corresponding cost savings for UA/NSTEMI patients were $7,475 and $6,169, respectively. These care-pathways did not show an excess risk of adverse outcomes. We estimated that >$300 million could be saved if prevalence of the TRI with LOS <3 days and TFI with LOS <3 days strategies are modestly increased to 20% and 70%, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrate the potential opportunity of cost savings by repositioning ACS care pathways in low-risk and uncomplicated ACS patients, toward transradial access and a shorter LOS without an increased risk of adverse outcomes.

14.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(1): 29-33, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711633

RESUMO

Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and severe complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Despite its substantial burden, contemporary data on the incremental costs of AKI are lacking. We designed this large, nationally representative study to examine: (1) the independent, incremental costs associated with AKI after PCI and (2) to identify the departmental components of cost contributing to the incremental costs associated with AKI. In this observational cross-sectional study from the Premier database, we analyzed 1,443,297 PCI patients at 518 US hospitals from 1/2006 to 12/2015. Incremental cost of AKI from a hospital perspective obtained by a microcosting approach, was estimated using mixed-effects, multivariable linear regression with hospitals as random effects. Costs were inflation-corrected to 2016 US$. AKI occurred in 82,683 (5.73%) of the PCI patients. Those with AKI had higher hospitalization cost than those without ($38,869, SD 42,583 vs $17,167 SD 13,994, p <0.001). After adjustment, the incremental cost associated with an AKI was $9,448 (95% confidence interval $9,338 to $9,558, p <0.001). AKI was also independently associated with an incremental length of stay of 3.6 days (p <0.001). Room and board costs were the largest driver of AKI costs ($4,841). Extrapolated to the United States, our findings imply an annual AKI cost burden of 411.3 million US$. In conclusion, in this national study of PCI patients, AKI was common and independently associated with ∼$10,000 incremental costs, implying a substantial burden of AKI costs in US hospitals. Successful efforts to prevent AKI in patients who underwent PCI could result in meaningful cost savings.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/economia , Previsões , Custos Hospitalares/tendências , Tempo de Internação/economia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/economia , Sistema de Registros , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Redução de Custos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Am Heart J ; 218: 128-132, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806088

RESUMO

New-onset left bundle branch block (N-LBBB) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a challenging clinical dilemma. In our single-center study, 60 out of 172 patients who underwent permanent pacemaker implantation (PPM) after TAVR had N-LBBB (34.9%). At a median follow-up duration of 357 days (IQR, 178; 560 days), two patients (3.5%) were completely pacemaker-dependent, and four others (7%) were partially dependent. Twelve patients (24%) recovered conduction in their left bundle at a median follow-up duration of 5 weeks (IQR, 4; 14 weeks). Due to the lack of clinical predictors of pacemaker dependency, active surveillance is warranted and may be an alternative to permanent pacemaker implantation.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(15): e013664, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364491

RESUMO

See Article Owlia et al.

18.
Am Heart J ; 215: 167-177, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hybrid revascularization, combining percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), may be used differently across hospitals. How outcomes compare with multivessel PCI is unknown. METHODS: We studied hybrid revascularization use in patients in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry from 2009 to 2017 who underwent PCI for multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) at 711 hospitals, excluding patients with prior CABG, acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction, emergency/salvage CABG, or PCI without stent placement. In-hospital mortality associated with hybrid revascularization versus multivessel PCI was compared using a multivariable logistic model. RESULTS: Among 775,000 patients with multivessel CAD, 1,126 (0.2%) underwent hybrid revascularization and 256,865 (33%) were treated with multivessel PCI. Although 358 (50.4%) hospitals performed hybrid revascularizations, most (97.3%) performed <1 per year. Most patients (68.7%) treated with hybrid revascularization underwent CABG after PCI; only 79.4% of these patients were discharged on P2Y12 inhibitors. Patients who underwent hybrid revascularization were younger and more likely to have significant left main or proximal left anterior descending disease. Unadjusted in-hospital mortality rates were higher among patients treated with hybrid revascularization than multivessel PCI (1.5% vs 0.9%, P = .02), a difference that was not significant after multivariable adjustment (odds ratio = 1.54, 95% CI = 0.92-2.59). CONCLUSIONS: Hybrid revascularization remains an infrequently used treatment modality for multivessel CAD. Risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality was no different between hybrid revascularization and multivessel PCI; however, patients who underwent hybrid revascularization were less likely to be discharged on P2Y12 inhibitor therapy despite stent implantation.

19.
ASAIO J ; 65(5): 417-418, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192855
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(5): e194941, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150083

RESUMO

Importance: Several clinical decision rules (CDRs) have been developed to help practitioners know when to safely terminate resuscitative efforts after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). The UN10 rule, a CDR that uses 3 intra-arrest variables, has been shown to predict a poor chance of survival to discharge. However, its large-scale applicability in clinical settings remains unknown. Objective: To assess the performance of a parsimonious CDR in a national cohort of individuals with IHCA. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used a nationwide cohort from the American Heart Association Get With the Guidelines-Resuscitation IHCA registry to derive a sample of 96 509 patients from 716 US hospitals who experienced IHCA from January 1, 2000, to January 26, 2016. Data analysis began in January 2018 and concluded in June 2018. Exposures: The UN10 rule uses 3 variables: (1) unwitnessed arrest, (2) nonshockable rhythm, and (3) no return of spontaneous circulation within 10 minutes of resuscitative efforts. The CDR indicates futility if all 3 criteria are met. This CDR was analyzed according to the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) reporting guideline. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge following resuscitation. Favorable neurologic status at discharge was also assessed. Overall rates of survival and survival with favorable neurologic status (cerebral performance category score, 1 or 2) were compared with predicted values by the UN10 rule using 2 × 2 contingency tables. Results: Of 96 509 patients, 55 761 (57.8%) were men, and the mean (SD) age was 67.1 (15.3) years. In total, 18 713 patients (19.4%) survived to discharge, and 16 134 patients (16.7%) were discharged with a favorable neurologic status. Overall, 15 838 patients (16.4%) met all 3 criteria for futility in the UN10 rule. A total of 1005 patients (6.3%) who met the UN10 rule survived to discharge, and 754 (4.8%) survived with favorable neurologic status. The percentage of patients meeting the UN10 rule (ie, predicting futile resuscitation) who actually survived in our study cohort was substantially higher than the initial derivation cohort (0%) and single-center validation cohort (1.1%). The positive predictive value of the UN10 rule was 93.7% (95% CI, 93.3%-94.0%), which was lower than the initial derivation cohort (100%; 95% CI, 97.5%-100%) and validation cohort (98.9%; 95% CI, 96.5%-99.7%). Conclusions and Relevance: Patients who met the UN10 rule were associated with unfavorable neurologic status and low rates of survival after IHCA. Yet their survival rates are higher than reported in the initial validation study, raising the question of whether the UN10 rule may have limited utility as a definitive measure of futility during resuscitations in real-world clinical settings.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Futilidade Médica , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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