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1.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119156

RESUMO

AIMS: Although lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) may occur at different periods during the life course of women, a little research on LUTS has adopted a life course perspective. The purpose of this conceptual paper is to demonstrate how life course theory and life course epidemiology can be applied to study bladder health and LUTS trajectories. We highlight conceptual work from the Prevention of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Research Consortium to enhance the understanding of life course concepts. METHODS: Consortium members worked in transdisciplinary teams to generate examples of how life course concepts may be applied to research on bladder health and LUTS in eight prioritized areas: (a) biopsychosocial ecology of stress and brain health; (b) toileting environment, access, habits, and techniques; (c) pregnancy and childbirth; (d) physical health and medical conditions; (e) musculoskeletal health; (f) lifestyle behaviors; (g) infections and microbiome; and (h) hormonal status across the life span. RESULTS: Life course concepts guided consortium members' conceptualization of how potential risk and protective factors may influence women's health. For example, intrapartum interventions across multiple pregnancies may influence trajectories of bladder health and LUTS, illustrating the principle of life span development. Consortium members also identified and summarized methodologic and practical considerations in designing life course research. CONCLUSIONS: This paper may assist researchers from a variety of disciplines to design and implement research identifying key risk and protective factors for LUTS and bladder health across the life course of women. Results from life course research may inform health promotion programs, policies, and practices.

2.
Urology ; 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197984

RESUMO

Prevention strategies have been effective in many areas of human health, yet have not been utilized for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) or bladder health (BH). This commentary outlines LUTS prevention research initiatives underway within the NIH-sponsored Prevention of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Research Consortium (PLUS). Prevention science involves the systematic study of factors associated with health and health problems, termed protective and risk factors, respectively. PLUS is enhancing traditional prevention science approaches through use of: 1) a transdisciplinary team science approach, 2) both qualitative and quantitative research methodology (mixed methodology), and 3) community engagement. Important foundational work of PLUS includes development of clear definitions of both BH and disease, as well as a BH measurement instrument that will be validated for use in the general population, adolescents, and Latinx and Spanish-speaking women. The BH measurement instrument will be used in an upcoming nationally-representative cohort study that will measure BH and investigate risk and protective factors. PLUS investigators also developed a conceptual framework to guide their research agenda; this framework organizes a broad array of candidate risk and protective factors that can be studied across the life course of girls and women.1 As PLUS begins to fill existing knowledge gaps with new information, its efforts will undoubtedly be complemented by outside investigators to further advance the science of LUTS prevention and BH across additional populations. Once the BH community has broadened its understanding of modifiable risk and protective factors, intervention studies will be necessary to test LUTS prevention strategies and support public health efforts. LUTS providers may be able to translate this evolving evidence for individual patients under their care and act as BH advocates in their local communities.

3.
J Urban Health ; 97(2): 279-295, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974767

RESUMO

Violence between police and young black men is a longstanding issue that has gained national attention in recent years due to high-profile violent encounters. We conducted 48 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders from different groups (young black men aged 14-24 years, parents, educators, police officers, and staff in youth serving organizations). Stakeholders were asked to (1) identify causes of violent encounters between police and young black men; (2) describe police officers who serve in their communities; and (3) describe interactions between police and young black men. Data were collected and analyzed using thematic analysis and content analysis methods. All stakeholder groups except police felt that violent encounters between police and young black men were caused by officers lacking a connection with communities. Fear and distrust across stakeholder groups was also seen as a cause of violent encounters; youth feared police after having seen or heard of violent encounters, while officers feared youth due to the availability of firearms and previous assaults on officers. Several stakeholder groups recognized that racism and prejudice among police was another cause of violence between police and young black men. Positive interactions between police and youth were seen as the result of established, trusting relationships developed over time. Future efforts to prevent violent encounters between police and young black men should engage multiple stakeholder groups. One avenue for engagement is through community mobilization efforts that foster collaboration, build community trust, and encourage implementation of policies, programs, and practices that prevent future violent encounters.

4.
Health Promot Pract ; : 1524839919890869, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910039

RESUMO

This applied paper is intended to serve as a "how to" guide for public health researchers, practitioners, and policy makers who are interested in building conceptual models to convey their ideas to diverse audiences. Conceptual models can provide a visual representation of specific research questions. They also can show key components of programs, practices, and policies designed to promote health. Conceptual models may provide improved guidance for prevention and intervention efforts if they are based on frameworks that integrate social ecological and biological influences on health and incorporate health equity and social justice principles. To enhance understanding and utilization of this guide, we provide examples of conceptual models developed by the Prevention of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (PLUS) Research Consortium. PLUS is a transdisciplinary U.S. scientific network established by the National Institutes of Health in 2015 to promote bladder health and prevent lower urinary tract symptoms, an emerging public health and prevention priority. The PLUS Research Consortium is developing conceptual models to guide its prevention research agenda. Research findings may in turn influence future public health practices and policies. This guide can assist others in framing diverse public health and prevention science issues in innovative, potentially transformative ways.

5.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 39(1): 225-236, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578778

RESUMO

AIMS: This analysis explored and characterized adolescent and adult women's lay language and discourse related to bladder health/function. METHODS: Forty-four focus groups were conducted across seven United States research centers with 360 adolescents and adult women, organized by six age categories. Multilevel content analyses classified emergent themes. A transdisciplinary lens and inductive approach guided data interpretation. Interpretive insights were validated by a community engagement panel. RESULTS: A repertoire of bladder function terms emerged, including explicit functional terms, formal and polite euphemistic terms, and informal familiar terms, as well as cultural and regional metaphors and idioms. Terminology usage was historically grounded, developmental, and cumulative across the life course. Lay discourse was contextual and affectively valent, suggesting unspoken, commonly understood, situation-based "rules" for talking about bladder function. Discourse appeared to be siloed within family and friendship circles. Adolescents and adult women often described, rather than named, bladder sensations or problems. Terminology for bladder issues tended to minimize severity and frequency, with medical language only relevant to extreme examples and not applicable to mild episodes. CONCLUSIONS: A definitional discordance between medical and lay views of bladder problems was identified, signifying a need to clarify the meaning of medical terms for lay persons. Adolescents and adult women do not have or use standardized precise terminology for bladder health and function, relying instead on social convention and interpersonal context. Findings can be used to foster shared understandings between lay persons and health professionals, informing development of clinical, research, and public health initiatives to promote bladder health.

6.
Prev Med Rep ; 16: 100986, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660286

RESUMO

This paper examines the prevalence of homelessness among transgender/gender diverse (TGD) youth in a population-based sample of adolescents. We used data from a statewide sample of 9th and 11th grade adolescents in Minnesota who responded to a school-based survey during 2016 (N = 80,929). Survey questions assessed adolescents' gender identity and experiences of homelessness (either with adult family members or unaccompanied) in the past 12 months. We used chi-square analyses to compare the prevalence of homelessness between gender identity groups. Overall, 2.7% of the sample reported identifying as TGD. Significantly more TGD (vs. cisgender) youth reported experiencing homelessness either with adult family members (6.7% vs. 3.5%) or unaccompanied (3.6% vs. 1.1%; p < .0001). Findings from this population-based survey suggest that TGD youth are more likely to experience homelessness, either with a family member or unaccompanied, than cisgender peers. Ensuring housing stability among this population is critical, given health risks associated with homelessness during adolescence. Data on homelessness experiences of TGD youth are needed to inform practice and policies for this distinct population.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510038

RESUMO

The World Health Organization recognizes access to clean and safe toilets as crucial for public health. This study explored U.S. adolescent and adult cisgender women's lived experiences accessing toilets in schools, workplaces, and public spaces. As part of the Prevention of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (PLUS) Research Consortium, we conducted 44 focus groups with female participants (n = 360; ages 11-93). Focus groups were stratified by age (11-14, 15-17, 18-25, 26-44, 45-64, 65+) and conducted across 7 geographically diverse U.S. sites from July 2017-April 2018. Using a transdisciplinary approach, we conducted conventional qualitative coding informed by our PLUS conceptual framework and used content analysis processes to identify salient themes. Across settings, toilet access was restricted by "gatekeepers" (i.e., individuals who control access to toilets). In contrast, self-restricting toilet use (deciding not to use the toilet despite biologic need to urinate) was based on internalized norms to prioritize school and job responsibilities over urination. In public spaces, self-restricting use was largely in response to lack of cleanliness. Across the life course, participants perceived gender disparities in the ability to easily access public toilets. Further research is needed to determine if and how these factors impact bladder health across the life course.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Grupos Focais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Local de Trabalho , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Bexiga Urinária , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Adv Nurs ; 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287183

RESUMO

AIM: The study purpose is to explore adolescent and adult women's experiences, perceptions, beliefs, knowledge and behaviors related to bladder health across the life course using a socioecological perspective. Lower urinary tract symptoms affect between 20-40% of young adult to middle-aged women, with symptoms increasing in incidence and severity with aging. There is limited evidence to address bladder health promotion and prevention of dysfunction. This first study of the Prevention of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (PLUS) Research Consortium is designed to address gaps in existing qualitative research in this area. DESIGN: This focus group study will be implemented across seven geographically diverse United States research centers using a semi-structured focus group guide informed by a conceptual framework based on the socioecological model. METHODS: The study was approved in July 2017. A total of 44 focus groups composed of 6-8 participants representing six different age categories (ranging from 11 to over 65 years) will be completed. We aim to recruit participants with diverse demographic and personal characteristics including race, ethnicity, education, socioeconomic status, urban/rural residence, physical/health conditions and urinary symptom experience. Up to 10 of these focus groups will be conducted in Spanish. Focus group transcripts will undergo content analysis and data interpretation to identify and classify themes and articulate emerging themes. DISCUSSION: This foundational qualitative study seeks to develop an evidence base to inform future research on bladder health promotion in adolescent and adult women. IMPACT: This study has the potential to provide new insights and understanding into adolescent and adult women's lived experience of bladder health, the experience of lower urinary symptoms and knowledge and beliefs across the life course. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Arch Sex Behav ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359211

RESUMO

At least 200 million girls and women across the world have experienced female genital cutting (FGC). International migration has grown substantially in recent decades, leading to a need for health care providers in regions of the world that do not practice FGC to become knowledgeable and skilled in their care of women who have undergone the procedure. There are four commonly recognized types of FGC (Types I, II, III, and IV). To adhere to recommendations advanced by the World Health Organization (WHO) and numerous professional organizations, providers should discuss and offer deinfibulation to female patients who have undergone infibulation (Type III FGC), particularly before intercourse and childbirth. Infibulation involves narrowing the vaginal orifice through cutting and appositioning the labia minora and/or labia majora, and creating a covering seal over the vagina with appositioned tissue. The WHO has published a handbook for health care providers that includes guidance in counseling patients about deinfibulation and performing the procedure. Providers may benefit from additional guidance in how to discuss FGC and deinfibulation in a manner that is sensitive to each patient's culture, community, and values. Little research is available to describe decision-making about deinfibulation among women. This article introduces a theoretically informed conceptual model to guide future research and clinical conversations about FGC and deinfibulation with women who have undergone FGC, as well as their partners and families. This conceptual model, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, may facilitate conversations that lead to shared decision-making between providers and patients.

10.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 28(7): 951-960, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184981

RESUMO

Background: International travel is increasingly popular, and women comprise half of all outbound travel from the United States (almost 46 million trips in 2017). The implications of international travel for women's reproductive health are not fully clear due to lack of data on travelers' contraceptive use. Methods: Women attending a U.S. university (n = 340) completed a cross-sectional survey in 2016-2017 about their sexual and reproductive health during recent international travel. Participants were 18-29 years old (mean: 21.1) and had a history of male sex partners. We calculated the prevalence of contraceptive lapse-nonadherence (e.g., missed pill) or having sex without contraception-by individual and travel-related characteristics and evaluated multivariable correlates of lapse using modified Poisson regression and prevalence ratios (PRs). Results: Prevalence of contraceptive lapse was 29% overall and especially high among pill users (50%). Multivariable correlates of lapse were the following: using the pill (PR 4.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.57-7.94) compared to other or no contraception; trip duration of >30 days versus 1-7 days (PR 2.02, 95% CI 1.14-3.57); having trouble communicating with a male partner about contraception (PR 1.79, 95% CI 1.16-2.75); a high perceived impact of language barriers (PR 1.77, 95% CI 1.02-3.08); and perceiving local access to abortion as difficult (PR 1.67, 95% CI 1.22-2.27). There was a trend toward increased lapse prevalence among participants who had difficulty maintaining their contraceptive schedule while traveling across time zones (PR 1.38, 95% CI 1.00-1.91). Conclusions: During international travel, prevalence of contraceptive lapse varied by young women's chosen contraceptive method as well as travel-specific factors. Pretravel counseling by clinicians can help women anticipate contraceptive challenges and reduce the likelihood of unintended pregnancy.

11.
Arch Sex Behav ; 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243616

RESUMO

International travel is popular worldwide, yet its implications for sexual and reproductive health are not fully understood. Few studies have examined the contextual factors that shape women's sexual and contraceptive behaviors-and thus, their risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs)-while traveling outside their home country. In this qualitative study, female university students with recent (n = 25) or upcoming (n = 19) travel outside the U.S. completed semi-structured interviews from October 2015 to March 2017. Transcripts were analyzed for themes related to contraceptive and sexual behaviors: (1) participants' pre-travel expectations of sex; (2) the circumstances surrounding sexual encounters with men while traveling; (3) negotiation about condom and contraception use with partners; and (4) factors affecting contraceptive adherence. Participants generally expected to be abstinent during travel, citing myriad rationales that included personal values, no perceived opportunities for sex, and the nature of the trip. Some travelers had unexpected sexual encounters, involving health-protecting behaviors and risk-taking (e.g., unprotected sex, substance use). New sexual partnerships were fueled by increased attention from men, situational disinhibition, and perceived heightened intimacy. International travel brought many contraceptive considerations (adequacy of supplies, access to refrigeration, time zone differences, etc.) as well as obstacles that triggered contraceptive lapses and discontinuation. Pill users described the most challenges, while travelers using intrauterine devices expressed appreciation for their maintenance-free contraception. This study suggests complex associations between international travel and young women's sexual and reproductive health. Some travelers were more vulnerable to situational risk factors, while others may have been more insulated. We identify potential intervention opportunities via clinical services, education, and policy to reduce young women's risk of adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes while traveling abroad. We urge greater recognition of and conversations about contraceptive lapse and unintended pregnancy as potential health risks for female travelers of reproductive age, just as clinical guidelines acknowledge travel-associated STI.

12.
Arch Sex Behav ; 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011992

RESUMO

The World Health Organization estimates that over 200 million women and girls have experienced female genital cutting (FGC). Many women and girls who have undergone FGC have migrated to areas of the world where providers are unfamiliar with the health needs associated with FGC. Both providers in Western healthcare systems and female immigrant and refugee patients report communication difficulties leading to distrust of providers by women who have experienced FGC. Sexual pain is one common problem requiring discussion with healthcare providers and possible intervention. Yet, existing clinical and research literature provides little guidance for assessment and intervention when sexual pain is a result of FGC. Several conceptual frameworks have been developed to conceptualize and guide treatments for other types of pain, such as back pain and headaches. In this article, we integrate four prominent models-the fear avoidance model, eustress endurance model, distress endurance model, and pain resilience model-to conceptualize sexual pain in women who have experienced FGC. The resulting integrative psychological pain response model will aid in providing culturally responsive clinical management of sexual pain to women who have experienced FGC. This integrative model also provides a theoretical foundation for future research in this population.

13.
J Sex Med ; 16(6): 880-890, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010778

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vulvodynia is a debilitating, chronic vulvar pain condition. Community-based case-control studies have consistently shown associations between early-life chronic stressors and vulvodynia onset. AIM: We examined rumination as a specific stress response involved in the psychobiological mechanism of vulvodynia. METHODS: A psychosocial survey with questions specific to early-life traumatic events and rumination were administered to 185 matched case-control pairs of women with and without vulvodynia. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine associations between rumination constructs (ie, total rumination, emotion-focused, instrumental, and searching for meaning) and vulvodynia onset. Conditional logistic regression was also used to determine whether these associations depended on early-life stressors (ie, severity of childhood abuse and of self-reported antecedent traumatic events). Age at interview, antecedent pain disorders, any childhood abuse, and antecedent psychiatric morbidity were included as covariates. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We estimated the odds of rumination in relation to the onset of vulvodynia within a community-based and clinically confirmed sample of women with and without vulvodynia. RESULTS: Vulvodynia was associated with the highest tertile of emotion-focused (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.2, 3.2) and instrumental (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.1, 4.0) rumination. These associations were attenuated after additional adjustment for antecedent psychiatric morbidity. Among women who reported rumination about early-life stressors before vulvar pain in cases or matched reference age in control subjects, those with vulvodynia were >2 times more likely to report the highest tertile of total rumination (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.1, 5.0) compared with those without vulvodynia. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Healthcare providers may be able to identify subsets of women who could benefit from preventive measures before the development of vulvodynia. STRENGTH & LIMITATIONS: This is the first study to use a community-based and clinically confirmed sample of women with and without vulvodynia to examine the associations between rumination about early-life trauma and the onset of vulvodynia. However, as with all retrospective studies, the reporting of information (eg, traumatic events) was subject to recall bias and misclassification. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that a prolonged cognitive stress response (ie, rumination) may be 1 important mechanism by which early-life chronic stressors contribute to the onset vulvodynia. Prospective studies are recommended to examine whether and how cognitive, affective, and physiological components of prolonged stress responses interact to influence the development of vulvodynia. Understanding both the psychobiological and behavioral mechanisms may help in addressing and treating individuals to potentially reverse the development of vulvodynia. Khandker M, Brady SS, Rydell SA, et al. Early-life Chronic Stressors, Rumination, and the Onset of Vulvodynia. J Sex Med 2019;16:880-890.

14.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 38(5): 1339-1352, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957915

RESUMO

AIM: To report research terminology and definitions for describing healthy bladder function among women and girls. METHODS: The Prevention of Lower Urinary tract Symptoms (PLUS) Consortium developed research terminology and definitions for elements of healthy bladder function based on existing understanding of storage and emptying functions of the bladder and accepted definitions of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The novel concept of a bladder "bioregulatory" function was also proposed. Elements of bladder function corresponding to bladder health (BH) and LUTS were developed and refined using an iterative process. A comprehensive reference table structured by bladder function (Storage, Emptying, and Bioregulatory) and elements of each function was created to document proposed research terminology and definitions. RESULTS: The BH research definitions for each bladder function are: (1) Storage: the ability to hold urine for a reasonable duration of time and sense bladder fullness without fear of or concern about urgency, discomfort or leakage; (2) Emptying: the ability to empty the bladder completely in a timely, efficient, effortless, comfortable manner; and (3) Bioregulatory: the bladder barrier protects the individual/host from pathogens, chemicals, and malignancy. Research definitions for seven Storage, seven Emptying, and three Bioregulatory elements of function are presented. Novel LUTS research definitions were developed when gaps in existing definitions were identified or nonclinical language was desired. CONCLUSIONS: PLUS BH definitions reflect a transdisciplinary approach to standardizing research definitions for elements of bladder function from a perspective of health rather than dysfunction and provide a framework for studying BH in clinical practice, public health promotion, and LUTS prevention.

15.
J Pediatr Health Care ; 33(4): 394-403, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study examined longitudinal associations between stressful life events and depressive symptoms, assessed during two time points of adolescence, and sexual risk behavior, assessed during young adulthood. METHODS: Structural equation modeling was conducted with three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. RESULTS: Analyses revealed bidirectional relationships between stressful life events and depressive symptoms during the two time points of adolescence. Adolescent depressive symptoms indirectly affected young adult sexual risk behavior through adolescent stressful life events. Adolescent stressful life events during late adolescence were directly associated with young adult sexual risk behavior. DISCUSSION: Findings highlight the need to screen for both depression and stressful life events during adolescence, to identify at-risk adolescents and deliver tailored interventions to prevent sexual risk behavior during young adulthood.

16.
Perspect Sex Reprod Health ; 50(4): 173-180, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30118153

RESUMO

CONTEXT: International travel is common and may influence women's sexual and reproductive health through myriad pathways. Existing studies focus on travelers' risk of acquiring STDs, but not their pregnancy prevention behaviors. Further, it is unclear whether sexual and reproductive health outcomes observed for female travelers are associated with travel itself, because few studies compare travelers with nontravelers. METHODS: An online survey was conducted in 2016-2017 among females attending a U.S. university who reported a history of sex with men; the sample comprised 340 students who had traveled internationally in the past three months (travelers) and 170 who intended to travel in the next three months (pretravelers). Multivariable modified Poisson regression models assessed associations between travel status and two outcomes during travelers' recent trip or a period of similar duration for pretravelers: contraceptive lapse (incorrect or inconsistent use of any method) and new sexual partnership. RESULTS: Travelers and pretravelers reported similar levels of contraceptive lapse (29% and 32%, respectively) and new sexual partnerships (17% and 12%). Multivariable analysis confirmed that travelers were no more likely than pretravelers to have contraceptive lapses, but indicated that they were more likely to report a new male partner (relative risk, 1.7). Most participants (80%) had a regular source of sexual and reproductive health care; 42% of travelers had seen a health care provider in preparation for their trip. CONCLUSION: If the findings are corroborated by additional research, they may suggest a role for health care providers in students' pretravel period.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Viagem/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Distribuição de Poisson , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
17.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 37(8): 2951-2964, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136299

RESUMO

AIMS: The Prevention of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (PLUS) Research Consortium was established by the National Institutes of Health in 2015 to expand research beyond the detection and treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) to the promotion and preservation of bladder health and prevention of LUTS in girls and women. While many multi-disciplinary scientific networks focus on pelvic floor dysfunction and LUTS, the PLUS Consortium stands alone in its focus on prevention. This article describes the PLUS approach to developing a conceptual framework to guide the Consortium's initial prevention research agenda. METHODS: The conceptual framework was informed by traditional social ecological models of public health, biopsychosocial models of health, Glass and McAtee's Society-Behavior-Biology Nexus, and the World Health Organization's conceptual framework for action on the social determinants of health. RESULTS: The PLUS conceptual framework provides a foundation for developing prevention interventions that have the greatest likelihood of promoting and preserving bladder health among diverse populations. CONCLUSIONS: PLUS Consortium work is premised on the notion that programs, practices, and policies designed to promote health will have optimal impact if the conceptual foundation upon which efforts are based is comprehensive and informed by multiple disciplines. The PLUS conceptual framework is broadly applicable to domains of health that have historically focused on the treatment of illness and symptoms rather than the promotion of health. It is also applicable to domains of health that have been examined from a predominantly biological or social ecological perspective, without integration of both perspectives.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa , Meio Social , Bexiga Urinária , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 27(8): 974-981, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bladder health in women and girls is poorly understood, in part, due to absence of a definition for clinical or research purposes. This article describes the process used by a National Institutes of Health funded transdisciplinary research team (The Prevention of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms [PLUS] Consortium) to develop a definition of bladder health. METHODS: The PLUS Consortium identified currently accepted lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and outlined elements of storage and emptying functions of the bladder. Consistent with the World Health Organization's definition of health, PLUS concluded that absence of LUTS was insufficient and emphasizes the bladder's ability to adapt to short-term physical, psychosocial, and environmental challenges for the final definition. Definitions for subjective experiences and objective measures of bladder dysfunction and health were drafted. An additional bioregulatory function to protect against infection, neoplasia, chemical, or biologic threats was proposed. RESULTS: PLUS proposes that bladder health be defined as: "A complete state of physical, mental, and social well-being related to bladder function and not merely the absence of LUTS. Healthy bladder function permits daily activities, adapts to short-term physical or environmental stressors, and allows optimal well-being (e.g., travel, exercise, social, occupational, or other activities)." Definitions for each element of bladder function are reported with suggested subjective and objective measures. CONCLUSIONS: PLUS used a comprehensive transdisciplinary process to develop a bladder health definition. This will inform instrument development for evaluation of bladder health promotion and prevention of LUTS in research and public health initiatives.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Bexiga Urinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Prev Med ; 55(5 Suppl 1): S59-S69, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670203

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This manuscript highlights initial activities from a 5-year project to build a community coalition focused on the promotion of family, school, and community connectedness; academic investment; and social and emotional well-being among black male youth and their families, as well as the prevention and reduction of risk behaviors. Project activities were planned according to the step-by-step coalition-based prevention system, Communities That Care. METHODS: During Year 1 (2013/2014), semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 community members (parents, school administrators and teachers, and community leaders and volunteers) to evaluate readiness to adopt Communities That Care. Participants were asked to (1) define community; (2) identify community strengths; (3) recommend methods to strengthen community relationships; (4) envision ideal coalition functions; (5) identify current community resources; (6) recommend prevention targets and methods; (7) identify potential barriers to coalition participation; and (8) assess overall community readiness to adopt Communities That Care. Analyses were conducted in Year 3 (2015/2016). RESULTS: Participants expressed eagerness and readiness to adopt Communities That Care. They identified community strengths and local resources that could contribute to coalition success, as well as potential barriers to participation and group cohesion that if left unaddressed could diminish coalition impact. Participants believed that links between multiple environments (home, school, community) should be strengthened in order to promote the well-being of youth. They envisioned the Communities That Care coalition as a task force of community members with varying talents invested in youth across their entire life course. CONCLUSIONS: Community members' insights may be used to guide implementation of Communities That Care by this coalition and others. SUPPLEMENT INFORMATION: This article is part of a supplement entitled African American Men's Health: Research, Practice, and Policy Implications, which is sponsored by the National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Pessoal Administrativo , Adolescente , Família , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde do Homem , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estados Unidos , População Urbana
20.
Am J Prev Med ; 55(5 Suppl 1): S70-S81, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670204

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Communities That Care, refined and tested for more than 25years, offers a step-by-step coalition-based approach to promote well-being and prevent risk behaviors among youth. Communities That Care guides coalitions to identify and prioritize underlying risk and protective factors; set specific, measurable community goals; adopt tested, effective prevention programs to target selected factors; and implement chosen programs with fidelity. Communities That Care has been implemented in a variety of communities, but has only recently begun to be systematically evaluated in diverse, urban communities. METHODS: This paper presents a process evaluation of Communities That Care implementation within a Midwestern ethnically diverse, urban community. In-depth surveys of 25 black male youth aged 8-14years and their caregivers were conducted to determine the degree to which coalition-selected priorities aligned with the experience of black families. Implementation and survey data were collected in 2014-2017 and analyzed in 2017-2018. RESULTS: Roughly 30% of youth reported ever being bullied or bullying someone else on school property; this aligned with the coalition's decision to focus on positive social skills and bullying prevention. Additional data aligned with the coalition's intent to expand its community action plan to encompass other priorities, including family transitions and mobility. For example, roughly one third of caregivers went on welfare and one third of families moved to a new home or apartment in the past year. CONCLUSIONS: In communities whose residents have experienced historical and current inequities, an effective community prevention plan may need to address structural as well as social determinants of well-being among youth and their families. SUPPLEMENT INFORMATION: This article is part of a supplement entitled African American Men's Health: Research, Practice, and Policy Implications, which is sponsored by the National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Cuidadores , Criança , Família , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde do Homem , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , População Urbana
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