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1.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259206, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Return to work (RTW) or work resumption after a work absence due to psychosocial or medical reasons benefits the well-being of a person, including transgender people, and is nowadays a major research domain. The objective is to examine, through an occupational lens, the literature reporting objective RTW outcomes and experiences in transgender people to (a) synthesize what is known about return to work (full-time, part-time, or self-employed) and (b) describe which gaps persist. METHODS & SAMPLE: Several databases and the gray literature were explored systematically. Studies between November 1, 2006 and March 1, 2021 revealing RTW quantitative and qualitative data of adult transgender people were eligible. This review was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42019128395) on April 30, 2019. RESULTS: Among the 14,592 articles initially identified, 97 fulfilled the inclusion criteria which resulted in 20 being analyzed. Objective RTW outcomes, such as number of RTW attempts, time to RTW or number of sick days, were lacking; thus, other relevant work outcomes were reported. Compared to the general population, lower employment rates and more economic distress were observed, with trans women in particular saying that their work situation had deteriorated. Research on positive RTW experiences was highlighted by the importance of disclosure, the support from especially managers and coworkers who acted as mediators, personal coping, and a transition plan along with work accommodations. Negative work experiences, such as demotion, lay-offs, and discrimination were often prominent together with a lack of knowledge of trans issues among all stakeholders, including occupational health professionals. CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS: Few studies have explored employment characteristics and experiences of transgender people (TP). RTW is a dynamic process along with transition in itself, which should be tailored through supportive policies, education, a transition plan and work accommodations with the help of external experts. Future studies should include more occupational information and report RTW outcomes to enhance our knowledge about the guidance of TP and to make way for interventional studies.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639844

RESUMO

Most research on burnout is based on self-reported questionnaires. Nevertheless, as far as the clinical judgement is concerned, a lack of consensus about burnout diagnosis constitutes a risk of misdiagnosis. Hence, this study aims to assess the added value of a joint use of two tools and compare their diagnostic accuracy: (1) the early detection tool of burnout, a structured interview guide, and (2) the Oldenburg burnout inventory, a self-reported questionnaire. The interview guide was tested in 2019 by general practitioners and occupational physicians among 123 Belgian patients, who also completed the self-reported questionnaire. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis allowed the identification of a cut-off score for the self-reported questionnaire. Diagnostic accuracy was then contrasted by a McNemar chi-squared test. The interview guide has a significantly higher sensitivity (0.76) than the self-reported questionnaire (0.70), even by comparing the self-reported questionnaires with the interviews of general practitioners and occupational physicians separately. However, both tools have a similar specificity (respectively, 0.60-0.67), except for the occupational physicians' interviews, where the specificity (0.68) was significantly lower than the self-reported questionnaire (0.70). In conclusion, the early detection tool of burnout is more sensitive than the Oldenburg burnout inventory, but seems less specific. However, by crossing diagnoses reported by patients and by physicians, they both seem useful to support burnout diagnosis.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Clínicos Gerais , Esgotamento Profissional/diagnóstico , Esgotamento Psicológico , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
J Occup Environ Med ; 62(12): e748-e753, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility of collecting reliable and representative data on exposure of Belgian employees to a selection of hazardous chemicals by using a sentinel surveillance method. METHOD: In PROBE (Hazardous chemical Products Register for Occupational use in Belgium), 47 occupational physicians were recruited as a sentinel network. Employees answered a web-based survey assessing their past week exposure to 22 chemicals. RESULTS: 47% employees were exposed to at least one chemical. The most frequently reported exposures was to diesel exhaust (14%). The exposed employees were mostly older men, with most exposed during production and manufacturing, and working in smaller companies. For diesel exhaust, wood dust, and crystalline silica, 54%, 32%, and 20% of the exposed employees, did not use collective/personal protective equipment. CONCLUSION: Sentinel surveillance is a feasible method for obtaining high-quality data on the exposure of Belgian employees to hazardous chemicals.


Assuntos
Substâncias Perigosas , Exposição Ocupacional , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela
4.
Acta Cardiol ; 75(5): 388-397, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893568

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is one of the main causes of morbidity and sick leave in Belgium, imposing a great socio-economic burden on the contemporary healthcare system and society. Cardiac rehabilitation is an evidence-based treatment strategy that not only improves the cardiac patients' health state but also holds promise so as to facilitate vocational reintegration in the society. This position paper was developed and endorsed by the Belgian Working Group of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation. It provides an overview of the currently available Belgian data with regard to the role of cardiac rehabilitation in return to work after an initial cardiac event. It identifies the relevant barriers and facilitators of vocational integration of cardiac patients and summarises the contemporary Belgian legal and medical framework in this regard. Cardiac rehabilitation remains a primordial component of the post-acute event management of the cardiac patient, facilitating vocational reintegrating and thereby decreasing the pressure on social security. Despite the availability of a relevant legislative framework, there is a need for well-defined algorithms to assess readiness for return to work that can be used in daily clinical practice.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Reabilitação Vocacional , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Reabilitação Cardíaca/normas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade , Reabilitação Vocacional/métodos , Reabilitação Vocacional/normas , Retorno ao Trabalho , Integração Social
5.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(13): 1386-1395, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD) can lead to loss of workability and early retirement. We aimed to investigate return to work (RTW) and its relationship towards psychosocial well-being and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). DESIGN: Secondary analyses were applied to cross-sectional data from the EUROASPIRE IV survey (European Action on Secondary and Primary prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events). METHODS: Participants were examined and interviewed at 6-36 months following the recruiting event. Psychosocial well-being and HRQoL were evaluated by completing the 'Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale' and 'HeartQoL' questionnaire. Using generalised mixed models, we calculated the odds ratios for RTW. Depression, anxiety and adjusted means of HeartQoL were estimated accounting for RTW. RESULTS: Out of 3291 employed patients, the majority (76.0%) returned to work, of which 85.6% were men, but there was a general underrepresentation of women. Young (p < 0.001), high-educated (p < 0.001) patients without prior cardiovascular events (p < 0.05) were better off regarding RTW. No significant associations with CHD risk factors and cardiac rehabilitation were established. Those that rejoined the workforce were less susceptible to psychosocial distress (anxiety/depression, p < 0.001) and experienced a better quality of life (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: These findings provide evidence that non-modifiable factors (sociodemographic factors, cardiovascular history), more than classical risk factors, are associated with RTW, and that patients who resume work display better psychosocial well-being and HRQoL. Our results illustrate a need for tailored cardiac rehabilitation with a focus on work-related aspects, mental health and HRQoL indicators to reach sustainable RTW, especially in vulnerable groups like less educated and elderly patients.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/psicologia , Doença das Coronárias/reabilitação , Qualidade de Vida , Retorno ao Trabalho , Reabilitação Cardíaca , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco
6.
J Occup Environ Med ; 61(5): 417-423, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to increase knowledge and skills regarding occupational health surveillance and research in professionals. METHODS: Following the Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation model, several training modules have been designed and implemented in the course of 2016. Evaluation forms were distributed to 42 participants before the start and after each training module to measure changes in knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy. RESULTS: The majority of the participants were satisfied and found the training relevant and interesting for adult learners. The level of self-efficacy increased after the trainings. Females and occupational physicians displayed higher scores than men and other disciplines. After 1 year, the self-efficacy level decreased, but the level was still substantially higher than before the training. CONCLUSIONS: Feedback on the implemented training program was favorable. Participants were able to acquire and apply competencies in the subject matter at short and long term.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , Vigilância da População , Pesquisadores/educação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Competência Profissional , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia
7.
Saf Health Work ; 10(4): 420-427, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31890324

RESUMO

Introduction: To prevent and manage the societal and economic burden of occupational diseases (ODs), countries should develop strong prevention policies, health surveillance and registry systems. This study aims to contribute to the improvement of OD surveillance at national level as well as to identify priority actions in Turkey. Methods: The history and current status of occupational health studies were considered from the perspective of OD surveillance. Interpretative research was done through literature review on occupational health at national, regional and international level. Analyses were focused on countries' experiences in policy development and practice, roles and responsibilities of institutions, multidisciplinary and intersectoral collaboration. OD surveillance models of Turkey, Belgium and the Netherlands were examined through exchange visits. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to explore the peculiarities of legislative and institutional structures, the best and worst practices, and approach principles. Results: Some countries are more focused on exploring OD trends through effective and cost-efficient researches, with particular attention to new and emerging ODs. Other countries try to reach every single case of OD for compensation and rehabilitation. Each practice has advantages and shortcomings, but they are not mutually exclusive, and thus an effective combination is possible. Conclusion: Effective surveillance and registry approaches play a key role in the prevention of ODs. A well-designed system enables monitoring and assessment of OD prevalence and trends, and adoption of preventive measures while improving the effectiveness of redressing and compensation. A robust surveillance does not only provide protection of workers' health but also advances prevention of economic losses.

8.
J Occup Environ Med ; 61(1): 29-34, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30256301

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aims enhancing insights into the relation between personality and engagement. METHODS: Data were collected from 713 Flemish workers. Personality (conscientiousness, neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, openness), work characteristics and engagement (including vigor, dedication, and absorption) were assessed using validated questionnaires. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to investigate the relation between personality traits and engagement. RESULTS: Both conscientiousness and extraversion were positively related to engagement and its three dimensions. Higher levels of neuroticism were related to lower levels of vigor and dedication. No relation was found between agreeableness and engagement nor its dimensions. Openness was negatively related to dedication. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that the impact of personality, beside the psychosocial work characteristics, should not be underestimated. Therefore, it is suggested that interventions aiming to increase work engagement should also take into account personality traits.


Assuntos
Personalidade , Engajamento no Trabalho , Adulto , Bélgica , Extroversão Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroticismo , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 31(5): 603-611, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30160257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Few studies focus on out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in the occupational setting. Therefore, this study describes the presence and use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) at Belgian workplaces during the period 2012-2014. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A self-constructed questionnaire was developed and sent to internal prevention counselors. RESULTS: In total, 767 companies filled out the questionnaire. An AED was available in 48.8% of the companies. Presence mainly depended on the number of persons present in the company (both workers and non-workers (e.g., visitors, clients)) and on some occupational cardiovascular risks but was often not based on a well-conducted risk analysis. Training of workers and AED maintenance were provided appropriately. An AED was used for shocking 23 times of which 10 persons survived. CONCLUSIONS: Acquiring an AED in the occupational setting is seldom based on a well-conducted risk analysis. Therefore, instructions and criteria are needed to come to a rational decision. Furthermore, a registry on AED utilization in the workplace (e.g., with data on long-term survival) should be set up. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(5):603-611.


Assuntos
Desfibriladores/provisão & distribuição , Desfibriladores/estatística & dados numéricos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador/educação , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135375

RESUMO

(1) Background: Irregular and non-standard work arrangements have become a serious determinant to the health and safety of workers. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between shift work and occupational accident absence. A representative Belgian sample considering several sociodemographic and work characteristics is used. (2) Methods: This study is based on the data of the sixth European Working Condition Survey (EWCS). The sample is restricted to 2169 respondents from Belgium. By using multivariate logistic regression modeling techniques and adjusting several confounders, the associations between shift work and occupational accident absence are studied. (3) Results: It is found that about 11.1% of the workers undergo an occupational accident absence. A multivariate regression model demonstrates an increased occupational accident absence risk for workers who have shift work (odds ratio, or OR, 1.92, 95% CI 1.06⁻3.46). Also, gender and biomechanical exposure were significantly associated with occupational accident absence ((OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.16⁻3.69) and (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.14⁻3.63), respectively). No significant interaction effects are found with gender and age variables. 4) Conclusion: This study confirms that doing shift work is significantly associated with occupational accidents. In order to reduce the significance of occupational accidents, shift work should be limited through national-level policies.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Emprego , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/complicações , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Carga de Trabalho
11.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 91(8): 1001-1009, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although social capital approach has showed its merits in predicting well-being and health in the working environment, studies examining the relation between social capital and burnout are scarce and limited to cross-sectional studies in the health care sector. This study aims to explore the longitudinal relationship between workplace social capital and burnout in a Belgian company in the energy sector. An additional aim was to assess whether the relation between workplace social capital and the dimensions of burnout was independent of job characteristics, i.e., the level of decision-making autonomy and task variety, and demographical variables. METHODS: Analyses are conducted on the questionnaire data of 473 workers who participated at the two waves (2013 and 2014) of a longitudinal study. RESULTS: The results showed a negative relation between social capital and distance and a positive relation between social capital and competence, after 1-year follow-up and after adjustments for baseline levels of the respective burnout dimension. In contrast with the literature, no relation between social capital and emotional exhaustion was found after adjustment for baseline level of emotional exhaustion. After additional adjustments were made for the job characteristics 'decision-making autonomy' and 'task variety', the relation between social capital and competence disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: This study delivered evidence for the lagged relation between social capital and distance, even after controlling for demographical and job characteristics. Therefore, the findings suggest that organizations should pay attention to strategies enhancing social interaction, enabling to increase the levels of support, reciprocity, sharing and trust, in the prevention of burnout.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Capital Social , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Bélgica , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autonomia Profissional , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Work ; 59(4): 501-534, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disability management (DM) is a systematic method to ensure job-retention and job-reintegration in competitive employment for individuals with a disability. There is evidence that 'returning to work' has a positive impact on the individual, the company and on the society. However, a clear overview of the efficacy and efficiency of the DM programs is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the efficacy and efficiency of the disability management programs. Cochrane, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science were searched from 1994 to 2015. METHODS: Two reviewers independently evaluated the articles on title, abstract, and full text. The data extraction and results are documented according to the study designs. RESULTS: Twenty-eight articles were included in the review. These 28 articles consisted of 7 systematic reviews, 3 randomized controlled trials, 9 clinical trials, 4 mixed-method studies and 5 qualitative studies. CONCLUSIONS: The DM program has shown to be effective and efficient. A consensus about the DM components is still not reached. Nevertheless, some components are emphasized more than others; job accommodation, facilitation of transitional duty, communication between all stakeholders, health care provider advice, early intervention, and acceptance, goodwill and trust in the stakeholders, in the organization, and in the disability management process.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Eficiência Organizacional/normas , Reabilitação Vocacional/normas , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Reabilitação Vocacional/métodos
13.
J Occup Environ Med ; 59(4): e41-e45, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28252458

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices of students regarding occupational hazards before and after entering clinical training. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was used to follow up a cohort of Belgian medical students in 2014 and 2015. Inquiries about students' characteristics, awareness, knowledge, and practices of protective measures were included. Descriptive and multivariable analyses were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 249 (94%) students completed the preclinical questionnaire and 147 (56%) responded on both occasions. Our findings revealed that student awareness and knowledge scores were inadequate but increased after admission as trainees. Students with an accidental blood contact (n = 43) showed no better knowledge of postexposure management than those without such an incident. CONCLUSIONS: The observed lack of awareness and knowledge regarding occupational hazards among students provides an opportunity to improve basic education and training environments.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estágio Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Eur J Public Health ; 27(2): 279-286, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28040734

RESUMO

Background: Current explanations of health inequalities in adolescents focus on behavourial and economic determinants and rarely include more meaningful forms of economic, cultural, and social capital. The aim of the study was to investigate how the interplay between capitals constitutes social inequalities in adolescent healthy food intake. Methods: Data were collected in the 2013/14 Flemish Health Behavior among School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, which is part of the international WHO HBSC survey. The total sample included 7266 adolescents aged 12-18. A comprehensive set of 58 capital indicators was used to measure economic, cultural and social capital and a healthy food index was computed from a 17-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess the consumption frequency of healthy food within the overall food intake. Results: The different forms of capital were unequally distributed in accordance with the subdivisions within the education system. Only half of the capital indicators positively related to healthy food intake, and instead 17 interactions were found that both increased or reduced inequalities. Cultural capital was a crucial component for explaining inequalities such that social gradients in healthy food intake increased when adolescents participated in elite cultural practices ( P < 0.05), and were consequently reduced when adolescents reported to have a high number of books at home ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: A combination of selected resources in the form of economic, cultural and social capital may both increase or reduce healthy food intake inequalities in adolescents. Policy action needs to take into account the unequal distribution of these resources within the education system.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Cultura , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Capital Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Bélgica , Criança , Comportamento de Escolha , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Occup Health ; 59(2): 177-186, 2017 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28111414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study is to examine the relationship between indicators of non-standard work arrangements, including precarious contract, long working hours, multiple jobs, shift work, and work-related accident absence, using a representative Belgian sample and considering several socio-demographic and work characteristics. METHODS: This study was based on the data of the fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS). For the analysis, the sample was restricted to 3343 respondents from Belgium who were all employed workers. The associations between non-standard work arrangements and work-related accident absence were studied with multivariate logistic regression modeling techniques while adjusting for several confounders. RESULTS: During the last 12 months, about 11.7% of workers were absent from work because of work-related accident. A multivariate regression model showed an increased injury risk for those performing shift work (OR 1.546, 95% CI 1.074-2.224). The relationship between contract type and occupational injuries was not significant (OR 1.163, 95% CI 0.739-1.831). Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were observed for those performing long working hours (OR 1.217, 95% CI 0.638-2.321) and those performing multiple jobs (OR 1.361, 95% CI 0.827-2.240) in relation to work-related accident absence. Those who rated their health as bad, low educated workers, workers from the construction sector, and those exposed to biomechanical exposure (BM) were more frequent victims of work-related accident absence. No significant gender difference was observed. CONCLUSION: Indicators of non-standard work arrangements under this study, except shift work, were not significantly associated with work-related accident absence. To reduce the burden of occupational injuries, not only risk reduction strategies and interventions are needed but also policy efforts are to be undertaken to limit shift work. In general, preventive measures and more training on the job are needed to ensure the safety and well-being of all workers.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/etiologia , Adulto , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Emprego , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 39(4): e127-e133, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27744375

RESUMO

Background: Previous research demonstrated an association between low employment quality and lower sickness absence, which may be explained by presenteeism. Therefore, this study aimed exploring the relation between three indicators of employment quality (long working hours, precarious employment, job insecurity) and attendance behavior. Methods: The association between employment quality and attendance behavior was investigated in 28.999 workers (mean age: 40.0 years, 53% males) of the fifth wave of the European Working Conditions Survey, using multilevel multinomial logistic regression analysis. Attendance behavior was operationalized as different combinations of sickness absence and presenteeism. Results: Those working >48 h/week, had a higher risk to report presenteeism (with or without sickness absence). They had a lower risk to report sickness absence without presenteeism. Workers with a precarious contract had a lower risk to report absenteeism without presenteeism and the combination of both presenteeism and absenteeism. Finally, for workers perceiving job insecurity, the risk for presenteeism without sickness absence was significantly higher. Conclusions: Several indicators of low employment quality were associated with attendance behavior, suggesting a complex behavioral mechanism in workers facing low job quality employment. Therefore, policy makers are recommended to re-establish the indefinite contractual employment as the standard, avoiding long working hours.


Assuntos
Emprego/normas , União Europeia/estatística & dados numéricos , Presenteísmo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Emprego/economia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , União Europeia/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Presenteísmo/economia , Licença Médica/economia , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
BMC Public Health ; 16(1): 851, 2016 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27549206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this longitudinal study the complex interplay between both job strain and bullying in relation to sickness absence was investigated. Following the "work environment hypothesis", which establishes several work characteristics as antecedents of bullying, we assumed that job strain, conceptualized by the Job-Demand-Control model, has an indirect relation with long-term sickness absence through bullying. METHODS: The sample consisted of 2983 Belgian workers, aged 30 to 55 years, who participated in the Belstress III study. They completed a survey, including the Job Content Questionnaire and a bullying inventory, at baseline. Their sickness absence figures were registered during 1 year follow-up. Long-term sickness absence was defined as at least 15 consecutive days. A mediation analysis, using structural equation modeling, was performed to examine the indirect association of job strain through bullying with long-term sickness absence. The full structural model was adjusted for several possible confounders: age, gender, occupational group, educational level, company, smoking habits, alcohol use, body mass index, self-rated health, baseline long-term sickness absence and neuroticism. RESULTS: The results support the hypothesis: a significant indirect association of job strain with long-term sickness absence through bullying was observed, suggesting that bullying is an intermediate variable between job strain and long-term sickness absence. No evidence for the reversed pathway of an indirect association of bullying through job strain was found. CONCLUSIONS: Bullying was observed as a mediating variable in the relation between job strain and sickness absence. The results suggest that exposure to job strain may create circumstances in which a worker risks to become a target of bullying. Our findings are generally in line with the work environment hypothesis, which emphasizes the importance of organizational work factors in the origin of bullying. This study highlights that remodeling jobs to reduce job strain may be important in the prevention of bullying and subsequent sickness absence.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Bullying , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bélgica , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
18.
Int J Occup Environ Health ; 22(2): 99-106, 2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27092408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fast growth of non-standard employment in developed countries highlights the importance of studying the influence of contract type on worker's safety and health. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of our study is to investigate whether non-standard workers are more injured than standard workers or not. Additionally, other risk factors for occupational accidents are investigated. METHODS: Data from the Belgian surveys on work ability in 2009 and 2011 are used. During their annual occupational health examination, workers were asked to fill in a self-administered questionnaire. In total, 1886 complete responses are collected and analyzed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Temporary workers did not have higher injury rates than permanent workers [OR 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.2-1.2]. Low-educated, less-experienced workers and those exposed to dangerous conditions are more frequent victims of occupational accidents. CONCLUSION: The present data do not support the hypothesis that non-standard workers have more injuries than standard workers. Our results about occupational accidents derived from a non-representative sample of the Belgian workforce and cannot be generalized due to the heterogeneity in job organization and labor regulations between countries. Further research is needed to extend our findings and to seek other factors that may be associated with work accidents.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 29(2): 331-44, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26670359

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at investigating cross-sectional relationships between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism in a sample of Belgian middle-aged workers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected from 1372 male and 1611 female workers in the Belstress III study. Psychosocial characteristics assessed by the use of self-administered questionnaires were: job demands, job control, social support, efforts, rewards, bullying, home-to-work conflict and work-to-home conflict. Presenteeism was measured using a single item question, and it was defined as going to work despite illness at least 2 times in the preceding year. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between psychosocial characteristics and presenteeism, while adjusting for several socio-demographic, health-related variables and neuroticism. An additional analysis in a subgroup of workers with good self-rated health and low neuroticism was conducted. RESULTS: The prevalence of presenteeism was 50.6%. Overall results, adjusted for major confounders, revealed that high job demands, high efforts, low support and low rewards were associated with presenteeism. Furthermore, a significant association could be observed for both bullying and work-to-home conflict in relation to presenteeism. The subgroup analysis on a selection of workers with good self-rated health and low neuroticism generally confirmed these results. CONCLUSIONS: Both job content related factors as well as work contextual psychosocial factors were significantly related to presenteeism. These results suggest that presenteeism is not purely driven by the health status of a worker, but that psychosocial work characteristics also play a role.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Presenteísmo/organização & administração , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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