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1.
Pediatr Neurol ; 87: 23-29, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizencephaly is a rare congenital cerebral malformation associated with serious neurological manifestations. The number of studies regarding schizencephaly is limited. METHODS: We conducted a literature review and extracted data from the case reports. Of 199 articles retrieved, 156 articles (734 patients) met our inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Patient characteristics included microcephaly (41.5% of patients), seizures (74.1%), bilateral cleft (41.4%), open lip (61.3%), septo-optic dysplasia (69.1%), and ventricular dilation (60.5%). The majority of clefts were in the frontal and parietal lobes. When these potential association factors were assessed by univariate logistic regression microcephaly (OR = 21.75, P < 0.001), corpus callosum agenesis (OR = 9, P < 0.001), motor impairments (OR = 6.21, P < 0.001), and bilateral clefts (OR = 6.31, P < 0.001) seems to have the strongest association, but also age at diagnosis <10 years (OR = 1.05, P < 0.001), right (OR = 1.85, P = 0.001) or left (OR = 2.71, P < 0.001) side clefts and septum pellucidum (OR = 3.7, P = 0.002) agenesis were associated with neurocognitive dysfunctions. CONCLUSIONS: We describe novel findings with practical implications for predicting neurocognitive outcomes in patients with schizencephaly. Most patients had neurological impairments including motor (90.0%) or cognitive (77.5%) dysfunctions. Bilateral clefts, motor impairment, microcephaly, and corpus callosum agenesis were strongly associated with neurocognitive impairment. A lack of large cohorts of patients with schizencephaly prevented comparison of our results; most previous studies are case reports or small case series.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Transtornos Motores/etiologia , Esquizencefalia/complicações , Esquizencefalia/patologia , Humanos
2.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 136(3): 251-261, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study identified and summarized all Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) on the effects of ten integrative practices that were recently added to the Brazilian public healthcare system (SUS). DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). METHODS: Review of Cochrane SRs on the following interventions were identified, summarized and critically assessed: apitherapy, aromatherapy, bioenergetics, family constellation, flower therapy, chromotherapy, geotherapy, hypnotherapy, hand imposition or ozone therapy. RESULTS: We included a total of 16 SRs: 4 on apitherapy, 4 on aromatherapy, 6 on hypnotherapy and 2 on ozone therapy. No Cochrane SR was found regarding bioenergetics, family constellation, chromotherapy, clay therapy, flower therapy or hand imposition. The only high-quality evidence was in relation to the potential benefit of apitherapy, specifically regarding some benefits from honey dressings for partial healing of burn wounds, for reduction of coughing among children with acute coughs and for preventing allergic reactions to insect stings. CONCLUSION: Except for some specific uses of apitherapy (honey for burn wounds and for acute coughs and bee venom for allergic reactions to insect stings), the use of ten integrative practices that have recently been incorporated into SUS does not seem to be supported by evidence from Cochrane SRs.


Assuntos
Medicina Integrativa/métodos , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Apiterapia/métodos , Aromaterapia/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Humanos , Hipnose/métodos , Ozônio/uso terapêutico
3.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(3): 251-261, May-June 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-962722

RESUMO

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: This study identified and summarized all Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) on the effects of ten integrative practices that were recently added to the Brazilian public healthcare system (SUS). DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). METHODS: Review of Cochrane SRs on the following interventions were identified, summarized and critically assessed: apitherapy, aromatherapy, bioenergetics, family constellation, flower therapy, chromotherapy, geotherapy, hypnotherapy, hand imposition or ozone therapy. RESULTS: We included a total of 16 SRs: 4 on apitherapy, 4 on aromatherapy, 6 on hypnotherapy and 2 on ozone therapy. No Cochrane SR was found regarding bioenergetics, family constellation, chromotherapy, clay therapy, flower therapy or hand imposition. The only high-quality evidence was in relation to the potential benefit of apitherapy, specifically regarding some benefits from honey dressings for partial healing of burn wounds, for reduction of coughing among children with acute coughs and for preventing allergic reactions to insect stings. CONCLUSION: Except for some specific uses of apitherapy (honey for burn wounds and for acute coughs and bee venom for allergic reactions to insect stings), the use of ten integrative practices that have recently been incorporated into SUS does not seem to be supported by evidence from Cochrane SRs.

4.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 37(01): 13-18, 13/04/2018.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-911355

RESUMO

Introdução Distúrbios neurológicos e neurocirúrgicos são altamente prevalentes no Brasil. O atendimento inicial é realizado por médicos generalistas, o que demonstra a importância dos estudos práticos e teóricos em neurologia e neurocirurgia nos cursos de graduação em medicina. Objetivos Descrever a escolha da especialidade médica dos formandos da Liga Acadêmica de Neurocirurgia da Escola Paulista de Medicina (LNC-EPM) e mapear a composição dos cursos de neurologia e/ou neurocirurgia e a presença de ligas acadêmicas dessas disciplinas nas escolas médicas do Brasil. Métodos Levantamento pessoal ou por rede social com todos os membros da liga de neurocirurgia da EPM de 2007 a 2015 quanto a conclusão do curso e a residência escolhida. Envio de um formulário online para todas as escolas médicas cadastradas no Conselho Federal de Medicina (CFM). Resultados e Discussão Cinquenta e sete graduandos de medicina já participaram da LNC-EPM, sendo que 45 já concluíram a graduação, 6 fizeram neurocirurgia e 5 neurologia. Conseguimos respostas de 128 das 173 escolas médicas cadastradas no CFM. Um total de 91% das escolas respondeu que possuem curso de neurologia estruturado. Esses cursos dividem-se em: 32 exclusivamente teóricos, com 12 abordando a neurocirurgia; 84 teórico-práticos, com 51 abordando a neurocirurgia. Apenas 19% das faculdades apresentam curso próprio estruturado de neurocirurgia, sendo que metade destes é apenas teórico. Um total de 66% das universidades tem liga acadêmica das disciplinas citadas. Conclusão Nota-se que a presença de ligas acadêmicas de neurologia e neurocirurgia em 66% das escolas médicas brasileiras é, muitas vezes, usada para suprir conhecimento teórico-prático que deveria ser abordado na graduação. Infelizmente, apenas 9,5% das escolas tem curso teórico-prático próprio de neurocirurgia na grade curricular, um fato que é preocupante devido à alta prevalência das doenças neurológicas na população.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Neurologia/educação , Neurocirurgia/educação
5.
Turk Neurosurg ; 28(6): 934-939, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29465740

RESUMO

AIM: Dissection of white fibers is important in identifying detailed neuroanatomical relationships. With tractrography it is possible to transport and apply this knowledge in a practical way to treat many diseases involving the white matter. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Klingler method, subsequently disseminated by Türe with slight modifications was used. RESULTS: We review some historical aspects of white fibers and provide a guide for dissection of the internal capsule. The removal of gray matter allowed us to obtain a view of the white matter. We removed all U-shaped fibers to expose the insular cortex. The cortex of the insular lobe was removed, which exposed the extreme capsule. The removal of the claustrum exposed the external capsule, which covers the lentiform nucleus, specifically the putamen. During dissection, removing some fibers of the external capsule produced windows in which the putamen could be medially visualized. Since the internal capsule lies medial to the lentiform nucleus, it was necessary to remove the nucleus in order to expose the internal capsule. We identified five regions of the internal capsule: the anterior limb, genu, posterior limb, and sublenticular and retrolenticular parts. Finally, we determined that the fibers of the corona radiata condense into the internal capsule at the level of the superior border of the lentiform nucleus. CONCLUSION: Knowledge gained with the cadaveric fiber dissection technique can be applied in microsurgical practice and can be used to evaluate the surgical treatment for different tumors and vascular malformations.


Assuntos
Dissecação/métodos , Cápsula Interna/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Humanos
6.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 135(6): 578-586, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29267517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Probiotics have been used for a range of clinical situations and their use is strongly encouraged by the media worldwide. This study identified and summarized all Cochrane systematic reviews about the preventive effects of probiotics in clinical practice. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). METHODS: We included all Cochrane reviews on any probiotics when they were used as preventive interventions and compared with no intervention, placebo or any other pharmacological or non-pharmacological intervention. RESULTS: 17 Cochrane systematic reviews fulfilled our inclusion criteria and were summarized in this report. None of the reviews included in the present study provided high-quality evidence for any outcome. The benefits from use of probiotics included decreased incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea; decreased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections and duration of episodes; decreased need for antibiotics and absences from school due to colds; and decreased incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Probiotics seem to decrease the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, birthweight, risk of vaginal infection and incidence of eczema. CONCLUSION: Despite the marketing and the benefits associated with probiotics, there is little scientific evidence supporting the use of probiotics. None of the reviews provided any high-quality evidence for prevention of illnesses through use of probiotics. More trials are needed to gain better knowledge of probiotics and to confirm when their use is beneficial and cost-effective.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Probióticos , Antibacterianos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Incidência , Gravidez
7.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 135(6): 578-586, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-904117

RESUMO

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Probiotics have been used for a range of clinical situations and their use is strongly encouraged by the media worldwide. This study identified and summarized all Cochrane systematic reviews about the preventive effects of probiotics in clinical practice. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). METHODS: We included all Cochrane reviews on any probiotics when they were used as preventive interventions and compared with no intervention, placebo or any other pharmacological or non-pharmacological intervention. RESULTS: 17 Cochrane systematic reviews fulfilled our inclusion criteria and were summarized in this report. None of the reviews included in the present study provided high-quality evidence for any outcome. The benefits from use of probiotics included decreased incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea; decreased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections and duration of episodes; decreased need for antibiotics and absences from school due to colds; and decreased incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Probiotics seem to decrease the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, birthweight, risk of vaginal infection and incidence of eczema. CONCLUSION: Despite the marketing and the benefits associated with probiotics, there is little scientific evidence supporting the use of probiotics. None of the reviews provided any high-quality evidence for prevention of illnesses through use of probiotics. More trials are needed to gain better knowledge of probiotics and to confirm when their use is beneficial and cost-effective.

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